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G litical - - - - Square leagues Total o reat political associations in 1808. of ;: o population. square eg” league. English territory, of which the East India company possesses the sovereignty - - - - 48,299 23,800,000 493 Allies and tributaries of the English company - - 32,647 16,000,000 5 : 8 Turkish empire in Europe, Asia, and Africa - - 136,110 25,330,000 186 Austrian monarchy - - - - - 33,258 25,588,000 769 France, according to M. Peuchet - - 31, 100 35,000,000 || 1094 Spain, according to M. Laborde - - - - 25, 147 10,409,000 413 New Spain, 1. With the provincias internas - - - 4 18,378 5,837,100 49 2. Without the provincias internas - t - 51,289 5,413,900 105_

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We see from this table, which may suggest very curious considerations as to the disproportion of European cultivation, that New Spain is almost four times larger than the French empire, with a population which till this day is seven times smaller. The points of analogy in a comparison of the United States" with Mexico are very striking, especially if we consider Louisiana and the western territory as the provincias internas of the great confederation of American republics. I have described the state of the provincias internas as it was when I-left Mexico. A considerable change h s since taken place in the military government of these vast provinces, of which the surface almost dou'll s that of the French empire. In 1807, two commandantes generales, brigadier generals (brigadiers) Don Nemesio Salcedo and Don Pedro Grimarest governed these northern provinces. The following is the pre-ent division of the Gobierno militar, which is now no longer in the hands of the governor of Chihuahua alone:

* The extent of territory of the United States is very difficult to estimate in square leagues, especially since the acquisition of Louisiana, the limits of which may be said to be very uncertain towards the west and north-west. According to M. Hutchins, the old geographer of the congress, and the author of the beautiful map of the countries situated beyond the Ohio, the United States contained in , 1795 a surface of 640 millions of acres, or (discounting the lakes) 589 millions. Now 640 acres make a square mile; consequently (reducing in the proportion of 144; 25) the 589 millions of acres are equivalent to 159,000 square leagues, of 25 to the degree. I have followed in the estimation of the territory in the preceding table the manuscript notes with which I was furnished by a respectable statesman, M. Gallatin, the American treasurer at Washington. According to these notes, the United States, without Louisiana, contain 900,000 square miles, or 156,240 square leagues. This number is less by one-ninth than what is generally adopted by the American geographers; but this difference proceeds from the more exact calculations of the surface of the lakes, and the more eastern position of the Mississipy, determined by the observations of M., Ellicot. M. Gallatin believes that the error of his estimation does not exceed 50,000 square miles. The half of these 156,240 square leagues belongs to the Indians, and can only be considered in the light of a country possessed by allies. I am of opinion that if we only include the regions

in which the whites have already made establishments, and exclude those which are either desert or inhabited by Indians, the territory of the United States in place of 200,340 ought not to be estimated above 100 or 120,000 square leagues. Author. The author is correct enough in the number of acres which he assigns to the square mile but he errs in converting the square miles into square leagues. The proportion by which he reduces the square miles into leagues is 144 : 25, which is equal to 576 : 1. This proportion corresponds exactly to geographical miles of 60 to the degree. But the English square mile of 640 acres is not a square geographical mile, but a mile of 69.2 to the degree. Hence the proportion to the square league is not 5.70:1, but 706): 1. The territory of the United States therefore does not amount to 150,240, but to 117,478 square leagues. Trans.

ProvincIAS INTERNAs DEL REYNo De Nuev A EspaNA. A. Provincias internas occidentales. 1. Sonora. 2. Durango o Nueva Biscaya. 3. Nucvo Mexico. 4. Californias.

B. Provincias internas orientales.
1. Cohahuila.
2. Texas.
3. Colonia del Nuevo Santander.
4. Nuevo Reyno de Leon.

The new commandantes generales of the internal provinces, as well as the old, are considered as at the head of the administration of finances in the two intendancies of Sonora and Durango, in the province of Nuevo Mexico, and in that part of the intendancy of San Luis Potosi which comprehends Texas and Cohahuila. As to the small kingdom of Leon and New Santander, they are only subject to the commandant in a military point of view.



Surface in square
leagues of 25 to the

Population reduced
to the epoqua of

No. of inha-
bitants to

degree. 1803. "... re
New Spain, (extent of the whole viceroyalty without including the - -
kingdom of ë.) 8 118,478 5,837, 100 49
A. Provincias internas - - - - - - 07, 189 423,200 6
a. Immediately subject to the viceroy, (provincias internas del
Vereynato) - - - - - 7,814 64,000 8
1. Nuevo Reyno de Leon - - - - 2,621 29,000 10
2. Nuevo Santander - - - - - 5, 193 38,000 7
b. Subject to the governor of Chihuahua (provincias internas
de la comandancia general) - - 59,375 359,200 6
1. Intendencia de la Nueva Biscaya o Durango 16,873 150,700 1 O
2. Intendencia de la Sonora - - - - 19, 143 121,400 6
3. Cohahuila - - - - - 6,702 16,900 2
4. Texas - - - - - - 10,948 21,000 2
5. Nuevo Mexico - 5,709 40,200 7

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