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DEVOTED TO AGRICULTURE AND ITS KINDRED ARTS AND SCIENCES.

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CALENDAR FOR JANUARY. the city itself was there. Did hearts ever beat “Great things doeth He which we cannot comprehend ; for with keener enjoyment, or swain ever “trip He saith to the snow, be thou on the earth.” By His commandment He maketh the snow to fall apace :

through the mazy dance,” with more approprias birds flying He scattereth the snow; and the falling down ate delight than in the presence of that refined at the beauty of the whiteness thereof;

and the heart is aston- and intellectual assemblage? And as to theatres, ished at the raining of it.”

stars of the first magnitude may well envy the ANUARY,—the month of con- beauty and brilliancy of the women, or the wit gratulations and good wish- and heroism of the men, who occasionally “bring es, as well as of new hopes, down the house” in thunders of applause in the new promises and determi- old Academy Halls. Bare walls, smutty roofs nations. Every first of Jan- and dirty streets, bound the vision in the city, UARY that we arrive at, is an while squalid wretchedness, crime and destituimaginary mile-stone on the tion are ghastly objects in the fore-ground. Cities turnpike track of human we must have, but they are necessary evils : let

life; at once a resting-place us not forget the advantages of our own positions, for thought and meditation, and a starting-point in longing for the unsatisfying attractions of for fresh exertion in the performance of our jour-crowded and artificial life. ney. The man who does not at least propose to The country, it is true, has changed—the fields himself to be better this year than he was the last, are “brown and sere,” the singing birds are gone, must be either very good or very bad indeed! the earth is hard and unyielding, and the trees And only to propose to be better, is something; are leafless and bare. But all these changes reif nothing else, it is an acknowedgment of our veal new beauties,—the thick leaves had long need to be so,—which is the first step toward concealed the bloom-buds of the fruit trees which amendment. But in fact, to propose to oneself now stand out upon the otherwise bare branches, to do well, is in some sort to do well, positively ; and, “dressed in their wind-and-water-proof for there is no such thing as a stationary point in coats, bravo the utmost severity of the season." human endeavors ; he who is not worse to-day The leaves, having performed their office for than he was yesterday, is better ; and he who is the season, now fall to the ground, there to supnot better, is worse. Let us, then, from this ply nourishment for future crops. But there is stand-point, look back and note the errors of the one left, which neither frost, nor winds, nor past, so as to shun them in the future, and make beating rains have parted from its stem :its excellencies the starting-place of more signal

“ The one red leaf, the last of its clan, virtues throughout this new period of revolving That dances as often as dance it can ; Time.

Hanging so light and hanging so high, Some persons sigh for "city life" in the win- On the topmost twig that looks up at the sky," ter—"the country is so barren and dull,—there was influenced by, and did influence, the lowest are no theatres or balls to attend, and no notabili- root which pierces the humid soil. The earth, ties to lecture.” Ah, then they have not assist-hard and rugged as it now is, is treasuring the ed to make the country what it should be in win- keen frosts, in order to throw up its compact surter. Are there more intelligent or more brilliant face into light and porous forms when vernal sups assembles under any gas lights in the city than invite the sower again to scatter his seeds. Now gathered at the Town Hall last night? Indeed, the processes of nature for the renewal of her gifts may be more aptly observed than at any oth- specific duties of the farmer in the winter months, er period.

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and need not now to repeat them. After secur. But the country will ever be barren and dull to ing the comforts and means of improvement for him, or her, who has no habits of observation ; the family, his first important duties are the prowho will not mark the soft-falling snow, or see it per shelter and feeding of his stock. It is of little on the north-wind curling over the hills and consequence to secure bountiful crops if they are walls, or about the trunks of trees, assuming distributed in a careless and slovenly manner in fantastic forms, and filling the waste with imag- the winter. Those who have a supply of roots inary grottoes, churches and castles. To such, will find the following to be a profitable mode of books have small attraction, and the country lit- feeding. Cut hay, straw, corn stalks or husks, tle but ennui or disgust. The poet tells us of a and throw it into the feed trough ; then add such man to whom

quantity of clean roots as you desire to feed to a “ The primrose on the river's brim

given number of cattle and cut them with the A yellow primrose was to him,

hay. This process, though a little difficult, gives And it was nothing more."

the dry fodder the taste of the roots, so that the Few, we trust, are so indifferent to the teach

whole will be eaten with a high relish. But ings of nature, or forget this bountiful source of

cleanliness, good bedding, gentle treatment, and enjoyment,

kind care every way, will save hay and grain and “Where living things, and things inanimate, Do speak at Heaven's command, to eye and ear,

take the stock through in good condition. And speak to speial reason's inner sense,

But we have said enough in this our first salWith inarticulate language.”

utation of the year. That we may ramble along We cannot refrain from urging again upon all, in pleasant paths together, plucking the fruits the importance of a proper appropriation of the and flowers that present themselves on the way, leisure winter hours. Some—we know them and treasuring up that wisdom which is better well—who are young, healthy, with good natur- than rubies, is the sincere desire of him who now al abilities, and full of ambition in their daily wishes you A Happy New Year. routine of physical labor, are yet sadly deficient in those mental acquirements, without which, no

For the New England Farmer. one in this country may reasonably aspire to

NEW PLANTS, more than mere drudgery. Homely as the adage is, we urge it now"it is never too late to learn." Of the new plants recently introduced from There are now persons in the Congress of the Eastern Asia, there are two that promise to be of

considerable value to the agricultural world. United States, on the Bench, and others who These are the Holcus saccharatus, or North China have secured wealth and distinction, who could sugar-cane, and the Dioscorea japonica, (Japanese not read or write at the age of twenty-one ! Al- yam.) fred the Great was twelve years of age before he

The fruit is a sort of broom corn, producing a could read. If his history is not familiar to you, eight feet in height. The experiments of Mons.

kind of sugar-cane, whose stalks attain seven and young man and woman, there remains to you a Louis Vilmorin and other French chemists, show treat more instructive and gratifying than can be that the stalks produced on one acre will yield found in most physical sources of enjoyment. He 26,000 lbs. of very sweet juice, containing from always carried a book in his bosom, and amidst 10 to 13 per cent. of pure sugar. The juice from the great business and hurries of government, duced 52 to 78 per 1,000 of pure alcohol. The

canes raised the past season, near Paris, has prosnatched moments of leisure to read. He became residue of the canes can be fed to cattle and the great legislator and pre-eminent patriot-king sheep. The holcus, in its green state, is a rapid of England. Most of our towns possess good li- grower, and valuable to be raised as a crop for braries, and the sources of reading and learning soiling, to be cultivated in the same manner as are accessible to all. Seek, in the mean time, to Indian corn. understand and apply scientific knowledge to the in France as a substitute for the diseased potato.

The Japanese yam is beginning to be cultivated business of your profession, whatever it may be, It is largely grown in China, is very hardy, and remembering that its true end is to enrich human is easily propagated by cuttings of its long vines, life with useful arts and inventions.

and by its roots, which are, like those of the WINTER Schools.—These should receive your potato, of annual growth. The roots are large careful consideration--make them the best of their and long, the flesh very mealy and devoid of any

peculiar taste or flavor. The Japanese yam is kind. Assist and encourage the teacher ; his task

pronounced, by eminent French agriculturists, a is one of trial, and often of great vexation, from most valuable acquisition. the injudicious interference of parents in the

reg. ulation and discipline of the school. To secure

There is no greater obstacle in the way of success, there must be order in every business, but success in life, than trusting for something to turn it is indispensable in schools.

up, instead of going to work and turning up We have often set before the reader most of the something.

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For the New England Farmer.

Concord, Nov. 30, 1854. THE CONCORD GRAPE.

Mr. Brown :-Your correspondent, John Wil

cox, thinks the “ Concord grape" has become a MR. BROWN :—There have been a number of matter of speculation. When you publish his notices in the Farmer of a new variety of Grape, communication, I would feel obliged to you if you cultivated by Mr. Bull, of Concord, Mass. It is would state, in your own way, the facts of the said to be a native of that town, and is highly case ; that is to say, that I have been engaged for recoinmended on account of its fruitfulness, good twelve years in raising seedling grapes, during favor, and its adaptation to a northern climate. which time I have spared no pains in collecting If it answers, in many respects, what it is recom- every variety of native grape that had a local mended to be, it ought to be very generally in- fame-many of which cost me large sums, and all troduced, and cultivated in every latitude where of which, I may add, came to the fire at last as other varieties of the grape will not grow on ac- worthless, in comparison with the Concord, as count of the climate. It is, however, put beyond did also any quantity of seedlings, which did not the reach of common persons, at present, unless prove to be good, and of which I have burned they will pay an exorbitant price for a cutting of cords. My sole purpose during this time has the grape, or for a seedling of three years old. been to obtain a good table and wine grape for

Hovey & Co., of Boston, with an understand- New England, which should be early, hardy and ing, probably, with Mr. BULL, have the control prolific. Having succeeded in this, my next purof the grape, and charge five dollars for a single pose has been to propagate it as rapidly as poscutting or seedling. From this charge, it ap-sible, with a view to dissemination, and also to pears that the Concord grape vine has become a bring the price within the means of all desiring matter of great speculation between two or more to purchase. Thousands of young vines were individuals. This kind of speculation ought to destroyed by the fervent sun of July 4 and 5 last, be frowned upon by the press, especially the ag- leaving me less than enough to supply my orders, ricultural press. It is true, no individuals are and thus frustrating my purpose for this autumn; obliged to buy of these men ; but, if the grape is but I hope to have a good supply ready for the so valuable as they and the press have recom- spring planting, having, at great expense, put up mended it, common people have an anxiety to a large forcing-house for propagating them ; this obtain it by paying a fair compensation for it. will enable me to reduce the price, which I very I think Mr. BULL's grape is a good variety ; but much desire. his price is not for a moment to be tolerated ; There is no monopoly of sale. To prevent the and the press which tolerates such extortion and sale of spurious vines, it was necessary to issue speculation, does no good service to community, the grape to the public through a respectable and either in an agricultural or moral point of view. responsible house. Messrs. Hovey & Co. were We do not say this speculation is tolerated by chosen for this purpose, and their well-established the press, especially the agricultural press. of character was a sufficient guarantee to all purthe grapes alluded to, there are three or four chasers ; whoever purchased the Concord of them, thousand seedlings for sale. These, at five dollars Messrs. Breck & Son, or of myself, may be sure a piece, amount to many thousand dollars, and they have got the true vine. their actual cost to those concerned in the specu În conclusion, I assure the public that I shall lation is not five hundred dollars. The seeds are propagate the Concord as fast as possible, and not on sale, and cannot be had at the horticul- shall reduce the price as soon as the supply can tural seed store at Boston, and every man of be made to bear a better proportion to the decommon sense knows the reason.

mand.

Yours truly, E. W. Bull. While on this subject, I wish to notice another speculation of the same kind that is carried on by We know little of Mr. Lawton's operations an individual in New York city. A Mr. Lawton with the blackberry, but presume he will be able advertises that he has an improved variety of the

to justify all his movements. At any rate, our Blackberry-has three acres under cultivationbear bountifully from four to six weeks-shoots columns are open for any fair statement from spring up from the main stock, bear well and die him. in the fall. Mr. Lawton sells his packages of one dozen each for $10. This is one of the Black

FALL PLOWING. berry speculations, and will probably entitle Mr. Friend HildreTH.-DEAR Sie :--At a meeting Lawton to an honorary degree in the Horticul- of the Hillsboro’ Agricultural Society, held at tural Society.

Nashua, Sept. 9th, the subject of fall plowing was The above remarks are somewhat severe, but pretty thoroughly discussed, and in an account of not uncalled for. If they will elicit further in- that meeting, published in the Granite Farmer of formation on this and other subjects immediately Sept. 30, some things that I did not say are attriconnected, the desire of the writer will be accom- buted to me, and many things that I did say plished.

John Wilcox.

were left out. Newport, N. H., Nov., 1854.

I am in favor of fall plowing for certain kind

of land, especially all gardens, nurseries, and alREMARK8.--Mr. Bull is a townsman and neigh- most any land that is weedy, and would need bor of ours, and we believe an honest man. Be- plowing three times before planting, and I would lieving him able to set himself right in this mat- plow deep, whether in fall or spring, and not ter, we handed him the letter of our correspond-/shallow, as I was reported to have said. I stated

at the above named meeting, that tough sods, that ent, and he has communicated to us the following

were laid up loose, and exposed to the weather in reply :

all winter, would decay sooner than those tha

were turned in a flat furrow, and not exposed. THE VOICE OF AUTUMN. Among the reasons given in favor of fall plowing

BY W. C. BRYANT. were the following, viz., that it was the very

There comes from yonder height best way to destroy the cut-worm, especially if

A soft, repining sound, done late,-that weeds, potato vines, leaves &c.,

Where forest leaves are bright, would be rotten, and out of the way in spring, And fall like flakes of light • and that unripe seeds would be destroyed, and the

To the ground. seeds of some weeds would germinate so late as to

It is the autumn breeze, do no harm.

That, lightly floating on, The principal objection to fall plowing is that

Just skims the weedy leas, the land is more liable to wash and blow away Just stirs the glowing trees, than if not plowed.

And is gone. The cold of last Sunday and Monday morning,

He moans by sedgy brook, was more severe here than I ever knew before at

And visits, with a sigh, this season, being at 9 degrees above 0, from 4

The last pale flowers that look, o'clock to s past 7, on Monday, and apples, cah- From out their sunny nook, bages, turnips, squashes, celery,&c., were injured

At the sky
in many
instances.

Der shouting children fies
Yours, &c.,
B. F. CUTTER.

That light October wind;
Pelham, Nov. 4, 1854.

And, kissing cheeks and eyes,
Granite. Farmer.

He leaves their merry cries

Far behind;

And wanders on to make
TO ASCERTAIN THE WEIGHT OF LIVE

That soft, uneasy sound,
STOCK.

By distant wood and lake,
First, see that the animal stands square; then, Where distant fountains break

From the ground. with a string, take his circumference just behind the shoulder-blade, and measure the feet and inch

No bower where maidens dwell es—this is the girth. Then measure from the bone Can win a moment's stay ; of the tail which plumbs the line with the hin- Nor fair, untrodden dell ; der part of the buttock, and direct the string He sweeps the upland swell,

And away! along the back to the forepart of the shoulderblade, and this will be the length. Then, work Mourn'st thou thy homeless state, the figures thus --Suppose girth of bullock 6 0, soft, repining wind ! feet 4 inches, length 5 feet 3 inches, which mul- That early seek'st, and late, tiplied together makes 33 square superficial feet; The rest it is thy fate

Not to find ! and these, multiplied by 23—the number of pounds allowed for each superficial foot of cattle Not on the mountain's breast, measuring less than seven and more than five Not on the ocean's shore, feet in girth-make 759 lbs. When the animal In all the East and West ;measures less than nine and more than seven feet The wind that stops to rest

Is no more. in girth, 31 is the number of pounds to be estimated for each superficial foot. And suppose a By valleys, woods and springs, small animal to measure two feet in girth and two No wonder thou shouldst grieve feet in length; these multiplied together make 4 For all the glorious things

Thou touchest with thy wings feet, which, multiplied by eleven—the number of

And must leave. pounds allowed for each square foot when cattle measure less than three feet in girth-make 44 lbs.

PIPER, OR WITCH GRASS. Again, suppose a calf or sheep, &c., to measure

Farmers and gardners need a large stock of the 4 feet 6 inches in girth, and 3 feet 9 inches in length, that multiplied together, makes 16 square afflictions, who have grounds infested with this

article, which made Job so contented under his feet, and these multiplied by 19, the number of pounds allowed for cattle measuring less than five abominable scourge. The old saw that the only and more than 3 feet in girth, make 256 lbs. way to kill it was to "dry it, and then put it inThe dimension in girth and length of the back of to your pipe and smoke it, and be careful of the cattle, sheep, calves and hogs, taken this way, extermination. I recollect shaking out a hand

ashes," only shows the trouble connected with its are as exact as is at all necessary for common com- ful and laying it up to take the air upon a stick putation or valuation of stock, and will answer to the four quarters of the animal, sinking the of- of old timber. A few weeks afterwards I found,

to my astonishment, a thrifty bunch of grass, fal. A decluction must be made for animals half

the roots had penetrated the spongy stick, and fat, of one pound in twenty, from those that are fat; and for a cow that has had calves, one

were very far from discouraged. pound must be allowed, in addition to the one for dirt,” are familiar with the hard, wiry extremi

All those who have had their hands in the not being fat, upon every twenty.

ties of piper roots. They will not turn out of

their course for a potato, or a chip, but are often Good Fruit.—The Wisconsin Farmer says :- found grown through them. “Wisconsin can produce as good fruit as any oth- Piper grass will spread like an epidemic. Some er State in the Union.” Well, let us see you do farmers let the grass stand where it is in a hay

field until the seed is ripened, and 80 spread it.

B.

oceans of it. Sometimes soil from the wayside is prevent the mice establishing very pleasant wincarted to the barn yard containing the mischier- ter quarters. ous article. Don't you think that the stamping Concord, Mass., March 18, 1852. of the cattle or the composting will kill it, or render it harmless? Just give it a fair chance in

For the New England Farmer. your fields and you will see something green, if such has been your management,

RUMINATING ANIMALS. I have spent a good many dollars to keep the Mr. EDITOR :- I send you some remarks upon upper hands of my piper grass. I have hired ruminating animals, by an aged farmer of Worland dug all over with a ten-tined fork, but then cester County. The character, long experience it would be left so mellow and fine that the few and accurate observation of the writer of these reremaining bits would take courage and give me marks, entitle whatever he may say upon the the most unquestionable evidence of their exist-structure and habits of animals, or the culture of ence in a few days.

the soil, to respectful consideration ; and such It won't pay to plant small seeds in this foul consideration will often prove an advantage to the soil. You may get along with corn and potatoes farmer. by great care, but any weaker plants are too

Will you please to insert in your paper, these easily overpowered. I have found a great sav- remarks, and any others which may follow them ing in the culture of such land, to plant as late at a future time and be worthy of notice, and as it would do, so that the corn might get up as oblige, Yours respectfully, soon as the witch grass, if not a little before. If A CONSTANT READER OF THE FARMER. you plant early in May, during the cold days Med field, Nov. 24, 1854. that may follow, the grass will be pushing up, while the seed sown will remain inactive. It is

"Some years ago, I saw in print this assertion: better, therefore, to plant later, so that the —all ruminating animals bring up and remastiweather will encourage for the corn a growth as cate all their food, and when it is swallowed, it rapid as possible. A laborious hoeing may thus goes directly into the third stomach. To this asbe saved. And when you consider how constant- sertion there are several objections. There can ly the soil, mellowed by the plow before plant- be no such thing as bringing up and remasticating, is settling down, compact and solid, it may ing their food by these animals. Examine the be questioned if the advantages claimed for early paunch, or, in modern espression, the first stomplanting counterbalance those in favor of deposit- ach, and you will find there a mixed mass, such ing the seed upon the warm furrows, recently as no animal would have in its mouth if it could turned, after the season has become favorable for be avoided, and it cannot be separated. Besides, their rapid germination.

if the assertion were true, the animal must keep The quicker you can get your corn to shade his jaws in motion all the time. This is never your land, the less expense for hoeing. I, there- seen to be done. Feed a pair of oxen in the mornfore, plant the hills, (and yet I never make hills) ing until they are full ; put them to work and two and a half feet one way and four feet the keep them steadily working, and it will be found other. Thus I am able to drive the horse through that they have chewed the cud but a very small with the new cultivator, and by going close to part of the time. Then what has become of their the corn I leave very little land to be hoed over. breakfast? It remains in the animal, undergoing I suppose some may not understand to what cul- the operation of digestion. tivator I refer. It is one that has saved me its

Again, it is said, food, when remasticated and cost many times in two summers, and added to swallowed, 'goes directly into the third stomach.' the crops raised by the deep tillage it gives. It This is impossible, because there is but one pashas three teeth, which look liko iron ducks-feet, sage from the throat to the stomach, and to go at the bottom of three legs about fifteen inches directly into the third stomach, it would need anlong. It seldom clogs and runs deep and through other passage. I presume no such passage has the ground, leaving it very light, and effectually ever been discovered; and no man, who has exdisturbing the piper roots, a good portion of amined the inside of an animal, could ever have which it brings to the surface. I can unsolicited come to su a conclusion. The assertion betrays say, that this implement cannot be used and pi- the ignorance of its author.” per grass flourish on the same piece of land, the same summer. It is the only practical approach to the "piper” aforesaid, with which I am ac

THE ILLUSTRATED ANNUAL, quainted.

I suggest then, for piper grass lands intended for tillage—to plow deep at the last moment, This is the title of an Annual, published at plant always late-manure broadcast liberally, Albany, N. Y., by Luther TUCKER, Esq., Editor and in the hill moderately—and, after perhaps of the Cultivator and Country Gentleman. A once plowing between the corn, comb the land with the cultivator to which I have alluded. part of the title-page states that the work con

Piper grass around fruit trees may be kept tains brief and practical suggestions for the condown in this way. Tako some old haj, or litter sideration of the farmer and horticulturist, and of any kind, and cover the ground under the embellished with one hundred and twenty enlimbs. Lay sticks upon it—boards are better-gravings, including houses, farm buildings, imto keep it from blowing, away. This is every plements, domestic animals, fruits, flowers, &c. thing cheaper than the digging necessary to keep the trees in order where the ground is exposed. This book is one of convenience, and will prove of The litter should all be removed in the fall to practical utility to any farmer. Price 50 cents.

REGISTER OF RURAL AFFAIRS AND CULTIVATOR ALXAXAC FOR

1855.

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