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it with a complete index, so that the intelligent Sulphate of Ammonia; a chemical compound of and careful reader will always find the subjects sulphuric acid and ammonia, very soluble in waseasonable. At most, it is only an occasional ter, and favorable to the growth of plants.

Carbonate of Lime; a compound of carbonic fact given during the current year that can be acid and lime, 22 parts of the acid to 28 parts of unseasonable. The space occupied by “the re- lime. Marble, common lime stone, and a portion view,” seems to us to be appropriate and valua- of marls, and a portion of all soils, are carbonate ble, and we believe is generally approved. A of lime. Carbonic acid is the gas which risen similar practice was long continued in the Horti

from foaming beer, cider or wine, also from soda

water, and from a bit of chalk or lime stone when culturist, while under the charge of Mr. Downing. you drop vinegar upon it. It is injurious, if ta

ken into the lungs-destroys life it breathed in NOW-A-DAYS.

large quantities, as in the bottoms of dry wells

but is wholesome when taken into the stomach, Alas! how every thing has changed,

as in soda water. It arises from fermenting maSince I was sweet sixteen,

nure heaps, also from rich soils ; water readily When all the girls wore homespun frocks,

absorbs it, and brings it down in the form of rain. And aprons nice and clean;

It constitutes a large portion of the food of all
With bonnets made of braided straw,

That tied beneath the chin ;
The shawis laid neatly on the neck,

Carbonate of Ammonia ; a compond of carbonic
And fastened with a pin.

acid and ammonia. Ammonia is composed of 14

parts of nitrogen and 3 of hydrogen. It rises, I recollect the time when I

from fermenting or decaying substances, and comRode father's horse to mill,

bines with carbonic acid, which springs from the Across the meadows, rock and field, And up and down the hill ;

same sources, forming with it carbonate of ammoAnd when our folks were out at work,

nia, a volatile gas, that is, one which flies away As sure as I'm a sinner,

in the air. What is meant by fixing the ammoI jumped upon a horse bare-back,

nia is this :-Sulphate of ammonia is soluble, that And carried them their dinner.

is, it dissolves in water and stays in the soil or Dear me ! young ladies, now-a-dayı,

manure, while carbonate of ammonia is volatile, Would almost faint away,

that is, it flies away in the air and is lost from To think of riding all alone,

fertilizers which contain it. By putting in plasIn wagon, chaise, or sleigh ;

ter, or sulphate of lime, the volatile carbonate of And as for giving “pa” his meals,

ammonia is changed to the non-volatile (fixed) Or helping “ma" to bake,

sulphate; and in this form it remains for the fu0, dear, 'twould spoil their lily hands,

ture use of plants. Hence the great utility of Though sometimes they make cake.

applying plaster to all manures and keeping them When winter came, the maiden's heart

in a moist condition.-The Farm, by Prof. Nash.
Began to beat and flutter ;
Each beau would take his sweetheart out,

New England Farmer.
Sleigh-riding in a cutter;
Or, if the storm was bleak and cold,

The girls and beaux together,

Would meet and have most glorious fun,

It is a pleasant sight to see a herd of cattle
And never mind the weather.

quietly chewing the cud of contentment, apparBut now, indeed, it grieves me much

ently satisfied with themselves, and all the world The circumstance to mention,

around them. But a herd of restless, uneasy However kind the young man's heart,

cattle, breaking out of their enclosures, hooking And honest his intention ;

and pushing each other, whenever they come He never asks the girls to ride,

near enough, rubbing off their hair against every But such a war is waged,

post or tree they can get at, shaking their heads, And if he sees her once a week,

and apparently dissatisfied with everything Why, surely, "they're engaged.”

around them, is anything but a pleasant sight.

If you would have your cattle happy and conTERMS.

tented, furnish them with an abundant supply of

wholesome food, and keep them in a warm and We promised in a former number, to adhere as comfortable atmosphere. Cattle that are pinched far as possible to the use of terms which are uni- with the cold, are always restless, as well as versally understood ; and, if scientific terms creep those that are pinched with hunger. Dairy-men into our pages in spite of us, to explain them in a understand very well the effect of restlessness and little vocabulary annexed to our educational de- discontent, both upon the quantity and quality partment. In pursuancs of that plan we give of milk. However well a cow may be fed, if she the following:

is uncomfortable from cold, she will give but litSulphate of Lime ; Gypsum, Plaster of Paris ; tle milk. If she is homesick or uneasy from bea chemical compound of 40 parts of sulphuric ing shut away from her companions, it will soon acid (oil of vitriol) to 28 parts of lime and 18 be seen in the poorer quality of her milk. Catparts of water. The experiment of putting plas- tle are often restless and discontented because ter with green manure for the corn crop, men- their wants are but partially supplied. It is not tioned on page 6, is well worth trying. We here enough that they should be abundantly furnished commend a very careful perusal of the article on with one kind of food. They need a variety. In page 5, headed, Plaster of Paris as a fixing agent. the winter, hay of various kinds, oat straw, corn


J. R.

fodder, roots and grain should be given at inter- imals should be scrupulously observed, if you vals. No cattle, whether milch cows, fatting cat- would have them cheerful and trusty servants. tle, or working stock, will thrive equally well on The horse of the Arab, that lives in the tent of one kind of food as on a variety. They need an his master, and is the pet of his family, will bear abundant supply of water, and should have as him over the burning sands, the livelong, day, much salt as they will eat, both winter and sum-trusting with entire confidence that he will suit mer. In the summer, when their food is green the task to his strength, and supply all his and succulent, they should have ground bone wants ; and the master will share his last morsel mixed with their salt. This is especially necessa- of bread, and his last handful of barley, with his ry for cows that are giving a large quantity of favorite horse. milk. They often manifest an insatiable craving But enough for the present. for lime, and will spend hours in chewing an old Concord, Jan., 1855. bone, to satisfy their craving. All the lime taken into the system, in their food, is carried off

For the New England Farmer. through the milk vessels, and the operatives whose business it is to manufacture bone, have no mate

GOOD PAY FOR A LITTLE LABOR. rial to work with. Our agricultural warehouses FRIEND BROWN :—Though I am a poor man, should keep pure, clean bone, ground very fine, and own but two or three acres of land, keep for this special use.

but two cows, one horse, two swine, and a few Cattle need a variety of grasses and herbs in fowls, the latter of which a late writer in the the summer, as well as a variety of food in the Farmer thinks more profitable than any of the winter. They like occasionally to browse among farm, it is my opinion that all are exceedingly the bushes, and to crop the leaves from the trees. convenient and will well pay their way if rightly Different plants have different medicinal, as well taken care of. as nutritive properties. One has some quality by I am obliged to work early and late in my shop, which it acts upon one organ, and another, some yet I welcome the evening when the Farmer, property which causes it to act upon another or- with its bright, clean pages, is brought to my gan. One acts upon the liver, causing a more house. Pleasant are the hours which I spend in copious secretion of bile. Another acts upon the reading its columns, and valuable to me the inforkidneys, another upon the salivary glands. A mation I learn in regard to the cultivation of my proper variety of plants keeps all the organs in a fruit trees, grape vines, rose bushes, vegetables, state of healthy activity ; feed a cow upon such and in the feeding and general management of plants entirely as act upon the salivary glands, my stock. I will give your readers my mode of and she would slaver like an old tobacco chewer, feeding one of my cows. I purchased her last or like a horse that has been eating, lobelia. November, when she gave four quarts of milk a Those who pasture their cattle upon land capable day. I commenced feeding her with cut hay, of tillage, would undoubtedly find the health, two quarts of shorts, and a few carrots, wet with and consequently the profit of their cattle promo- cold water, twice a day for one month. At the ted, by cultivating grasses of different kinds for end of that time she had not increased in her the express purpose of pasturage. Cattle that milk at all. I then commenced wetting the same have an extended range of pasturage, upon differ- amount of feed with boiling water, and at the ent kinds of soils, and among bushes and trees, end of the second month she gave regularly six more readily obtain the variety of food which quarts per day, which I thought a fair gain. they need.

Where a person needs considerable milk and keeps Ålways endeavor to secure the good will of but one cow I would recommend a trial of this your cattle and horses ; a turnip, an apple, a po- mode of feeding.

A. Brown. tato or an ear of corn, given occasionally to a E. Abington, 1855. korse, an ox or a cow, if given in a kind and gentle manner, will generally do this, and when ACORNS AND CATTLE.—The Pennsylvania Farm the good will of such noble animals can be pro- Journal gives an instance of cattle being, killed cured at so cheap a rate, who would not purchase by excessive eating of acorns. The fatality ocit? Keep up a familiar acquaintance with your curred on the farm of Richard Lamborn, near animals, so that they shall always know your Westchester, Pa., who lost fourteen head in the step, and recognize your voice at once. Always course of a few days. The cattle at first showed maintain a good understanding with your horses symptoms of illness by watery eyes, drooping head and oxen. Never deceive them, and never forfeit and spiritless walk. The cows failed of their their confidence, if you would have them trusty milk, their carcasses were almost bloodless, and and faithful. Make them understand that they the stomach and intestines exhibited every apmust promptly obey you, and that you will sup-pearance of suffering from powerful astringents. ply all their wants. Teach them to confide in As acorns are known to possess astringent properyour judgment, by never requiring of them tasks ties to a considerable degree, there can hardly be beyond their ability: Require an ox to draw a a doubt that they were the cause of the difficulty. load which is beyond his strength, and repeat this Some varieties of acorns are much more astrintwo or three times, and you have spoiled him gent than others. The nuts in this case were completely for the draft. Never require your of White, Black and Chestnut Oak.-Am. Agrihorse to do what he cannot easily and readily ac- culturist. complish, and he will soon leap a five-barred gate, or draw a ton, when you command it, because he IF If you know any thing that will make a has learned to trust your judgment, and believes brother's heart glad, run quick and tell it; and you will not require what he is not able to do. if it is something that will only cause a sigh, This mutual confidence between you and your an- bottle it up, bottle it up.

[graphic][subsumed][merged small]

Some thirty or forty years ago it was a rare There is no more difficulty in rearing turkeys thing with many families to have a roasted tur- the first two or three months than in rearing comkey, or even a pair of chickens, upon their table, mon fowls, and the same rules are applicable to more than once or twice in the year; and then parent and chick. The nest for sitting should be on some particular occasion, such as Thanksgiv- in a dry and secluded place, where the hen will ing, Christmas, or when some long-absent friend not be disturbed-neither approaching the nest had returned to sit once more at the family board. to turn the eggs or to feed her—she will perform Good beef could then be purchased, by the quar- the first duty herself, when it becomes necessary, ter, for three to five cents a pound, and in small and come off for food when she requires it. It is quantities for five to eight and nine cents a pound. very rarely the case that the chick needs any asAt the same time nice turkeys brought ten to fif-sistance in extricating itself from the shell, and teen cents, and were looked upon by the mechan- many are injured by an impatient intermeddling ic and laborer as a tabooed food to them. Now the with a matter which they understand, and will best beef sells at from ten to seventeen cents, and perform perfectly well, if left to themselves. Nor poultry at from eight to fifteen cents, though should they be interfered with for at least twentyrarely commanding the latter price. Poultry is four hours after being hatched—they want quiet often on the tables of all who desire it, and is es- and the warmth of the mother—not food. But teemed wholesome food, and, considering the if they leave the nest and appear to be in search waste in each, as cheap as beef.

of food, place a little wet corn and cob-meal beTurkeys cannot be profitably raised on small fore them, or corn, wheat or barley, pounded into farms and in thickly-settled neighborhoods, as quite small pieces. they require a wide range, and where they can Many foolish notions exist among poultry enjoy it will not only provide mainly for them- breeders, and many practices prevail which are a selves until near autumn, but will also be of much good deal worse than useless, and which some of service to the farmer, in destroying great num- the books on poultry—we are sorry to say—still bers of grasshoppers and other insects that infest inculcate. Almost any treatise on the subject will the farm. Indeed, some years, when grasshop-give some 20 or 30 pages on the diseases of poulpers are numerous, a flock of turkeys on the farm try; but as it is much easier and better to prevent will save whole crops of grass and grain. disease than to cure it, we shall recommend none of the medicaments or nostrums employed. When out pain to yourself. Then rub it with new and poultry is properly sheltered and fed, disease will clean white wax. Put it again to the fire till it only be the exception to the rule of general health. has soaked in the wax. When done, rub it over Want of proper food, irregular feeding, too many from rusting afterwards.-N. V. Far. Mech.

with a piece of serge. This prevents the iron occupying a small space, exposure to cold, and more than all these combined, exposure to wet, are

For the New England Farmer. the prolific sources of disease in the poultry-yard.

LABOR IN STATE ALMSHOUSES. We believe that exposure to wet and cold is the principal cause of loss of the young of all kinds

Simon Brown, Esq.:-Dear Sir, -Since your

election to the State government, I have desired of domestic fowls, including even ducklings. to say a word or two to you in relation to the Nearly the whole dismal catalogue of diseases agricultural department of the new State Almsthe pip, or gapes, diarrhoea, indigestion, asthma, houses, the more as I am aware of your experifever, consumption, moping, rheumatism, roup ence in all that belongs to the culture of the

soil. and vermin, may be traced to this. We have lost

Gov. Gardner, in his message, expresses the 50 chickens in a single storm where wind and

proper views in regard to these institutions, esporain has found its way to broods which we sup- cially in what he says of work-shops, and of pracposed were safe,--and it was 20 years before we tising strict economy. discovered a remedy. Now we rarely lose a

“Industry and Economy” should be a motto to chicken by disease. After taking young chickens

be engraven on the door-posts of every work

shop, kitchen and bakery, in every pauper estabor turkeys from the nest, place them upon a tight lishment in the country. scaffold in the barn, and tie the mother there, To ensure the most economical and productive where they will be kept from wind and rain, and management requires a very considerable degree if fed regularly upon a variety of food, they will of skill on the part of the superintendent, in the remain healthy, and grow with wonderful ra- the inmates, more than to

adaptation of the crops raised, to the wants of

demands of a pidity. Keep them in this position until some- neighboring market,--and at the same time, in time in May, and then if they are placed in addition to this, to provide, in a portion of the coops, do not let them run at large during rainy agricultural operations, opportunity to employ weather, or while the grass is wet with dew in that kind of light labor which is always to be had the morning. Observing these simple rules, there

in abundance in pauper and reformatory estab

lishments. is no difficulty whatever in rearing young turkeys Attention should be given to raising such staor chickens.

ple crops as go to make the food of the inmates. 1. Protection from wet and cold,

Herbs have been found profitable to raise for mar2. Sufficient room, or range, so that they may vation can be done by boys, and a whole large

ket; most of the labor necessary for their cultinot be crowded.

3. A variety of wholesome food and water, crop may be sent to market at one time. with access to broken bones, oyster shells, gravel tablishments, to engage in market gardening,

It has been the custom at some of our city esor old mortar.

sending quantities of green produce to our mar4. Perfect cleanliness.

kets, in daily competition with our neighboring But turkeys must have a wide range; to con- farmers. This is not good management, because fine them would be about as great a departure this class of produce requires the hiring of skilled from nature as to expect the pear from a willow, have been employed on coarse or staple crops,

laborers, while some of the inmates, who might or a fleece of fine wool upon the back of a calf.

are compelled to remain comparatively idle. Feed the flock of turkeys habitually at night near I am aware that there must be shops for the the buildings, and thus induce them to come to picking of oakum, hair, &c., to furnish employroosts prepared for them in high places, to which ment for the winter, and for those who are parthey may have convenient access. Cared for in tially disabled, but for the health of those in the this way, the loss will be trifling, while the profit should be done.

establishment, as much out-door labor as possible will usually be larger than from any other item These institutitions should be conducted so as to on the farm where the same amount of capital is save the expenditure of money in every practicainvested.

ble manner. No money should be paid out for If fed liberally as autumn approaches, and con

staple crops which can be raised in Massachu

setts. tinued until market time, there will be no need

In the management of institutions of this class, of shutting them up for fatting; they will not much can be saved, by a careful supervision of only become fat enough, but their flesh will be the matron over the store-rooms from which the tender, juicy and sweet. These statements grow clothing and provisions are given out,--sometimes out of an actual experience of many years in

these departments leak in such a way as to make rearing turkeys and other fowls.

the expense of their support unnecessarily increased-but this does not come within the sub

ject we are considering, To PREVENT IRON FROM RustinG.-Warm your I am very respectfully, yours, &c., iron till you cannot bear your hand on it with- Cambridge, January 30, 1855.


THIRD LEGISLATIVE AGRICULTURAL influence exerted upon them, our young men, MEETING

who ought to cultivate farms, fly from the counReported for the New England Farmer,

try and crowd the cities; and until female influBY WILLIAM W. HILL.

ence is won to the cause of the farmer, it will The third meeting of the series was held at the continue, and agriculture suffer. This point was State House, on Tuesday evening, Jan. 30. very happily and eloquently illustrated and en

Lieut. Governor Brown presided, and opened forced. the meeting with some interesting and eloquent Mr. Brown concluded by suggesting Indian remarks upon the general importance of agri- Corn as the subject of discussion for the evening. culture. There is, he said, in the community a Mr. Fay, of Essex county, desired to explain, great want of confidence and interest in the sub- that in his remarks at the previous evening, while ject. Persons engage in agriculture who have he believed that our soil and climate were both long been accustomed to other pursuits; they adapted to the successful cultivation of wheat, he wish, as all of us do, to enter at some time upon did not wish to be understood as considering it the cultivation of the soil, but do so without any more profitable than any other crop. In his definite idea of what is needed in their new voca- opinion, maize was the great crop of New Engtion, or what ought to be its profits. Most of land, it being peculiarly adapted to our climate, those who engage in farming do so, not from with its hot, dry summers, and severe winters. choice, but from the force of circumstances, and He had paid considerable attention to it, and without well defined ideas of plowing, draining, usually got good crops. It can be raised on manuring, subsoiling, putting seed into the almost any soil, with proper attention to preground, its quantity, manner of covering, &c.— ceding crops and cultivation. He would cultivate All this needs reform, and such meetings as these it after a green crop, and would not follow it are of great utility in spreading information and with either grain or grass, but roots. awakening interest in the subject. One great ob- Mr. Fay spoke earnestly in behalf of farmers' stacle in the way of a rapid extension of good clubs. Farmers are behind the age in mechanfarming is a foolish prejudice which prevails con- ical contrivances for performing labor, and he siderably among farmers against anything which saw no method of getting at mechanical results appears in newspapers or books in regard to farm- except by association among the farmers, for they ing, which, after all, is only the printing of the cannot afford to experiment singly with machines. farmer's actual experience. Science is just what our hay should be cut and made by machinery, the farmer needs. The fallacy of this antipathy for the high cost of labor absorbs a great part of to book farming was convincingly exposed. the profits. He was confident that the hay crop

Mr. Brown also dwelt with much force and could be got with a machine at half the expense truthfulness on the utility of Farmers' Clubs.— where manual labor was employed. A mowingThere is no way in which the cause of agriculture machine costs $150; but it is only necessary for can be advanced so effectually as by the formation the farmers to club together, subscribe two or of these institutions in all the towns of the com- three dollars each, and make the machine do the monwealth. They promote investigation, and inowing for them all. So with a machine to turn bring out facts important to the farmer. Another and make the bay. With both machines, farmost excellent method for the farmer to improve mers could cut their grass, make their hay, and his mories of cultivation, is, for him to spend a house it, all in one day. The expense, divided day as 0. zon as once a month in visiting the farms among many, would be light. The same may be in his vicinity, examining the farming tools, said, also, of planting corn, potatoes, turnips, going over the fields, learning the system of cul- &c., which can all be done by machinery, and by tivation, &c. Nothing is more important to the one machine for twenty farmers. At the south farmer than a habit of constant, close observa- and west, machines are coming into general use, tion, of all matters pertaining to his calling; and if we would compete with those sections, we and wherever he finds an improvement, let him must resort to machinery. take it home with him to his farm and apply it. Mr. SHELDON, of Wilmington, remarked that

The speaker, next alluded to the potent, ad- he deemed Indian corn the most profitable crop verse influence which is exerted by the sentiment we have. In speaking of it, we are apt to think of the female portion of the community in regard only of the corn, and nothing else ; but if we look to the farmer's life. Until our young women closely, we shall find that it is not a great excease to manifest such a preference as they do for lauster of the soil, but is excellent in preparing those of the opposite sex who are engaged in the it for grass, while corn fodder, well cured, will law, in medicine and in mercantile pursuits, we produce more milk than hay will. The manure can never expect to accomplish much for agricul- needed for corn should not all be charged to it, ture. It is impossible. With such a powerful lor, after the corn, three or four good crops of

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