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and to show the pleasure and advantage of well- er farmer and poet of nature, ROBERT BURNS. So directed skill and enterprise applied to land on the denizens of the air afforded a theme. If wild which our honored fathers toiled. I see no means
geese were winging their way north to those inbetter suited to train up and retain in all our old towns, a substantial, intelligent, worthy yeoman- hospitable regions, where even man dares seldom ry, such as must ever constitute the bone and approach,-or if their leader pursued his tracksinew of New England's strength. The hot haste less way south, the habits of this interesting part to be rich often tempts to speculation, and bold of creation were explained, and the cause of their adventures in untried spheres, far away from particular movements given. Now, while the home, resulting, many a time, in disappointment and sorrow.
team rests, comes our old friend, the bob-o-link, 3. I thank you for laying open so many fields and on a neighboring maple, gives us his first of 'investigation connected with agriculture, song of the season. Then their habits were givwhich enlist so much talent and science, showing en ; how the males change their plumage in the that there is range for the powers of most gifted autumn, and both sexes congregate and pass minds, in the domains over which extends the farmer's sway.
We have learned effectually, south in flocks, feeding on the wild oats, on the that ignorance and blind tradition will not make banks of the great rivers, or resting in the extenour fields teem with their varied fruits, and that sive corn-fields, after having become fat. Then what the scientific, enlightened mind, is demanded to a wonderful instinct they observe in the spring. direct the laborer in the proper tillage of the earth.
They are no longer seen in flocks, but scattered 4. I thank you for calling our citizens away
all over New England, two or three pairs having from dangerous strife and political turmoil, to their habitation in every green meadow in proxone grand, common interest, not only of New imity to the dwellings of man ; few or none beEngland, but of our whole country. Patriotism ing found in secluded places. And so, with free bids you good speed, and gathers all her true- and pleasant discourse of the principles involved hearted sons, in fraternal fellowship under the banner of peace which you lift on high, display- in the labor to be performed, of the animate and ing on its snow-white folds the olive-branch and inanimate objects about us, of soil, tree, flower, dove.
fruit, stock, crops, and of the love and - isdom of Him who gave and controls them all, the
way REMARKS.—(a.) How vividly has this sentence would grow short, the labor light, and the evenbrought to mind the long days of team-driving, ing found us returning to the loved ones at home both in the fields and on the road, of our early as equally pleased as ourselves, with the rational youth. It brings a pang now, to remember the and interesing duties that had fallen to the lot of tedious hours up and down those interminable each through the day. furrows, with a plowman at the handles as sluggish and drowsy as ourselves, after the novelty of
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. the first few "rounds” had passed away. To
We thankfully acknowledge the receipt of nuhim, there was no beauty in the path-no shin
merous and most excellent communications upon ing ore--no stores of grain or grass, no germ of
various topics, and from gentlemen of great pracbud, or flower, or fruit; the furrow, a furrow tical knowledge of the subjects, which they dis“was to him, and nothing more.” To him, it
cuss. Deducting a paper or two indicted by had never been taught that the clods of the val
some young friend with one foot on Helicon and ley contained any principle of life, and their ani- the other on Parnassus, and whose wild hexamemated beings were pressed under bis heel with ters have probably saved him from a fatal collapse, thoughtless indifference. But when another came, and we have not one among them all but contains him, honored sire, from whose lips fell the first sound and valuable instruction. Some of them and early lessons to our impatient mind, how will be deferred for the present, in order to presoon supineness and indifference departed. Flow
sent them at more seasonable moments ; but all ers sprang up along the path-the furrows were shall have a place, first in the weekly paper, and peopled with animated life, indispensable to the then in a more permanent form, in the monthly whole plan, and affording texts for the most in
Farmer. teresting and useful discourse. Standing over
FARMERS! Now is the time to write. Write the upturned nest of the field-mouse, and behold
for some paper, if not for this. Review your oping its “wee bit home in ruins," elicited a stan
erations of the past summer ; take up any parza of the Farmer Poet
ticular crop. Begin by setting down first the na“Wee, sleekit, cow'rin', tim’rous beastie,
ture of the soil, whether it is high or low, wet or O, what a panic's in thy breastie ! Thou need na start awa sae hasty,
dry, drained or not; then the time and manner Wi' bickering brattle! I wad be laith to rin and chase thee,
of plowing, and the entire preparation of the Wi” murd?ring pattle !”
field, including manure, for the reception of the and then with easy and natural transition, he crop. Continue this process with other similar would give a brief sketch of the life of our broth- lands appropriated to the same crop on your own farm, or assist your neighbor in the same inves- Cashmeres have thus far proved perfectly hardy tigation. Here, then, you will have the basis, and quite prolific in the south, and their feece, the facts, for telling the whole story, and it only
which is very heavy and abundant, is used in the
manufacture of the finest Cashmere shawls and remains to weave them together by the use of
other costly fabrics of the Oriental looms. We common, natural language, easily comprehended do not hazard much in ranking this importation by all. Though truths communicated in this man- of Cashmere and Thibet shawl goats among the ner are valuable to the reader, they are infinitely most important of recent southern enterprises, more so to him who analyzes the facts and com
and predicting for the fortunate possessors of these animals the completest success.
Dr. Davis lately municates them—because that process fixes them sold one pair to a northern company at $1000, indelibly on his own mind.
and the remainder of his pure bred Cashmeres In this manner any of the operations of the have lately passed into the hands of a very sucfarm may be made to assume an interest and im- cessful and competent breeder of domestic aniportance which they have never before possessed. New-Yorker.
mals, Mr. R. Peters, of South Carolina.—Rural They become, not only a store-house of rich fruite, and lowers, of grains, herbage and cattle, but a
For the New England Farmer. Book of Revelations, incessantly unfolding to our
PRUNING APPLE TREES AGAIN. wondering senses the manifestations of Divine love, wisdom and power. This is not only a mutu
Mr. Brown :-You published a short essay, al labor between us, but a mutual benefit-it is over my name, on pruning apple trees, in the Jandifficult to tell who is the debtor. Intercourse chester correspondent, whose criticisms are always
uary Monthly Farmer. Your goo 1-natured Winwith good farmers, at your clubs, social gather- lively, hardly accepts my theory. He says ings and visits to your homes, is to us as a peren- “Pruning Apple Trees.”—As I am unsettled in nial spring to the thirsty soil ;-with these, and opinion on this subject, I read everything relating constant recourse to books, which are the record- to it with interest. Forest trees get along comed experience of others, there should be no lack of fortably without trimming, and so do shade trees interest or of sources of information to any of us.
generally. But, says Mr. Brown, "apple trees
grow with a superabundance of limbs that proWhen the attention is turned, critically, to any vision may be made for casualties, and an opporparticular subject, whether it be field or garden tunity afforded the cultivator to train according to crops, reclamation, draining, plowing, or to fruit his particular "taste. Now that is very kind in and forest trees, that subject will soon assume an doubt and hesitation if she had labelled these
nature, certainly; but it would save me much interest and importance which it has never had "superabundant limbs” respectively, as the case for us before ; and nothing will so much increase might be, "jackknife," "handsaw," "axe," &c. that interest and fix the facts upon the mind as if Mr. Brown is disposed to be offended by these writing of them. Farmers, you have the facts, remarks he must give the editor half the blame, give them a tongue through the pen and newspa- mendations on "Beautifying the Farm.”
for attaching that article on page 38 to his recomper. Among the articles on hand, are two or three
To be sure, my good sir, nature is very kind;" in relation to the Basket Willow, correcting some
there is no mistake about that. As to the labels
(an original idea) one who is pretty familiar with supposed errors in former communications, and her alphabet always sees them. describing minutely the proper soils, modes of Your correspondent thinks "forest trees get cultivation and preparation for market, its value, along comfortably without trimming." It is not amount used, and the sums annually sent out of
settled that it don't pay” to trim forests. Why the country for the raw article. These will be Pine, to run through an otherwise clear board
dead limbs should be left hanging to a White given in season to afford the necessary informa- bye and bye, is an open question. tion to any who may desire to commence its cul- The difference between forest trees and fruit tivation the coming spring.
trees is very apparent. The former are indigeWe have also received the first number of a se
nous to the soil; the latter the result of imporries of short articles upon our winter migratory trees may get along comfortably, perhaps, with
tation and long years of patient training. Apple birds, from our accomplished friend and critical less care than many bestow, but to be of the observer, S. P. FOWLER, Esq. Birds are intimate-greatest profit, attention and labor are indispenly connected with our agricultural and horticul- sable. tural operations, and their habits ought to be
"A Reader" will at once see that forest trees better understood.
can ripen no fruit in their dense shade. Apple trees are very much thinned in the moist clima
of England to admit the sun. What does the CASHMERE AND THBET Goats.—Dr. James B. common observation prove, that “the apples from Davis, the original importer of those exceedingly the sunny side of the tree are the fairest and rare and valuable animals, the Cashmere and best ?" As to the particular taste," I take it Thibet goats, presented at the Georgia Agricul- most men have a way of their own. I judge so tural Fair a fine collection of the pure breeds and by a glance at the orchards that have come in my their crosses upon the common variety. The pure way. The trees are trained in all manner of
W. D. B.
shapes ; some so high that a fishpole would hardly main root of the wild pear tree, which is as hard reach to the lowest limbs, and by nothing short and solid as any other part of the root. Has of a fire ladder and a sailor could the fruit be this enlargement any thing to do with the health gathered. Others I have seen trained so low to and vigor of the tree, or not?. It seems as though the ground that hardly a calf, much less a pair it could not be accidental, as it has been observed of oxen, could walk under the limbs.
too frequently. The pear tree is long-lived and As to "casualties," they are common and are to a rapid grower, in its wild state, shoots starting be expected. A heavily laden tree, even if care- up from two to four feet in a season; and may fully propped, will sometimes give way under its not this enlargement be for the purpose of making load.
larger drafts from the soil for its nourishment, I may add that fruit trees require pruning more or may it be a reservoir of moisture for the neces than forest trees, because their culture is, in a sities of the tree in a dry season. measure, artificial.
I have said that several of these trees have Is A Reader” as much "unsettled ?" borne fruit, such as the Bartlett, Bilboa, Catalac, Concord, Mass., Jan., 1855.
Winter Nelis, &c. I want to say one word in favor of the last, viz., Winter Nelis ; I think it
the very best pears that grows. One of
my trees has borne this pear for three years, For the New England Farmer.
between two and three dozen the first year, fewer ABOUT PEAR TREES.
the second, and more the last. This pear ripens
in December, and resembles in flavor the old St, Mr. Brown :—Dear Sir,- I want again to say Michael, in its most perfect state, and is destitute one word upon the subject of pear trees before I of the imperfection of the St. Michael. I want leave your paper, or rather, before it leaves me. every fruit-grower to cultivate this pear. I have I have, during the last ten years, given some not had great experience, but I believe, and have attention to the garden culture of pear trees. I understood from others, that it is a great bearer. began, ten years ago, with planting out some Thus, Mr. Brown, I have given you some achalf dozen from Long Island, one and two years count of my little experience in the cultivation from the bud, costing something like a dollar and of pear trees, and I think that I have not quite a dollar and a half apiece. They had a growth failed.
M of five and six feet. I put them into as good soil
Topsfield, Jan., 1855, as there was in the garden, on the border of a bank raised about two feet, and manured and cultivated every year since; but I cannot make
For the New England Farmer. During the last six or seven years, I have taken
LUNAR INFLUENCES. from the wild pasture land, partly covered with bushes, such wild pear trees as had got up beyond
MR. EDITOR :- I have read with much interest the reach of the cattle, and others that had been the suggestions of your correspondent from Bloomfreely browsed by the cattle, and from two to six field, C. w., on Lunar Influences. Notwithstandfeet in height, and set them in my garden, cover-ing the entire absurdity of the thing, there are ingjtwo-thirds of the ground, from eight to twelve hundreds, aye, thousands, who have more or less feet apart. They have all been cultivated alike, confidence in such proverbs or prejudices. And both those that came from Long Island and the is it strange they do, when in every community others. The wild trees were sometimes worked we constantly see many led captive by phantasies the same year, in which they were transplanted, still more visionary? An instance of a remarkaand sometimes the next after transplanting. The ble 'rebuke of one of these follies was brought to wild trees usually had a bulb, somewhat like that mind by the perusal of your correspondent's comon an onion stalk, on some one or more of the munication. At a meeting of the Board of Trusminor roots. I have thus set out some thirty or tees of one the oldest societies of the commonforty trees of the native crab pear. The wild wealth, one of the members, possessed of more: trees have grown far beyond my expectations, acres than ideas, was descanting with much elare now twelve and fifteen feet in height, and quence upon the most proper time for cutting ten or twelve have borne fruit, two or three for bushes, that they might not rise again, when he several years, and I have refused ten and fifteen said it should be done in the last quarter of the dollars apiece for some of them ; while the nurs- moon, in the month of August, when the sign in ery trees from Long Island have not made a foot the almanac was in the heart, and then done, the of wood during the ten years, and have made bush would never sprout again. This he laid only abortive attempts at fruit bearing. My ex- down with great emphasis, and averred that he perience would seem to warrant me in giving the had repeatedly tested the fact, by his own expepreference to wild pear trees cver those of nursery rience. An elderly gentleman, who was in the cultivation. I suppose some of these trees, before chair at this meeting, said, “My friend, while I they were taken from the wood, were twenty years
have the honor to meet you at this Board, I beold. I have hitherto thought that pear trees could seech you never again bring in the influences of not be cultivated too highly; but I now think the moon upon any of your experiments in culthey can be in the nursery, but not after they are ture. Let me tell you, she has no more to do permanently located; it is somewhat different with them than the man in the moon,” Thus rewith apple trees. All trees need cultivation ; buked, the whole assembly stood aghast, and the but I think apple trees may be forced beyond a
conceited egotist shrank back, and never spoke healthy and fruitful condition.
again on the influence of the moon. I have noticed and spoken of a bulb upon the February 5, 1855.
J. W. P.
FOURTH LEGISLATIVE AGRICULTU- regular quantities and at regular periods. Great RAL MEETING.
care should also be taken to treat them well. A Reported for the New England Farmer, cow, neglected or ill-treated, will not yield so BY WILLIAM W. HILL.
much milk, or give it so readily, as, one kindly The fourth agricultural meeting of the season treated and cared for. In closing, Mr. King alwas held at the State House, on Tuesday evening, luded to the diseases of cattle, remarking that a February 6. The weather was severely cold, and great many animals are lost which might have in consequence but a small audience was present. been saved if farmers were only better acquainted The subject for discussion was Farm Stock. with the subject of diseases in cattle. As we go
WILLIAM S. King, Esq., of Roxbury, presided, through the country, we find that farmers are and opened the meeting with some interesting very ignorant on this point, and follow blindly remarks. The subject of live stock he considered the customs of their ancestors. Cattle are often one of the most interesting and important con- put to death by the medicine given them. He nected with agriculture, and one which could not alluded to the "soft tail” and “milk vein” nobe fully discussed in a single evening. In his tions, as illustrations of the need of information remarks he would confine himself to neat stock- among farmers. The idea that, by cutting off a milch cows. The principal breeds in New Eng-“soft tail,” the life of the animal may be saved land are the short-horns or Durhams, the Devons, by preventing its extension upwards and along the Jerseys and the Ayrshires. He had owned the vertebræ, is wholly false, for the soft spot and bred all these kinds except the Ayrshires, and would not spread half an inch in ten years, and his experience was that the Durham would give the animal would die of old age before that could more milk, in proportion to the food consumed, kill it. The idea that the large vein along the than any other breed. There is a prejudice against belly of a cow is the “milk vein,” is equally them in New England, however. There are two erroneous, it being nothing but a canal from the tribes, as distinct as the Durhams and Ayrshires, front to the hinder part of the body, and disone built for the shambles and the other for milk. charging into the loins. Most Durhams in New England are those built Mr. Dodge, of Sutton, followed, and stated that for beef-large, square, and small milkers. North by the Patent Office returns, he learned that there Devons are popular in this section of country, were some 20,000,000 horned cattle in the counand he would admit that, for all purposes, they try, which, at $20 a head, would represent a were the best adapted for New England. The value of $400,000,000. Add to this the horses, oxen are excellent, combining lightness, strength mules and swine, and we have a total of from and docility. He had never fallen in with an seven to ten hundred millions of dollars. Yet he Ayrshire cow that equalled her reputation, al- had not been able to find anything more than a though he had looked through many herds. They mere allusion in any President's message in reare not equal, as a whole, to the Devons. The gard to agriculture ; and never any extended noJersey cattle are a breed which is yet to be more tice of this important subject in the Governor's extensively known in this country. There is no message in this state, until this year. As an ildoubt that they excel in richness of milk all other lustration of the want of proper surgery in the varieties"; but whether they are so good for the treatment of cattle, he stated that he once lost a farmer to buy, is another question. A cross of fine Devon heifer, worth $200, from bronchitis, this with the best native stock would probably for which he could get no help. Ile had no doubt produce a very superior breed. The native stock but that the Devons, Durhams, Alderneys and he believed to have descended from the Deyons. Ayrshires would perpetuate their qualities, and It stood high in his regard, and if he were about advised a cross with native stock. Mr. Dodge to purchase a single good cow, he thought he thought the State Board of Agriculture should should select a native. The great trouble with take in hand the matter of experimenting with native stock is, that it does not perpetuate its different breeds of stock, as it was too expensive good qualities. They are a cross of every thing, for individuals generally, and let the farmers reap 80 that in the calf they sometimes take the char- the benefit. acteristics of their grandfathers or grandmothers. Dr. DADD, Veterinary Surgeon, being called If he were going to start to-day to bring up a upon, made some very interesting remarks in rebreed of cattle, however, he should start with a gard to the diseases of animals, and their treatnative cow.
In regard to the management of ment. The veterinary science, he said, had been cattle, much remains to be learned by farmers. too long neglected in this country, and for one Cleanliness is a great thing, not only for the ap- reason, because it has been practiced generally by pearance of the thing, but for promoting the men who had but little knowledge of anatomy, health of the animals and obtaining a good quan- physiology, and the laws of life, and therefore tity of milk. They should be fed, too, both in operated with poor success. They begin an ex
amination of an animal by hunting for a "soft be the result. A horse taken with the cholic, place” in the tail, and failing in that, go to the which is produced by the gathering of carbonic other extremity, and examine the horns. If they acid gas in the stomach, which cannot find vent, find the horns hot, they say that the animal has cannot be cured by the ordinary remedies ; by inthe "horn ail,” and commence curious operations serting, with the help of instruments, a tube, a in boring the horns. But heat in the horns is passage is provided for the escape of the gas, and only a symptom of disease, not disease itself.- the animal is relieved. When constriction of the Like the tending of the circulation to the surface neck or the bladder is the difficulty, of which sciin the human system, it indicates a want of equi- once enables us easily to trace the symptoms, a librium. Sometimes on boring into a horn, pus cure may be effected by a similar course of action is exuded, and the operator immediately cries —letting off the urine with an inserted tube. “horn-ail.” But this is nonsense. There is a Spasmodic cholera is seated on the muscles, but direct connection in the horns of animals with originates in the nerves, and consequently the nerthe nostrils, and this matter which escapes is vous system must be acted on. Cleanliness and caused by nasal gleets, or running of the nose, kindness in the treatment of cattle were urged by and should be drawn off in a natural way. Upon the speaker as points of much importance. the inner surface of the horn is a membrane, and Mr. SHELDON, of Wilmington, spoke upon breedif it is punctured by boring, a disease in the horns ing of cattle, remarking that he had been acwill be likely to ensue. Hollowness is a charac- quainted with most breeds, except the Alderney, teristic of horns in all cattle; there is a perfect and he was rather in favor of native stock. It channel, extending from the tip of the horns to is said that they will not perpetuate their good the nose. There is a disease of the brain which qualities, but the fault is more in the breeders sometimes destroys cattle. He had put his hand than in the cattle. He noticed that gentlemen into the brains of cattle after death, and found who advocated foreign breeds, recommended, after them as soft as sponge. This is owing to derange-all, that they should be crossed with the native ments of the stomach. There is a great degree stock. But if foreign breeds are the best, why of sympathy between the head and the stomach ; mingle them with an inferior stock? Why not strike a man a blow on the head, and it will make keep them pure? He was unwilling to admit him feel sick ; strike him on the stomach, and it that foreign breeds are any more reliable than will make him fall down from giddiness. Now native stock, if it has been here twenty-one years. this "horn-ail” is indigestion. The speaker re- Le spoke highly of Durhams, yet considered lated the case of a cow which was driven ninety them inferior to natives, and expressed the opinmiles, and on arrival home, was found to be suf- ion that we shall yet be obliged to fall back upfering from constipated bowels. Her owner was
on the latter. ignorant of the proper measures to be taken, and Hon. Setu SPRAGUE, of Duxbury, believed that applied to his neighbors for advice; they recom- the comparisons made in favor of native stock mended some one thing, and some another. He were based upon rare specimens which were segave her, three days in succession, a pound of lected from lots of perhaps a thousand at Brightsalts, and these failing to produce any effect, 36 on, and therefore the comparison was unfair. drops of Croton oil, (enough to kill any but a sick Again, the object of English breeders was lost cow,) then a quarter of a pound of antimony, sight of. In England, the breeder aims at proand finally, a quarter of a pound of gunpowder. ducing the best animal for a specific purpose—as The animal died, and he found, on a post-mortem for beef, milk or work—chiefly, however, for beef. examination, that all this medicine had passed The Durhams, Devons and Ayrshires will make into the paunch, and had consequently produced more flesh on the same amount of food than any no effect. If medicine is poured rapidly into a native stock. If we pursue the course which the cow, it will run directly into the paunch ; but English do, we can get just what we want. Now if administered gently, the cow will be enabled we breed ani buy without any definite object. to pass it away to the fourth or digestive stomach, Without concluding his remarks, Mr. Sprague, where it will operate. Horses, however, are so it being 9 o'clock, moved that the meeting adconstructed, that whatever is poured down the journ, and that the subject of Farm Stock be throat is sure to pass into the stomach. Cattle continued next Tuesday evening. The motion are subject to the same diseases as we are, and was seconded by Mr. Flint, and carried. should be treated in like manner, and with equal skill. We have a disease among cattle in this
EXAMINATION OF A VETERINARY STUDENT.-We country, called pleura pneumonia, which generally
were present, by invitation, on Wednesday, at the takes the best of the herd. Veterinary science student is about to establish himself as a physician
examination of a student of Dr. Geo. H. Dadd. This will tell the farmer to inoculate the diseased ones of domestic animals in Portland, Maine. The with the breath of the healthy, and a cure will young man, Mr. Leonard Burnham, has attended