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you will sow an acre in about half the time with AMERICAN POMOLOGICAL SOCIETY. the aid of the boy, and get the seed in at a more In our last, we gave several paragraphs from uniform depth. Make the row 16, 18 or 20 inch- the opening Address of the President of the Ameres apart—in our own practice we think 16 inches ican Pomological Society, at its session in Sepabout right. As soon as the plants appear-or tember, upon the production of new varieties even before, if any weeds are seen-pass between of fruit from seed. We continue the subject by the rows with the wheel hoe, and when they are presenting some brief extracts from the same an inch or two high, thin them in the row so that source, upon the arts of cultivation, and the they will stand three or four inches apart. preservation and ripening of fruit.
The plants now being up and thinned, your "The absolute necessity of proper preparation, success will depend first upon the condition in and deep and thorough cultivation of the soil, which you placed the land before sowing, and, especially for certain fruits, is now generally adsecondly, upon the manner in which you tend the
mitted, though regard must always be had to the
natural activity in the sap of the species, and to crop. If weeds are entirely kept down, and the the degree of fertility of the soil. Surely it surface is stirred as often as once in every ten or would be unwise to apply the same cultivation to fifteen days—especially if the season is a dry one the peach and the cherry, as to the apple and the -you will rarely fail of obtaining at the rate of pear, or to treat any of these on new and fertile
grounds as in old and exhausted lands. from six to twelve hundred bushels per acre. The
The influence of soils is remarkable. But by crop will not depend so much upon the season as these we do not mean the identical spot, the arupon the plowing, manure and attention you give tificial bed in which the tree stands ; for, in time, it yourself.
the roots take a wide range in search of food. The use of the wheel hoe will save half the la
Some fruits are good in nearly all places ; others, bor of cultivation which the old mode with the best on light, loamy, or sandy soils ; others, in
only in their original locality. Some succeed common hoe required.
stiff clayey soils. In the latter, many pears, for instance, the Beurre Bosc and Napoleon, are as
tringent, while in the former they are entirely TENACITY OF TURKEY LIFE.
free from this quality. The Beurre Rance, in When I lived at my father's, some forty years England and in some parts of France, is the best ago, they had a turkey blown from her roost on late pear. So it is, also, in some parts of the a tree, in a snow storm in December. She did not soils in Belgium ; while with others, and with thaw out of the drift under which she was cov- us, it is generally inferior. ered till March, but came out alive, lived, and The flavor of fruit is much influenced not only raised up a good brood that year !
by soil, but also by climate and meteorological
Thomas GOODWIN. agents. Thus, in a cold, wet and undrained South Berwick, January, 1855,
soil, disease commences in the root; and, as a natural consequence, the juices of the tree are
imperfectly elaborated, and unable to supply the VITALITY OF GARDEN SEEDS.
exigency of the fruit. Even injurious substances Will you state in your columns what garden are taken up. A plum tree has been known to seeds will come up when they are more than one absorb oxide of iron, so as not only to color the
D. CHILDS. foliage, but also to exude and form incrustations REMARKS.—Most seeds will vegetate when more instance of climatic agency, it is sufficient to
on the bark, and finally to kill the tree. As an than a year old, if they were gathered at right report the fact, that out of fifty varieties of seasons, and properly preserved. Parsnip seeds American peaches grown in the gardens at Chisquite often fail, but we have used those two or wick, England, only two were adapted to the
climate. three years old, when they came up well. Gar
In relation to appropriate fertilizers for fruit den seeds should be gathered a little previous to trees, a diversity of opinion prevails. All agree full ripeness, and a good way is to cut up the that certain substances exist in plants and trees, plants the best parsnip,carrot and onion, for in- and that these must be contained in the soil to stance—and hang them in sheltered places for a produce growth, claboration and perfection. To week or two, when the seeds will become plump termed special manures; others ridicule the idea.
supply these, some advocate the use of what are and perfect. Then they should be rubbed out, We submit whether this is not a difference in and placed in boxes or bags, and their names and language, rather than in principle : for by special date of raising legibly marked upon them. If fertilizers, the first mean simply those which cornot all used the first year, you will then know respond with the constituents of the crop. But their age. Seeds thus put up should be placed manures which contain those elements? And do
are not the second careful to select and apply in some dry place, of as equal temperature as is they not, in practice, affix the scal of their approconvenient—such as a closet in the centre of the bation to the theory which they oppose ? Exhouse, or in chests in the attic, chamber, or work- plode this doctrine, and do you not destroy the shop, where they would be quite likely to remain principle of manuring and the necessity of a rogood for many years.
tation of crops ? Trees exhaust the soil of certain ingredients, and, like animals, must have
year old ?
their appropriate food. All know how difficult which produce it, can be admitted or excluded at it is to make a fruit trec flourish on the spot pleasure. It is possible, however, to preserve the from which an old tree of the same species has temperature at so low a degree and for so long å been removed.
time as to destroy, especially with some varieties The great practical question now agitating the of the pear, the vitality, and therefore all power, community is : How shall we ascertain what fer- ever to so ume the ripening process. Experience tilizing elements are appropriate to a particular proves that for the common varieties of the apple species of vegetation ? To this, two replies are and p. ar, about forty degrees of Farenheit is the rendered. Some say, analyse the crop; others, temperature best suited to hold this process in the soil. Each, we think, maintains a truth ; equilibrium. and both together, nearly the whole truth. We The proper maturing of fruit thus preserved, need the analysis of the crop to teach us its in-demands skill and science. Different varieties gredients, and that of the soil to ascertain require different degrees of moisture and heat, whether it contains these ingredients; and if it according to the firmness of the skin, the texture does not, what fertilizers must be applied to of the flesh, and the natural activity of the juices. supply them. Thus, by analysis, we learn that Thus, some varieties of the pear will ripen at a nearly one-quarter part of the constituents of the low temperature and in a comparatively dry atpear, the grape and the strawberry, consists of mosphere, while others, as the Eastern Beurre, are potash. This abounds in neit soils, and pe- improved by a warm and humid air. culiarly adapts them to the productions of these Some varieties of the pear, ripening with diffifruits, but having been extracted from soils long culty, and formerly esteemed only second rate, under cultivation, it is supplied by wood-ashes or are now pronounced of excellent quality, because potash, the value of which has of late greatly in the art of maturing them is better understood. creased in the estimation of cultivators.
But so many experiments have been tried, or There is but one other topic to which I will ad- are in progress, and so much has been written on vert,--the preservation and ripening of fruit. this branch of our subject, that I need not en
Much progress has been made in this art within large except to say that the art of preserving and a few years, and important results have been at-ripening fruit in perfection, involves so much tained. The principle has been settled that the scientific knowledge as to require great attention ripening process can be controlled. Autumnal and care; and, until its laws are more fully defruits have been kept and exhibited the succeed-veloped, must be attended with considerable diffiing spring. We have seen the Seckel, Bartlett, culty. I therefore commend it to your special and Louise bonne de Jersey pears in perfection in attention, as second in importance only to the January, and even later. The maturity of fruits raising of new varieties. depends on saccharine fermentation. Phis is fol- But I will not prolong these remarks. Your lowed by other fermentations, as the vinous and own observation and experience will readily sug-, ascetous. To prevent these, and preserve fruit in gest other felicitous illustrations of the principles all its beauty, freshness and flavor, the tempera- to which I have adverted. I will merely re-affirm ture must be uniform, and kept below the degree what our friend Thomas has so justly asserted, at which the fermentation or the ripening process that fruit and fruit trees, in all stages of their commences. Our remarks, like our experience, existence, need care and attention. I will add, have special regard to the apple and the pear, also, that here, as in every other department of though the principle is doubtless susceptible of a cultivation, eternal vigilance is an indispensable more extensive application. Fruits, designed to condition of success. be kept for a considerable time, should be gathered with great care some days before the ripening process commences, especially summer pears.
IMPORTANCE OF FOREST TREES., A summer pear ripened on the tree is generally [The following is an extract from a paper read inferior. In respect to the latter, Mr. Barry, by Dr. Hawks, before the Geographical Society of editor of the Horticulturist, has so aptly expressed
New York :) my own sentiments, that I use his language. The process of ripening on the tree, which is the “Civilization uses a vast amount of wood, alnatural one, szems to act upon the fruit for the though for many purposes it is being fast superbenefit of the seed, as it tends to the formation of ceded ; but it is nol the necessary use of wood that woody fibre and farina. When the fruit is re- is sweeping away the forests of the United States, moved from the tree, at the very commencement so much as its wanton destruction. We should of ripening, and placed in a still atmosphere, the look to the consequences of this. Palestine, once natural process seems to be counteracted, and well-wooded and cultivated like a garden, is now sugar and juice arc elaborated instead of fibre a desert—the haunt of Bedouins ; Greece, in her and farina. Thus, pears which become mealy palmy days the land of laurel forests, is now a and rot at the core when left on the tree to ripen, desolate waste ; Persia and Babylon, in the crabecome juicy, melting and delicious when ri-dles of civilization, are now covered benenth the pened in the house.'. Various fruit-houses have sand of deserts produced by the eradication of been built, both in this country and in Europe ; their forests. It is comparatively easy to eradiand experience shows that their object can be at-cate the forests of the North, as they are of a gretained only by a perfect control of the tempera- garious order—one class succeeding another ; but ture, moisture and light. Hence, they must be the tropical forests, composed of innumerable vacool, with non-conducting walls, or with exterior rieties, growing together in tho most democratic and interior walls, or a room within a room. union and equality, are never eradicated. Even Thus the external atmosphere, which either starts in Hindostan all its many millions of population the saccharine fermentation or conveys the agents have never been able to conquer the phoenix-life
BY WILLIAM W. HILL.
of its tropical vegetation. Forests act as regula- lieved might be either good or bad, and depended tors, preserving snow and rain from melting and wholly on the skill of the breeder. As proof that evaporation, and producing a regularity in the flow of the rivers draining them. When they
breeding in-and-in is not contrary to nature, he disa ppear, thunder-storms become less frequent referred to birds, the buffalo, &c., in a wild state. and heavier, the snow melts in the first warm It is known that they breed “in-and-in" constantdays of spring, causing freshets, and in the fall ly, and yet no deterioration takes place. He had the rivers dry up and cease to be navigable. known geese to be propagated in this way for forThese freshets and droughts also produce the malaria which is the scourge of Western bottom- ty years, and not the slightest depreciation in lands. Forests, although they are first an obsta- size, quality or feather was visible in them. Still, cle to civilization, soon become necessary to its cases could be cited where breeding in-and-in had continuance. Our rivers, not having their sourc- produced bad results ; yet he thought they might es above the snow line, are dependent on forests be satisfactorily attributed to imperfections in the for their supply of water, and it is essential to the future prosperity of the country that they parent stock. It is only necessary to select pershould be preserved.”
fect specimens. A third question was, “Are small lungs an advantage in cattle designed for fatten
ing?” This idea might seem perfectly prepesterFIFTH LEGISLATIVE AGRICULTURAL ous, but the theory has been broached by some MEETING
who professed to raise cattle on scientific princiReported for the New England Farmer,
ples. The theory is that, with small lungs, the
animal cannot throw off so much carbon, and No. 5, in the series of agricultural meetings, therefore more of it is retained to be converted was held in the Representatives' Hall, at the State into fat. This is a great fallacy, for when the House, on Tuesday evening, 13th inst.
organs of the creature are most fully developed SANFORD HOWARD, Esq., of the Boston Cultiva- and healthiest, then is fat generated the fastest. lor, presided, and opened the discussion of the
Mr. Brooks, of Princeton, followed, and reevening. After some remarks in regard to the marked that he did not profess to have much influence of domestic animals, on civilization, their knowledge in regard to raising cattle, yet from native localities, &c., he proceeded to speak of what experience he had had, he was of opinion the fact that our domestic animals, not being na- that breeding in-and-in was a very poor system. tive to the soil, but brought over by the colonists He had succeeded badly in all efforts in that difrom various localities, presented a miscellaneous rection. It might have been owing to defects in character at the outset, and the want of skill in the animals selected, but he could discover none the propagation has led to great diversity. In at the time. He agreed entirely with the chairthis respect, however, proper attention is begin- man in regard to the effect of contracted lungs in ning to be devoted to the subject. Two or three fattening cattle. Good health is essential to fatquestions had been put into his hands, the writers tening stock, and this could not be maintained requesting his views thereon. One was, “What without good lungs in cattle any more than in are improved breeds of cattle, and how are they men. The small lungs of Durham cattle were in produced?” He would reply that a breed of cat- his mind a serious drawback upon their value. tle may be said to be improved when the standard They are more liable to disease than native or is raised in regard to any particular quality, as other breeds, in consequence of this peculiarity, the yield of more milk or flesh. They may be iin- and they do not work so well, not having so good proved in one quality and lose in another; as an wind. He thought the State should take in hand animal may be made to yield more abundantly of the subject of making experiments in regard to milk, but it will decrease proportionably in flesh, cattle. The climate he considered had a good and the flesh may be increased, but the milk will deal to do with the class of animals which we be diminished at the same time. The object need to raise. Perhaps native stock would be the should be to work for a particular object, and if best to rear from, as they are acclimated, while the animal deteriorates in some other respects, no foreign breeds cannot bear our climate, and conmatter. The ineans to be used are very simple, sequently deteriorate. In order to obtain a desialthough much judgment is requisite in the use rable race of animals, the best specimens among of them. It consists in propagating from those us should be selected. It would take many years animals which possess in the highest degree the to accomplish this object, however. qualities we desire. Another question asked was, Mr. MERRIAM, of Tewkshury, said that some of "What is breeding in-and-in?" While some ap- Mr. Brooks's conclusions were at variance with plied the term only to animals distantly related, his experience. He had bred Durham cattle for he conceived the only true idea of the matter to the last fifteen years, and considered their speed be that it applied to creatures of the same blood. as travellers, remarkable. He considered them The consequences of breeding in-and-in he be- good workers, having used them on his farm ;
they keep as easy, eat as heartily, and withstand Mr. MERRIAM thought the discussion had shown the cold as well as any other kind of cattle. that all were agreed as to the necessity of gooa
Let the Mr. SHELDON, of Wilmington, strongly urged blood in order to secure good cattle. the superiority of the native cattle over all others. farmer ascertain definitely what he wants in an In 1835 he worked 113 cattle in this city, among animal-beef, milk, or working qualities and which was a yoke of good Durhams, but he then select accordingly. thought they were not so spry as the others.-- Mr. Fay, of Essex, said the quickest way to Talking with one of his old teamsters last week, obtain a good breed of cattle was to select a pure he asked him to name the cattle which he could blood bull from a mother possessing in the highrecollect were considered by himself and others to est degree the qualities desired, and take a mixed be the best in Mr. Sheldon's posgession while he female. The pure blood will finally overpower was in his employ. The teamster mentioned some and eradicate the mixed blood, and the progeny, eight or ten yoke, all of which were native stock. will be of pure blood. A French gentleman had If you go to the butchers, nine out of ten of them succeeded in doing this with sheep in five crossings. will tell you that the flesh of native animals suits He commenced by uniting a pure merino with a their customers better than foreign, and at Brigh-pure Leicester, and the result was a mixture ton, handsome native cattle are the most praised which produced sometimes one thing and someby the butchers. As an offset to Mr. Sprague's times another-a pure merino or a pure Leicesremark, last Tuesday evening, that the specimens ter, just as it happened. He found that this of superior native cattle cited were selected from would not work. Two pure bloods were brought drovers of a thousand at Brighton, he would re-together, and they only wavered without promark that the specimens of foreign animals ducing any decisive result. He therefore, after brought to this country are selected from herds of much reflection, procured a sheep whose blood tens of thousands, and at enormous prices. had been mixed five or six times, and placed her
Mr. BUCKMINSTER, of Framingham, thought with a pure male. The consequence was that he that finer cattle than some of our native stock attained the object he sought, a peculiar breed of could not be found, and that we ought to cultivate sheep. The mixed blood becomes purer on every it. He denied very positively that a yoke of pure crossing. If it is desired to raise a particular blood Durham or Devon oxen had ever been seen race of cattle, instead of looking for superior aniin this country. He explained the reason to be mals of both sexes, take a pure blood bull and the that breeders could get more for a single bull most mixed male that can be found, no matter than for a pair of oxen, and hence would not how inferior, even if one horn grows downward. raise oxen. The cattle we have are crosses, and Mr. Dodge, of Sutton, thought it would take he would give ten dollars to the man who would at least twenty years to get a race of cattle such find a yoke of pure blood Durham or Devon oxen as we want, and that there was nothing better to in this State. By selecting the best native bulls begin with than our native cattle. and cows, he thought a very superior race of
After considerable discussion, it was voted that cattle could be obtained. In fifty years we might the subject of Farm Stock be continued for disget up as good breeds as any in England. Our cussion another evening, and at 94 o'clock the fault is that we have not patience enough in this meeting adjourned. matter, and are not willing to wait for such a result. As to breeding in-and in, he did not see
For the New England Farmer. any difficulty in it, if properly understood. The
CORRECTION. human race sprung from one pair, and wild MR. EDITOR :-Sir,-Permit me to correct a few horses, which are swifter and stronger than those mistakes that occur in a report of my remarks at domesticated, breed in this manner.
He stated the State House, published in your paper of the that stock imported into this country forty years order to mitigate a disease known as pleuro-pneu
10th ult. In one part I am made to say that in ago, had grown better and better under this sys- monia,“lhe farmer is to innoculate the discased ones tem. He remarzed, in conclusion, that the cows with the breath of the healthy and a cure will be the of this Commonwealth did not probably yield, on result.'
I stated that veterinary surgeons in Euan average, more than five pounds of butter per rope, are now experimenting, by innoculating catweek, while, with proper attention to the nni- tle for pleuro-pneumonia; that they obtain mat
ter (not "breath”) from the diseased animal, and mals, ten pounds might be obtained from the introduce it into the systems of healthy ones in same amount of food consumed.
view of palliating that awful disease. Mr. FREDERICK EMERSON, of Boston, said it was Spasmodic “cholera,” should read colic, is locavery uncertain what was meant when "native'sted in the muscular coat of the intestines. It arisstock was spoken of, and described several varie- medicines that act
on the nervous system of an
es from perverted nervous action, and therefore, ties which would probably be called native by anti-spasmodic character, should be used. some.
Yours, with respect, G. H. DADD, V. S.
For the New England Farmer. exactly satisfied, perhaps the lady discontented, FARMING IN IOWA.
too far from her ma; some would sell, because
they can get a few dimes more than they gave; Mr. Editor :--I have been highly entertained others are obliged to sell, because they have done, by the monthly risits of the New England Farmer as many more will do, bought more land than during the past year, and have made the necessa- they can cultivate or pay for. We have speciry arrangements for its continuance. Whoever mens of all character from every country. gets your monthly for a dollar, gets his money's I am half inclined to be grave, and contrast the worth, and I would here recommend to every far- Western with New England firming, but I fancy mer to trade a dollar for it.
my brevity will entertain more than my gravity I don't know as you down-easters have any spe- could. cial interest in us, away out in these prairies, Jan. 21. — The greatest snow-storm we have but, perchance, there may be some among you, had for many years.
NEMO. who may think of coming hither some day, and Burlington, Iowa, Jan. 21, 1855. would be glad of some items. Our winter has been delightful, much like a southern winter, with the exception of their rains. You all know,
For the New England Faemrt. right at home, something about a drought the past summer and fall; but yours is over, ours MONTHLY FARMER FOR FEBRUARY. continues. Springs and wells are low, and the February, though the shortest month of the scarcity of water in many places is great. The winter has been so mild, there will be sufficient forces of the Seasons. The Sebastopol of Winter
year, is the grand battle-ground of the belligerent food for stock, and as for the swine tribe, I be- is now besieged by the allied armies of Sun, Rain lieve they will all be killed to save corn,-not for and Wind. The few breaches they effect in her the price they bring, being only $3,50 per hun-battlements, are, however, speedily repaired by dred. Short as the crops of corn are, a man can General Frost. But every morning the big gun get more for a day's labor than he can pack home of Summer is found to be a little nearer its walls on his back. I mean at one time.
than it was tke day before, and its fire proves Cattle and horses are high, and the wherewith-warmer and warmer. And the wind, too, so long all to buy them scarce. The bank panic among doubtful on whose side to battle, begins to show our neighboring States injured business a little, very clearly that the Northern Bear can count on as we have a large circulation of their currency. his aid but little longer. February, then, decides When times are dull in the east, many mechanics the contest,—though there may be skirmishes in are usually seeking the west to better their con March and April, -and our Sebastopol is taken! dition, and perhaps to change their occupation, Winter surrenders! But, as with all other tyto enter upon the delights of farming. "Well, rants, it is one thing to break his power ; quite there is an Ocean of land here.
another to improve his disposition. “Uncle Sam has land enough to give us all a farm,"
Though February is a short month, I do not
find the Farmer any shorter than usual. With but he don't own much in this State adjoining a the advertising patch reclaimed, there is now village, a post-office, school-house, saw and grist more room than ever, and every corner is filled. mills, and mechanics' shops of various descrip- Following the editor's Calendar, we find the tritions. His land is generally situate beyond these, headed article,but he has situations enough for thein, if you can The Potato ---Curculio— Shad-bush,—-wbich be patient until you build them. Now all ye men shows how the writer, who cultivated potatoes and women, who are romantic, able and willing in a field with several others, raised the best to work without cider and apples, and well forti- crop of all ; how he saved his plums; and fied with patience and the “material aid," "como how a pear that he grafted on a shad-bush, grew, along,” for Uncle Sam's lands afford great open-bore fruit two or three years, and died—as alí ings for you, and a few years of patience and such grafting, does, so far as I have abserved. well-doing” will secure you a good and beautiful Years ago I tried the experiment, with no better home. Bear in mind, my immigrating friends, result. we shall all be glad to you—the more money you Grass Crops.-Dissertation on the value and bring, the greater our joy; and also bear in mind the cultivation of this important crop. not to expend all your money for land—have a Selection of Apples.-A list of twenty kinds of balance to buy your team, your farming utensils, apples, that an old grafter recommends from your household furniture, your provisions for the actual trial and personal knowledge. first year, &c. &c. We, old citizens, can't bor- Lime-Salt-Corn.-Inquiries about salt and row money less than two figures in the per cent- lime as manure, used as Prof. Mapes directs; age. New countries are better to loan money in with the writer's plan for a corn-crop. than to borrow. Keep out of debt, if you don't State Board of Agriculture.—Report of operaown all the land that adjoins you.
tions on the farm of the State Reform School. If any live Yankce has the fancied notion, that Fall Plowing--Plaster.- What “Plaster from he can make an honest and genteel living, even Vermont” means I do not know. Mr. Adams, who on our fertile land, without labor, the trial will spent two years on a Geological Survey of that take it out of him.
State, gave no encouragement of finding it there, There is an abundance of land in market be- although it is used to some extent by the farmers sides Uncle Sam's, and far better improved, but in the Champlain valley. Was Mr. Woods’ Plasnot at his price. Sonne have not got far enough ter, lime made of the shell marl that is found in west,-neighbors too near, --would sell and go the northern part of Vermont? Mr. W. als) where there is more breathing-room,--some not says fall-plowing destroys worms.