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cle objects that fall-plowing exposes the manure seems to be that for fattening stock, sweet apples to waste.

are worth as much as potatoes; and that sour Official Visits to Farmers.—Recommending the apples are worth twice as much as potatoes for employment of men in each county, under the growing stock, compared by weight, not measure. appointment and pay of the State, to visit farms Machine for Chopping Brush, that does the reported to be good, and to present the facts as- work of forty men ! Many farmers in Massachucertained through the press. For my own part, setts burn little but brush, themselves, as the I don't like that word official.” Mr. Colman merchantable wood is all sent to market, and it is once held an office similar to the one proposed. lots of work to chop it up with axe and hatchet. In his valedictory preface to the Fourth Report, Don't see why a brush cutter might not be of he says :—“By many persons, the Commissioner great advantage, where wood is worth six or eight has been regarded as a kind of tax-gatherer, and dollars a cord. True, the work by hand may be his approach has carried their hands, almost in- done evenings and at odd jobs; but I have thought voluntarily, to clench their pockets.'

sometimes, this winter, that I had rather be readCulture of the Pear.–“75 cents a dozen," ing the Farmer, than cutting brush by lamp-light, “$1,50 a dozen,"-6 cents each,"6.12 cents each,” to keep one stove warm. and such like, are every fall on the cards in pear Although I have alluded, directly or indirectly, dishes, displayed in the fruit stores of Boston. to only about one-half of the articles that make This article comments on and recommends choice up this number, I will stop here, and claim for varieties, and then promises to give us the wri- once the merit of brevity-a higher mark than I ter's views on the proper culture of the Pear, often deserve.

A READER. which I am looking for with much interest. Winchester, Feb., 1854.

Dairies.-Report of Middlesex County Committee, in which some thrusts are made at certain Book-farming cows.

ENCLOSURES. Poultry cheaper than Pork, if figures don't lie.

There is, perhaps, no department of agriculture Pelverized Peat.--May not this material be which can properly be considered of more immeused to save a portion of city waste! What has dia importance to the farmer than that of become of that comunittee? Value of Rool Crops.—This article is reviewed

FENCING. Yet, singular as it may seem,

there is by E. C. P. on page 90, in a sensible article none which, by the generality of husbandmen, is headed Relative Value of Food.

so much neglected, or more badly managed. The Wire Fences, made by Machinery.—The pictures habit, already become inveterate, in many secof this fence make a pretty appearance on paper, tions, of compelling the animals of the farm to and may work well on the farm, where fencing is expensive. From my observation of the effect of carry the fences on their horns and necks, in the the climate upon iron, I have always feared that shape of "blind-boards," "stoops," "hampers," rusting would prove a serious objection to wire "jewsharps” and “pokers," is one that calls fencing. But it seems that no trouble is anti- loudly for reform. Good and substantial fences cipated from this source, as it is calculated” to are by no means so expensive as they are suplast a century or more, by being varnished, posed to be ; and if, to adopt the language of an painted or tarred once in five or six years. Basket Willow. Whether the people of the

able writer in a late New York paper, "the proUnited States can raise their basket-stuff better portion of crops that are annually lost in the than they can their silk dresses, seems about to country from the use of such apologies for be tested. We have in this number an account fences as are frequently seen, could be correctly of a successful experiment in raising the Willow ascertained and added to the sum which must be in Hingham, Ms., and also of a machine for peel- deducted from the value of the horses and cattle ing it, invented in Vermont. The “rod is in a pickle," then ; but, gentlemen, don't get up a thus taught vicious and unruly habits, and the multicaulis fever with it. Do let us be sober whole presented at once to the eye of the faronce.

mer, or land-holder, it can scarcely be doubted An Agricultural Glimpse of Washington City.- he would be surprised at the result, or that he Two very interesting letters by one of the Editors. would at once awaken to the importance of havPity such pictures of life should be drawn in the capitol of a free people.

ing good fences.” As to the cost of fences, the Profits of Hens.--Why are hens worth a third following remarks, published some years since by more in December than in March?

Mr. SUURTLEFF, in the Farmer, afford valuable Turnips for Pigs.—The writer found that Swe- data. dish turnips wintered over, and fed raw to his A fence of wbite cedar---posts and rails, five pigs in June, kept them growing finely.

Legislative Agricultural Meelings. We have rails in height, and three lengths to two rods ; the reports of the first two meetings of this asso

cost nearly ninety-one cents per rod. ciation, at which the subjects of last summer's A fence of white pine and chestnut-rails drought, and of the small grains, were discussed. white pine, sawed two inches by eight, chestnut

Serf Labor in Poland.-When any American posts, four rails high, three lengths to two rods ; farmer gets the blues, let him turn to the monthly cost sixty-four cents per rod. In both these cases Farmes, and read this extract.

Value of Apples.-An article that embodies the the cost was exclusive of the setting. result of much labor to ascertain the value of Stone wall-four and a half feet high, varied apples, by scientilic processus. The conclusion from one dollar to two dollars fifty cents per rod,

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For the New England Farmer.

BY DR. JOSEPH REYNOLDS.

according to the amount of labor required in transporting the materials, and the manner in A WORD IN SEASON ABOUT GUANO which the wall was laid, whether by trenching or otherwise.

The failure of guano to produce the beneficial Hedge fence, made of Virginia thorn plants effects expected from it, the past season, seems to (cratægus cordata) set twenty-one to a rod; cost, havc destroyed the faith of many farmers, in its at the end of the fourth year, including planting, value as a fertilizer. For my part, I have not

lost my faith in it at all, but I think I have trimming, etc., fifty cents a rod! This statement learned something from observation, with respect with respect to the cost of hedges of Virginia to the proper mode of applying it. Indeed, the thorn, accords well with the experience of others experience of the past year has only confirmed an who have introduced this species of enclosure on opinion which I have long had, that the efficacy their lands, and especially with those of Mr. of guano depends essentially upon the mode of its Kirk, of Pennsylvania, whose experience in this sive circulation, that the mixing of guano with

application. Last spring an idea got into extenparticular department of farming, probably ex- other substances was but little better than labor ceeds that of any person in the United States. lost. Hence, many farmers put it into the hill, The cost of stone wall, we think, will generally

and planted their corn, or other seeds, in direct be not far from $1 per rod, and if from this we

contact with it, or with only a little earth thrown

over it perhaps with the foot, in dropping the deduct the increased value of the soil, perma- seed. In this state, when the tender radicles of nently improved by the removal of the stones, the corn shot downward, and came in contact and the very important advantage resulting from with the guano, which had now become softened having them placed forever out of the way, the into a caustic paste, they were at once burned expense of this highly valuable and desirable of lime or ashes. After the corn was planted,

and destroyed, as they would have been in a paste species of enclosure will probably be less than but little rain fell for some weeks. Probably in that of hedge. But hedges, when properly man- many instances no rain reached the guano to disaged, are very desirable. They are not only per- solve it, and diffuse it through the soil, but it all manent, but very efficient as a protection against

remained, confined to a small space, except what

was given off in the form of vapor, and acted, the depredations of every description of animal

when it acted at all, in a concentrated form.ordinarily found upon our farms. They are also This may be illustrated by the action of certain very ornamental, and communicate a rural aspect caustic substances-ammonia, for example—when to the country which other species of enclosure applied to the surface of the human body. When cannot equally confer.

this is applied in a diluted form, over a consider

able surface, it stimulates the vessels of the skin The editor of one of our agricultural publica- to a more vigorous perforinance of their natural tions, in some observations pertinent to this sub- functions ; but when applied in a concentrated ject, says :

form, it des oys the entire tissue to which it is “We have found by experience that in making

applied, and leaves an unsightly and painful ul

cer. One of the best fields of corn which I saw fence of posts and rails, or posts for bars or gates, in this town, the past season, was raised with there is nothing gained by making the posts too guano in the following inanner : After the ground small

. Perhaps there is no timber in which the had been properly prepared, a furrow was made difference of durability between large and small for the row, of the common depth. The guano posts is more striking than in that of the common was sprinkled into this furrow, through its entire white cedar or cypress of our swamps. Mr. length. It was then covered with the hoe to the Shurtleff found his cedar fence to last about fif

depth of two or three inches, and the corn dropteen years, the posts rotting off in that time, and

ped upon this covering, the kernels being placed perhaps fifteen years may be set down as about the ordinary duration of a wood fence, let the

eight or ten inches apart. The yield was estima. method of construction be what it may. This bushels per acre. Where it is preferred to plant

ted, notwithstanding the drought, at a hundred single fact should cause farmers and land-owners in hills, rather in drills, the guano should, it used to pause, and ask, where their fences are to come unmixed, be sprinkled over at least a square foot from, when their present, and perhaps already of surface, at the bottom of the furrow, and be half-decayed, wood fences are rotten and gone? covered with about two inches of soil, and the We are convinced that, ere inany years, want of fence will be one of the most serious evils the

corn dropped upon this. farmer will be called to encounter."

But my object in writing at this time is to say a few words about the use of guano as a top

dressing. Those farmers who intend to use it for WHEAT.-According to the most correct analy- this purpose, should improve the present time to sis, wl.cat contains, in one hundred parts, 3.3 per stormy days of this month, or the carly part of

obtain it, and prepare it for us. Daring the cent. of ushies, and these ashes consist of 12 per March, when they cannot work out of doors, they cent. limo salts, and 51 of silica, or sand. Hence, can pulverize it upon the barn floor, and stow it wheat will sometimes succeed after buck-wheat, away in barrels for use. During the cold weathas they are composed of different elements, both er it gives off but little of its ammonia hy expoof which may co-exist in the soil.

sure to the air. But during the warm days of spring, when exposed, it parts with a great amount

TROUBLE.

be by your

of it. My own belief is, that it is best, for what-pears not to be requisite to develope the excelever use it is intended, to mix it with plaster, sencies of this crop, which is indebted less to the pulverized peat, fine dry compost, or in the ab- soil than many other vegetables, and more to the sence of anything better, with fine rich soil from air, for the food which perfects its growth. the garden. These should be mixed with it in the proportion of at least five bushels to one. If this mixture is now made in the barn floor, or

TO YOUNG MEN AT SCHOOL. in a dry cellar, whatever ammonia is given off by

AN APPEAL TO THOSE THAT MOST FREQUENTLY MAKE the guano will be absorbed and retained by the diluting substance. If before you have occasion

Those to whom we refer is a class of young to nse the mixture, you should find it smelling of men, who attend the winter schools, and are so ammonia, dissolve five or six pounds of copperas

disorderly, and in some cases determined not to in a barrel of water, and occasionally sprinkle obey the teacher, that things are rendered trying the surface, or throw over it an additional quan

and disagreeable ; and the usefulness of the school tity of pulverized peat, or a little charcoal. In is much prevented. They are from 12 or 14 years this way, you will have your guano ready to ap- of age, up to 20. It is not common to find feply as a top-dressing, at the time when it should male pupils of these ages that make trouble.be applied, which is as soon as the frost is out of There is generally too much pliancy, delicacy and the ground, and the grass begins to start. If you refinement in them for this. Man has more roughcan avail yourself of a new-fallen snow, about ness in his nature, and unless he exercises selfthe first week in April, as is often the case, you control, he will go far astray. will be able to sow it more evenly. If not, 80W

In a few observations for the benefit of this it during or just before a rain. If sowed upon

class, let it be said that your teacher may not bo dry land, and the sowing should be followed by right in every course he takes, nor in everything several days of bright sunshine, a great part of he does ; but then it is not for you to correct him its value will be lost.

or to be revenged on him for any acts that are not When used as a top-dressing, it is worth much just what they should be, by disorder at school. more upon moist than upon dry land. Two years

He is to be approached and advised by the comago, Friend Dyer, of the Shaker establishment at mittee, or by your parents, or it may Lebanon, sowed guano upon four acres of grass,

selves in a private manner if he judges you wrongin the middle of a large field, upon a side-hill, fully, or does not help you in your studies as you where the land was moist and springy, and he have need. But it is often the case that it is the judged that it doubled his crop, although the determination on the part of a few on the first crop was good before. The expenditure of five day or week of the school, and sometimes even dollars to the acre gave at least an additional ton before it commences, not to like, and to be disorof hay. A gentleman who lived a mile off, told derly. This is unfair and unjust. me he could mark the limits of the said four acres Now what can be gained by disrepect to the through the whole season, from its superior green- teacher, and by ungoverned conduct at school? ness. A gentleman in the neighborhood sowed Is it of any value to you to prevent the peace

and his guano the latter part of May, after the land quietness of the school, and thereby have many had become dry, and it did little or no good.

that attend it, hindered in their studies, and time Here then is a practical lesson which should not

and
money
lost? Do you wish to lose the

prebe forgotten.

cious opportunities afforded you of getting that I am acquainted with many instances where knowledge that will be more valuable than gold ? the crop of grass has been doubled by the appli- Have you not self-respect enough to conduct with cation of 250 or 300 lbs. to the acre ; but in every propriety and decorum? Do you not wish to act instance the land was moist, and the guano was the part of gentlemen? We appeal to all that is applied early. When the land is dry, provided it honorable in you not to let yourselves down by is level, so that the rain and snow that fall upon opposition to the teacher, and to the disgrace that it will not run off, it will probably be best to ap- attends the trouble you may make in the school. ply it later in the fall. Then the rains and melt- Be kind and respectful towards the one that has ing snows will carry it into the ground. When charge. Be orderly and polite, instead of being the land is uneven, or the surface is inclined, as wayward, coarse and vulgar. It is the direct on a side-hill, so that the surface water will run way to rise to places of usefulness, fame and peace. off before the ground is thawed in the spring, the

Eteter News-Letter. dissolved guano will be carried off by the water, and nearly the whole value will be lost, if it is

For the New England Farmer. applied in the fall. As a top-dressing to winter

MR. CLARK'S COW. wheat and rye, I think it will be found no less In the Boston Journal of Jan. 23, it is stated, efficacious, than when applied to grass, provided by Mr. Clark, of Sunderland, that one pound one the above conditions are observed in the applic..- ounce of butter was made from three quarts of the tion. When rye is grown upon very dry land, as milk of his con—her feed corn fodder only. I is usually the case with us, I think it will be bet- think it must have been, like the Dutchman's ter to plow and harrow it into the soil, when the wheat-straw, on which he kept his fat horse, very rye is sown. Again I say, that no time is be

poorly threshed. This goes ahead of Mr. B.'s Delost in purchasing and preparing the guano which vons or M.'s Jerseys. I should like to know, you intend to use as a top-dressing.

whether this milk was a fair average of the prodConcord, Feb. 15.

uct of the cow, or whether it was the strippings.

One story may be good until another is told. It Peas.—The soil for peas should not be too lib- will not do to deny anything. erally enriched. A great degree of fertility ap-l Jan. 29, 1855.

J. R.

HORTICULTURE.

to succeed ; cover the scion with earth up to the

topmost bud.-ED. FARMER.) PRUNING THE GRAPE.

In compliance with the request of our corres

pondent, and in reply to frequent inquiries, we Our people are beginning to appreciate the va- furnish a few hints on pruning the grape, which lue of the grape, both as an article of food, and we shall endeavor to make sufficiently plain by as affording a pure and wholesome tonic for the reference to figures, that inexperienced cultivasick and infirm. As an ornament, also, in the tors may easily understand them. A well-pruned grounds about the house, it is scarcely excelled will be larger, and incomparably superior than

vine will not only produce earlier fruit, but it by any of the plants which are sufficiently hardy on one left to straggle without care. for our climate. There is great uncertainty in There are two leading principles that should the mind of many persons as to how and when be always observed in pruning the grape, whatthe grape vine should be pruned, and finding an ever may be the particular mode adopted. The excellent article in the Country Gentleman on the

first is, that the vine always bears the fruit on the

present year's shoots, which have sprung from subject, we have incurred the expense of en-buds on the previous year's growth, (Fig. 1.)graving the cuts annexed, in order to give prac- Secondly, that the full growth and perfect ripentical illustrations of the mode of pruning and ing, of the fruit depends wholly on the healthy, training. These, with the explanations, will well developed leaves, which supply food to the make the whole so plain, that all may cultivate be allowed to become so thick that the leaves can

forming berries, and hence the growth must not the grape with a certainty of success.

not properly develop themselves, nor should the yines be trimmed so closely that there shall not

be leaves enough for the perfection of the fruit. These two facts must be always borne in mind by those who would raise the best grapes. These being understood, we now proceed to the details of pruning.

First Year.-When a vine is first procured from the nursery in spring, it is usually furnished with several irregular shoots of the previous summer's growth, resembling Fig. 2. These should be all closely pruned to the older wood, leaving only the strongest, and this should be cut back so as to leave but two or three buds, (Fig. 3.) These buds will grow, and when only a few inches in length, the strongest shoot must be selected, and the others rubbed off: This single shoot is allowed to grow till about the first of autumn. After this period, the new leaves and wood that are formed, cannot mature perfectly, and their growth will be in some degree at the expense of the matter forming in the previous portion of the shoot. Its growth should be therefore

stopped by pinching off the end. This will Fig. 1.--Portion of a grape vine in bearing, representing the bear- assist in maturing and strengthening the vine. ing branches, from the sides of a last year's vine.

Any side-shoots that appear during the sumA correspondent at Southeast, N. Y., requests spring up from the stump, should be kept rubbed

mer, or any smaller shoots that happen to a chapter on the pruning of the grape. He adds, off as fast as they appear, as they withdraw and “I do not trim on the renewal system, and I find divide the nourishment received from the roots. that this year's shoots that are to be next year's bearers, if kept without any trimming, fling out such a profusion of side-shoots that they become altogether too thick; and by trimming them off', the bud which should be left to grow next spring, will

grow

this summer and proouce a crop of grapes. I had grapes on such vines this year that were about full grown when frost came. I Fig.2.- Vine as obtained from nur- Fig. 3.-The same, pruned cannot keep the vines thin enough without taking

sery, with straggling shoots. off the side-shoots. I also wish to ask whether, in grafting the vine, if we have little vines up: the first year, (Fig. 4,) should be cut down to

Second YEAR.- The single strong shoot made shall we graft them, and then set them out as we do root-grafted apple trees, or must they be cut three or four buds, only two shoots from which off below the surface and be grafted when they should be allowed to grow, the others being rubare growing?"

bed off, and the lateral shoots, should any appear,

being removed as already described. The autum[Our experience suggests that, if taken up and nal shortening of the two shoots as above stated whip grafted, and then planted out, they are sure is also necessary. The judgment of the cultivator

when set out.

ond year, or early in the spring of the third.These horizontal branches, termed arms, are to be

cut back at the same time, so as to leave two good buds on each, so that four shoots, two on each side, may spring up from them; the same care as

formerly being observed to remove suckers or supernumerary shoots and side branches, and to give the autumn shortening. None of the fruit bunches should be allowed to remain. The four

Fig.4.-Growth at end of frst Fig. 5.-Growth at end of second

summer from setting out. summer from setting out.

will teach him, that if the transplanted vine is small or weak the first year, and makes but a few feet growth, the same first year's process must be gone over again the second year, until the vine becomes strong enough to send up a shoot at least some nine or ten feet in length, when the “second Fig. 6.-Growth at end of third summer from setting out year's” operation may be commenced upon it.Any fruit which sets should be removed, as the shoots, as they advance in growth, should be tied vine is not yet strong enough to bear and support to the trellis, in the position that the figure ro a vigorous growth at the same time.

presents. THIRD YEAR.— The two shoots made during the Fourth YEAR.-Two shoots or canes are sufsecond year, (Fig. 5,) are now extended each way fered to remain in their position upon the trellis, horizontally, and fastened to the newly erected merely cutting them down to three or four feet. trellis. This may be done at the end of the sec- They will throw out from each bud side-shoots,

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Fig. 7.- A full grown grape vine, trained on the alternate or renewal system,
the dark vines, the present year's bearers-the dotted ones,

growing this year, for bearing next.

which are the fruit-bearers, and on each of these of the previous paragraph, that the two upright spurs one or two bunches of grapes may be al- shoots are cut down to three or four feet. A bud lowed to remain and ripen ; the ends of these should be allowed to grow at their upper ends, spurs or side-shoots being pinched off, as shown from which all bunches are to be removed, so at c, Fig. 1. All other bunches should be rubbed that they may serve to extend their length upoff as soon as they form. The other two or outer wards, till the full height of the trellis is atshoots should, early in the same spring, (or late tained. the previous autumn,) be laid down horizontally. There are two modes of treating vines trained 80 as to form an extension or continuation of the in this way. One is what is termed spur-pruning, arms, and at the same time be shortened to within and the other the long-cane or renewal systein. about two feet of the ends of the previous arms. Theoretically speaking, there is but little differTwo buds should be allowed to grow on each ence between them, but they are quite different of these horizontal portions, one of which is to in practice. We have already remarked that the be trained upon the trellis for another bearing bunches are borne on the present season's shoots. branch, and the other to serve for a continuation In spur-pruning, these shoots are thrown out of the arms, as before, no bunches being allowed yearly from the sides of a permanent upright to grow on them. In this way, two new bearing shoot, and are cut back yearly, for new ones to shoots are added yearly, until the entire space spring out from the buds left at their base in intended for the vine on the trellis is filled. pruning

We have already remarked, at the beginning' In the long-cane or renewal system, every alter

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