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in a year.
nate stem is cut wholly down to the horizontal disorder. Where improvement is actually atarm; so that, while last year's upright shootis tempted, the result is not unfrequently a combifurnishing a crop
grapes this year,—this year's nation of inconvenience and stiffness, and very shoot is growing (free from all bunches,) for a few neatly, economically and tastefully laid-out similar crop for next year. No shoot, therefore, grounds are to be met with. Why should not remains above the arms longer than two years. this art, which every living man in the country
Spur-pruning is best adapted to slowly growing ought to practice, be taught in our higher sorts, (chiefly exotics) which cannot produce a schools ? Latin and Greek are excellent studies full-length branch in one year. The renewal for those who have plenty of time and means for system is best for the most vigorous American these as well as other departments of knowledge ; varieties, which will grow fifteen or twenty feet but for such as cannot master all, would not the
Fig. 7 exhibits distinctly a vine months consumed on Tacitus and Thucyides, be trained to a trellis, and treated on the renewal more profitably spent on those fascinating and system, the dark shoots being the present season's eminently useful studies, drawing and architecbearers, and the dotted lines showing the growth ture, in connexion with landscape gardening? of the canes for bearers next year, while new When will the time come that the latter will ones are growing in the places of this year's have only an equal chance with the former ? bearers.
Time once lost never returns; and it is of the Summer pruning, which consists in the removal highest consequence that those who direct the of all supernumerary shoots and bunches as fast mode that young people shall spend it at the as they appear, and in pinching off the ends of most critical of all periods in their lives, should bearing shoots, after enough leaves have formed, study carefully the best modes for accomplishis of great consequence. Vines left to themselves, ing so all-important an object.” even after a thorough spring pruning, soon have such a profusion of leaves and branches, that none can perfectly develop themselves, and the
We have heretofore given a portion of the fruit is consequently small, the bunches meagre,
remarks of the President at the last session of the and the ripening late. The summer pinching Pomological Society, and now proceed to give of the ends of the bearing shoots should be cau- some of the reports from the States represented tiously done, and not before the grapes are about in the convention. half
grown; four or five leaves, at least, should be left on every one, above the last bunch, and
REPORT FRON NEW HAMPSHIRE. never more than two bunches be allowed on each B. F. CUTTER said, New Hampshire, as a State, bearing fruit.
in former years, has not been celebrated for culThe old vine should never be allowed to rise a ture of fruit of any kind; but since our Scate foot from the ground—the lower it is kept, the and county Fairs have been in operation, a new easier the vine will be managed, and the freer it era has commenced in the business, and an immay be kept from suckers. Some of the best petus given to it that, in some places, almost cultivators bury the old stump beneath the soil. amounts to a mania. Information is sought for,
The preceding will, we hope, fully answer all and orchards, containing the most choice collecthe inquiries of our correspondent, and prove tions, are being set in the most approved manner, useful to beginners generally. We are not aware that in a few years will work an entire revolution of any experiments in root-grafting the grape in the business. The nursery business remains out of ground—its success can only be proved by good, and the nursery-men are becoming more actual trial,
experienced, and paying more attention to making
choice collections of fruit; yet we have many GROUNDS ABOUT THE HOUSE.
varieties of fruit cultivated of a local character,
and many of them entirely worthless, which There is probably no other way in which the makes one of the most serious drawbacks in fruit homestead may be beautified, and even made prof-culture. itable, than by expending every year a little money and labor in laying out and planting with fruit
C. Goodricu said, the Northern Spy has not trees, shrubbery and shade trees, a space propor- and good grower, but a very shy bearer. Old
yet answered our expectations. It is a hardy tioned to the size and style of the buildings, and bearing trees, grafted in 1846, have yet produced immediately about them. Shade in summer, pro- little fruit; while in the same orchard, and like tection from storms and winds in the winter, and trees as those grafted at the same time with the wholesome fruits, may be obtained, together with Baldwin, cut from bearing trees in Cambridge, that constant idea of the beautiful which such have continued to do so in alternate years, at the
Mass., produced full crops the fourth season, and such an arrangement would present. Below are same time making a large growth. The Gravensome remarks to the point, which we copy from stein sustains its high character; fair, very hardy, the Country Gentleman :
good grower and bearer, and in every respect' I
must mark it best. “There is nothing in practical life, in a knowledge of which our countrymen are more deficient,
REPORT EROM CONNECTICUT. than in laying out and properly planting and The committee reported that the early part of cultivating the grounds around their dwellings. the season of 1853 was made remarkable by the Very often they are not laid out nor planted at appearance of the Palmer worm, so called, in all, but are left in a state of primitive bleakness, great numbers, which destroyed the foliage of or only Ornamented by objects of consusion and apple trees, as well as that of some others, and,
REPORT FROM VERMONT.
REPORT FRON NEW YORK.
of course, injured the fruit more or less. This Trees ; Waste of Manures, Muck, Hops ; Worms insect eats the leaves as voraciously as the canker- in Cornstalks; Draining, two articles ; Hard Times, worm, and at about the same season, viz., June. and price of Labor; Turnips for Pigs ; Profits of They did not appear again this year. Very much fruit, it is believed, was destroyed
Farming; Bethel (Me.) Farmers' Club; Short this year by a severe frost that occurred on the Horn Cattle; Inquiries about Hops, and several first Sunday night in May, the effects of which articles in relation to the Basket Willow. In rewere more noticed than the cause ; which fact gard to the latter articles, if we find anything in can only be accounted for by the habit people them that we have not already given, we shall be have, in these parts, of lying late Sunday mornings. The morning was bright and clear, and glad to publish it. the ground where it had been broken up, frozen
Now is the time to write. Soon the fields will hard enough to bear up a man of common size. invite the farmer to their care, when the pen will Plum trecs, cherry, and perhaps some others, be resigned for the plow. If your communicawere in profuse bloom at the time, but failed tions are sent us, we will see that they are prealmost entirely of producing fruit. Apple and pear buds generally were also much injured. sented to the world in.good season and in good One fact, in this connection, is worthy of notice : form. many pear trees, on quince roots, were at this time entirely killed, as appeared afterwards, while
For the New England Farmer. those on their own roots were not injured beyond the destruction of fruit. About one dozen vigor
THINNING FORESTS. ous looking trees were killed in my own garden, MR. EDITOR :- In your January number of the many of them having borne fruit several seasons ; monthly you have an article on "Thinning Forshowing very conclusively that pear trees, on est Trees.” The subject is one of vast imporquince roots, are liable to a calamity which tance to the future interests of New England. those, on their own roots, are not. The trees, in The writer of that article says, "The question is this instance, were forward, the buds nearly often asked whether woodlots should be thinned? ready to open, and the sap, of course, in free He is convinced, after no limited reflection and obcirculation, making it most probable that the servation, that they should not.” Perhaps I do sap vessels were destroyed by freezing of the sap. not fully understand what he means by woodlots. If this be true, there is one objection to trees A woodlot of large trees is one thing, and a thick thus worked, which we have not seen noticed. young growth of trees, intended for a wood, and
timber lot, is another. That the last-named may Mr. John B. Eaton said—Fruit culture in the vinced, after no limited reflection and observa
be advantageously thinned out, I am now convicinity has rapidly advanced within the past ten tion, tested by more than twenty years' experiyears. Up to that period it had attracted comparatively little attention, and (except in the nurseries) the varieties cultivated were few, and ning out a young growth, if it be ever so thickly
I am aware that many farmers object to thinmany of them such as would now be considered set with trees. Their doctrine is nature will worthless. The apple was almost the only fruit perform this operation better than man can. But I cultivated for market, except a few of the most
the author of an able work on forest trees, common pears and cherries. There were several (Richard S. Fay, Esq., Essex County Transacpretty large apple orchards, composed chiefly of tions, 1848, lo cultivate a wood plantation Rhode Island Greenings, Spitzenburg, the various successfully, requires the same degree of care and Russets, and a few others, which, at that time, attention in thinning out, as an onion, carrot or comprised the bulk of the varieties under culti- beet bed. If the trees are left to struggle with vation. Many thousands of trees have since been die, while the victors will suffer severely from the
each other for the mastery, the vanquished will planted, and nearly all the finest apples, pears, effects of the struggle.” “The object to be atcherries, plums, etc., have fruited. The smaller tained by thinning, is so to regulate the distance fruits have also largely increased, both in number of the plants, that they will not interfere with of varieties and quantity. The strawberry, in each other's growth ; and for this purpose it is particular, has of late received much attention, necessary that each plant has sufficient space of and a considerable extent of land is devoted to its ground and air, for the spread of its roots and cultivation.
branches, proportionate to its size at any stage of
its growth. To accomplish this properly, reTO CORRESPONDENTS.
quires constant attention. It is highly injurious Communications have recently been received up to thin so much at one time as to have the trees on the following subjects, which we shall insert as remaining exposed to a greatly increased degree
of heat and cold; it is like suddenly removing the we can make room for them, viz. :-Plows and
plantation a few degrees farther north or south. Stones ; Articles in Season; Springs—Live and So it is equally injudicious to allow the plants to Dead Weight of Beef Cattle ; Stone for Building ; become crowded and interlaced, as thereby they Shaping Cattle Horns ; A New Building Material ; exclude too much the light and air, and serve to Plows and Plowing ; Gas Lime ; Profit of Hens ;
weaken each other. In rearing a plantation for • Propagating Apple Trees ; Quinces, China Peach, to have a space between each tree equal to one
timber, the approved rule for hard wood trees is, Pear Trees, Strawberries; Mixing Varieties of half its height; and for resinous trees, a space Corn; Lunar Influence, No. 2; Raising Apple equal to one-third the height; this should be
THE NEW ROCHELLE BLACKBERRY.
kept in view from the moment the thinnings com- EXTRACTS AND REPLIES.
The period when these thinnings should begin, must depend on the forwardness of the
DEAR SIR :-Will you be so kind as to inform
me from what paper a young man, intending to In Germany, the management of wood and tim
go West, can obtain the best information relative ber trees is under the direction of educated and to farming in the Northern, Western States, or competent government agents. In making new Minnesota Territory. By so doing, you will plantations there from seeds, broadcast sowing is much oblige a constant reader of the New Engfound the better method ; the plants being allowed land Farmer. to grow, all together, a dozen or twenty years ;
Salem, Feb., 1855. when the weaker and poorer ones are removed ; leaving the best and straightest to grow; always · REMARKS.—We have directed two or three careful, however, to leave enough to keep the Western agricultural papers to “C., Salem, Ms.” ground thoroughly shaded. The thinning and Why do so many people withhold their names trimming employ hundreds of the peasantry when when they write us ? other labor is in less demand. The limbs and twigs are made into faggots, and chiefly used by bakers; the trunks and larger branches are saved
EDITOR N. E. FARMER :- I notice some remarks for fuel and other purposes.
in the January number of the N. E. Farmer, in About twenty-five years ago I came into posses, regard to the price of the New Rochelle Blackberry. sion of several acres of“'pine plain land,” covered the price at which they are sold is by no means with a thick growth of white-yellow and Norway extravagant, as they are only propagated by pines ; the trees were then about twenty-five years shoots from the roots, which, all must be aware, from the seed. (The land was burned over in a is a slow process. The only two persons who very dry time about the year 1800.) Immediate- raise them for sale, Mr. LAWTON, of New Roly after I came into possession I thinned out the chelle, and Geo. Seymour & Co., of Norwalk, Ct.growth on about two acres, removing more than are trying to raise for their own transplanting ; half the number of trees, they being the smaller for, after the first or second years' transplanting, portion. The wood thinned out much more than they will raise more than a dollars' worth of paying the expense of thinning and drawing. fruit, and the demand for the fruit is greater Soon after, I sold the land, since which nothing than the supply, and will be for years to come. has been done to it. I have, with the present I exhibited last season, in New Haven, from owner, recently examined the lot; we were of the Messrs. Geo. Seymour & Co., at our Horticultural opinion that the portion thinned some twenty- Exhibition, very fine specimens.
One of the five years ago, is now, from the superior size of berries measured four by three and a half inches the trees worth 33 per cent. more per acre, than in circumference, the size of a pullet's egg. Some that portion left to itself. Can any one doubt, of the specimens were taken from a plant in a that the limbs and tops of the removed trees, and Mr. Suita's private garden in Norwalk. I think the decaying stumps and roots of those cut out, it had been planted out three or four years, and with a free access of sunlight and air, has not should judge it had on it nearer one-half a bushel very much increased the growth where thinned than a peck of berries ; so that a dollar a plant out, over those "left to struggle, from the excess cannot be a very great price under these circumof numbers, for the mastery, many of the van- stances.
F. TROWBRIDGE. quished have died, while the victors have suffered
New Haven, Ct. severely from the effects of the struggle." I sold the land for ten dollars per acre, the present owner has recently refused one hundred dollars per acre for it. Had he judiciously thinned out the of all papers for the farmer, a chapter on millet?
Will you give us, in the columns of your best trees from the time he purchased it, till now, he will it do well on cold, clayey land ? (a.) Can it be might have (without injury to its present worth,) sown like oats, in laying down ground to grass? (6.) taken from it enough to have paid the interest on If not, what is the proper course, and what is his purchase and taxes. I have thinned out the growth of hard wood trees with results similar to
considered a fair yield ? Any other information the above described.
on the subject would be thankfully received. Raynham, Feb., 1855.
SUBSCRIBER. Warner, N. H., Feb. 6, 1865.
REMARKS.—(a.) Millet will grow well on such REMARKS.—It is pleasant to observe how old
land as you describe, if it is well-drained and ma
nured. notions are gradually yielding to a better knowledge of the modes of rearing many crops. From
(6.) It is too rank and heavy a crop to set boyhood, the cry has been familiar to our ears
See Vol. V., New England Farmer, p. 157, 203. “forests must not be thinned, nature will take care of them"-"evergreens will be ruined by thinning." Twelve years ago we saw a forest of Mr. Editor :- I wish to inquire, through your white pines thoroughly thinned and pruned, and columns, if you, or any of your subscribers, have we have seldom seen a finer growth on any for- had any experience in cultivating the above est than on that. Mr. Bartlett will please ac- will remain in the ground and germinate in after
named grain? If so, whether the secd or root cept our thanks for his valuable article.
New Haven, Vt., Jan. 30, 1855.
L. W. 8.
MANURE FOR THE GARDEN.
TURNIPS FOR PIGS.
A BIG TURKEY.
FOUR-ROWED BARLEY-GUANO PER ACRE-OSIER
Those planted on the hen-manure and muck, did SIR :-I am the owner of a house and a half not produce quite one-half as much as the same acre of land, and keep one horse, and wish to number of hills on muck alone.
West Poland, Me., 1855.
T. TENNEY. know of the best way to prepare the manure for the land. Shall I mix the two together, adding ashes, or lime, or salt? I keep no pig, but throw the manure into the poultry yard. Ought the Mr. EDITOR: - Having heard that pigs would vines or trash from the garden to be thrown on to thrive well on turnips, I thought I would try my the manure? How long before the compost would skill in the use of them, especially as oats and be fit to use.
other grains were high. I fed several, last fall, I had a good garden last year-nothing suffered entirely on turnips, for two weeks, together with from the drought, although my land is elevated. the slops from the house, and then as long on I want a better garden next year, if possible- oats. With oats at 50 cts., and turnips at 12 or therefore, the reason of asking the above ques- 15 cts. per bushel, I became satisfied that the turtións, and by answering them you will oblige a nips would produce a larger growth than an equal
CONSTANT READER. cost for oats. Medford, Jan. 19, 1855.
Canaan, Vt., 1855. REMARKS.-In the autumn, gather all the vines, leaves, and every kind of vegetable matter that will ferment and decompose readily, and place it weighs thirty-one pounds.
I have a turkey seventeen months old, that
If you think he is where the horse manure may be conveniently worth a notice, please give him some spare corthrown over it. If this, with the daily additions ner.
A SUBSCRIBER. from the stable, can be kept from freezing, it will January 23, 1855. be better. In the course of the winter throw it REMARKS. A turkey of that size deserves a over and mingle the whole intimately. If, in the more conspicuous place than a corner; we should spring, the mass is too crude and coarse for use, be happy to place him or the centre of our dinnerthrow it up lightly, wet it, and when the process table, and pay him most respectful attention, for of fermentation has gone so far as to cause the at least the space of thirty minutes. whole to fall to pieces on overhauling it, you will find it in a convenient and profitable state for the garden.
Mr. Editor :- I would like to inquire where I Another source of collecting and preserving can procure some four-rowed barley, and the rich and valuable materials, may be this :—In price per bushel? (a.) What is the proper quanthe garden, and near the back door of the house, tity of guano per acre to put in a hill for make a bed of the loam you speak of.
Let it be corn? (6.) Is there as much difference in value
between the Peruvian and Mexican, as there is in of any size or shape you please, and six to twelve
the price ? (c.) Will the osier willows be large inches deep; then raise the edges eight or ten enough to cut every year, after they once get inches, and upon this throw the waste water of rooted? (d.)
A Young FARMER. the house through the winter; then, as soon as
Kensington, N. H. the muck is thawed in the spring, add the collections of any of the back buildings, and mingle the seed stores, price $1.50 per bushel.
REMARKS.-(a.) The barley may be obtained at the whole thoroughly once or twice before it is
(6.) Three hundred pounds is the usual quantime to apply it to the garden. In this you will
tity. find your garden answering your most sanguine
(c.) We do not know-you must satisfy yourexpectations.
self by experiments. Ashes, lime and salt, may be sown broadcast upon the garden with as favorable results as ap- derstand that it grows sufficiently to be cut an
(d.) We have never raised the osier, but unplied in any other way. If sorrel abounds in the
nually. garden, be liberal with the lime-note the effect and tell us what it is.
We cannot see that we should benefit any one
by publishing the communication of "E. F. R.” Mr. Editor :-Last spring, coming accidentally on this subject. We cannot oblige our neighbors into possession of two barrels of potatoes, of a to fulfil their promises to others. variety unknown to me, I cut them into 75 pieces, 11 eyes to a piece, and planted one piece to a hill, putting a shovel full of raw muck, dug the Having much confidence in your opinions, 1 August previous, to a hill, into 60 hills, and into wish to inquire what particular treatment pear the other 15 I put hen manure and muck, mixed
trees require ? equally one quart to a hill. They were well watered with the drainage of the sink, caught
Franklin, N. H., 1855. in a tub and applied at night. The whole pro
REMARKS.—Pear trees require a rich soil, kept duced 60 barrels of fair, good-sized potatoes. cultivated, so that it will be light and friable.
TREATMENT OF PEAR TREES.
For the New England Farmer. I see, by an advertisement in your paper, that THE CONCORD GRAPE,
the price has been reduced from five to three dolThis new seedling grape has been much ex
lars the single plant, and twenty-four dollars per tolled in the agricultural and horticultural dozen. If Mr. B. can afford to do so, I am glad ; journals of the country. How justly it merits but I should hardly think his prices remunerawhat has been said in its praise, there are, of tive, considering all the labor, trouble and excourse, various opinions. This is to be expected pense he has incurred in its procuration and of every new thing that comes up. Too many
propagation. At any rate, whether he is remupeople are habitually prone, by nature, or other perated or not, he will have the happiness of wise, to use other people's judgment and reason, knowing that he has done his country much valinstead of their own.
uable service, Such seldom know what to love or prize till some friend or neighbor tells
Now, Mr. Editor, let me assure you that I nevthem. So, oftentimes, new, useful and valuable er enjoyed a seat upon any cushioned mahogany improvements pass unheeded by them. So it is, half so much as a seat upon the ground under and so we may expect it to be. Well, be it so.
one of Mr. B.'s vines loaded with ripe, luscious It is well enough to be duly conservative ; but grapes. Here one might be tempted to break the one should be sufficiently careful not to lose too commandments if anywhere. To while away an much by the means, as I fear very many will in hour here of a pleasant day in September-eat the matter of the Concord Grape.
grapes and chat with Mr. Bull, of the wonderful One of your correspondents, I see, thinks it and beautiful phenoinena of the vegetable kingwill take ten or fifteen years to establish the
dom. One never gets a more realizing sense of utation or value of this grape. Well, let him wait the feelings of father Adam when leaving his that time, with his place prepared," before he vines and fruit trees, than comes when retiring
from such a feast. procures one, and see how much he will gain by it I do not believe any such length of time is required
Now every one who has a house and garden, to test its value. 'I believe it has already been can have just such vines to sit under, just such sufficiently tested. As good judges as are to be fruit to eat, and such a place for meditation. found in such matters who have watched its Such things are good preachers, and better teach. progress year by year, and side by side with the ers of
Divine revelations to our physical and spirIsabella and Diana, are sufficienily convinced of
itual bodies than many great-salaried theologians, its great superiority. I have watched this grape
for they root the relics of mythology and barbarwith much interest for some years. I know of
ism out of us much faster. They are also grand its delicious favor, its hardiñood, its vigorous physicians to the physical and spiritual man, for growth and early fruitage. I have eaten freely they purify the stomach and the blood, and thus of the fruit of the vine, and have tasted the wine bring the soul to light and liberty. I can easily made thereof, and am free to confess that I would imagine why Mr. Bull is a happier man than the willingly subscribe to and sanction the most President, or any other man who recommends laudatory article that has ever been written in its people to conquer their prejudices” against slafavor. I have read what has been written pro very, to gain the "White" or any other house. and con about this grape. Some articles have
Now let me say to any one who may by any been true, just and honest; others have been any
means have been induced to discredit my report, thing but such—more of unhealthy disposition go, as I have done, and see for yourself. I can than of truth in them, and may be a little of assure such they will not go away empty or diswhat might go by a much worse name. But these appointed. and the motives may be little minded. Self-in
Billerica, Feb. 12, 1855. terest gives people, sometimes, strong prejudices, and makes them appear dishonest and ungentle- SIXTH LEGISLATIVE AGRICULTURAL manly. Yet such manifestations will have no
MEETING bad effect upon any who know the grape or its Reported for the New England Farmer, originator.
Aside from all its worth as a first-rate table grape, it would be difficult to rate its value mere
The sixth agricultural meeting of the season was ly as a wine grape for New England. A more
held at the State House, on Tuesday evening last. delicious wine thân comes of it, I certainly nev- Hon. E. A. HILDRETH, of Groton, Senator for er tasted, or wish to taste ; and take it altogether, Middlesex county, presided, and made some init will be a difficult matter to produce another teresting remarks in regard to the general subject grape combining so many good qualities. In 80 saying, I know I speak the minds of the best
of agriculture. In the course of his remarks, he judges of its merits. So I am sure it will prove.
referred particularly to the investments in railI write this article of my own free will; ungv- roads, which the farmers of Massachusetts made licited and unbeknown to Mr. Bull.' Mr. B. is a few years ago, and the losses which they had a truthful and very worthy gentleman, one who sustained by the transaction. The farmers of speaking thus laudatory of the Concord Grape. Vermont and New Hampshire, however, have I'do it because I know that thereby I do a good reaped substantial benefit from the expenditure, work for any one I may thus induce to purchase which he could not help noticing in a recent visit and grow it. There are many luxuries that may to Vermont, where every town along the lines of well and profitably be dispensed with; but the railroad has a miniature Faneuil Hall market, Concord Grape is not one of them. It is an indispensable article. Whosoever tries it fairly,
and prices range almost as high as in Boston. will agree with me, I am sure.
He concluded by expressing the hope that the
BY WILLIAM W. HILL.