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J. F. C. H.
the roots and earth could be taken up with the this is but one among the many such books that tree; but this could seldom be done in this vi- have been given to the public from time to time, cinity. Hence the practice of heading in, that by the same enterprising publisher, C. M. Saxis, of cutting off a portion from the extremities ton, of New York, who has become not a little of all the principal branches, which would pre- noted as a publisher of agricultural and scientific vent that violent shock to the tree, and cause it works. In closing, let me advise all your readto put forth new and healthy shoots, and give a ers to purchase a copy, and I assure you and symmetrical form to the tree, was recommended them, that they will find their money has been as the better course.
well expended. Other remarks were made, by different mem- Newton Centre, Feb. 14, 1855. bers, on these and other topics, which will give your readers an idea of what we are doing, and how we do it. The result of last year's opera
For the New England Farmer. tions has been to cause more fruit trees to be RAISING APPLE TREES. transplanted than in all the previous history of MR. EDITOR :—Observing in the January numthe town.
ber of the New England Farmer an article under As the ideas advanced here are new to us, per- the head, “How long it takes to get Apples," I haps they may need modifying or confirming by am induced to send you the results of my own those of your readers who have had more experi- experiments. ence than a two year old society.
In the fall of 1845 I planted with my own Bethel, Me., Jan. 24, 1855. N. T. TRUE.
hand some pomace. The next spring the seeds REMARKS.—These are the plans of operation grown to such a size, that with the exception of
came up finely, and by the last of August had which are preparing the way for higher modes of one, I budded the whole of them. That one was culture, and for more thorough means of instruc- so large in its growth, so smooth, so straight, its tion, both in the theory and practice of agri- duce a good natural fruit. The buds did well
, leaf so handsome, that I was sure it would proculture. Success to your noble enterprize.
the trees the next season grew nobly, and in four
years from the bud I began to have fruit. Last For the New England Farmer. year a good many of the trees, which were transA GOOD BOOK.
planted when three years old, bore finely. In
transplanting them I took pains to have large and Mr. Editor :--Though this is emphatically a deep holes, which I filled with compost and good book-making and reading age, when books are soil'; so that at this time, the trees have attained published and sold, not by thousands, but by hun- a size and thrifty appearance which makes my dreds of thousands, yet it is equally true, that young orchard one of the best I have ever seen of the great majority of books that come from the its age. fertile and swiftly-flying, presses, are not fit to be I had the opinion formerly that it was the read; and it is refreshing to find a new work work of a life to get an orchard from the seed, that we can with truth call good. Such I believe but I have found out to the contrary, and as there the “American Muck Book," by Dr. J. Browne, is great pleasure in rearing our own trees, I would to be. It is one of the best of the kind, (and the recommend to every one who has opportunity to kind is good,) I have ever seen ; it is written in make the trial, at least on a small scale. such a style that he who runs-if he reads—may In regard to the one tree I left unbudded, it understand; and evidently by one who is au fait proved, as I expected, a good fruit, fair, of suffiof all matters purtaining to agricultur 1 chemis- cient size, ripening late in the fall. try. Every topic is treated in a clear and concise In the whole I raised several hundred trees, of manner, and is worthy the attention of even that perhaps twenty varieties, so that the experiment class of farmers, who are apt to speak disparag- was sufficiently extensive to test its success. ingly of books. This one ought to be in the
AYASA WALKER. hands of every person who owns or cultivates a N. Brookfield, Jan. 29, 1855. . rod of land. It is calculated to do a great deal towards removing the prejudice that has existed
P.S.-According to my own observation, apple against sucly books on account of being filled with trees should be transplanted within three or four unpractical" matter, written in a strictly tech- years from the sced. If they are allowed to stand nical style. And here let me quote a few lines longer, they sustain more injury from removal. froin the author's preface. “The design of the
I suppose I shall not be misunderstood as reA XERICAN Muck Book, then, is not to present
commending the planting of seeds as the quickest pothesis in agriculture ; but to collect, arrange; trees produce in quantity according to their age, any, novel or hitherto unheard-of theory or hy- way of getting a productive orchard, Every one
must be aware that, other things being equal, and condense what men of experience and sound
and if trees are set out seven or ten years old, judgment, both of ancient and modern times, have already written upon the subject, embodied they will produce a larger quantity of apples in a in a simplified form, together with such facts and given time than could be got from the seed. observations as have come directly under the notice of the author, and such as may safely be Cutting Roots FOR SHEEP.— A correspondent recommended for general practice, treated of at of the Mark Lane Express says :-“It is a matter the same time in such a manner as shall come of impossibility for young sheep to eat the turnips within the comprehension of the working far- without being out. I am certain that they will mer' who may have formed comparatively but not thrive so quickly, and I consider that one little acquaintance with chemical science.” And part out of three is lost. There is this difference in cutting turnips and not cutting them : Suppose you put 100 sheep on turnips not cut and one pound of oil-cake; they will not do so well as 100 sheep put on turnips cut without any cake, neither will they be fit for the butcher so soon by two months. Let any one try it: they will find my remarks upon this matter quite true.”
For the New England Farmer.
BY THE "PEASANT BARD."
With furious din,
To peer within.
I see poor sufferers in distress
Their "bubbling groan,"
To depths unknown.
Is not as cold
Write, knavery bold.
The lost, the saved ?
And that a David ?
But this we know :
See what ye sow!
Anon he tries, and shakes the sashes ;
In vain he tries ;
And down he lies.
Now tossing mane,
The blast again.
And fans my fire.
His awful lyre !
At strains so dread,
For comforts fled !
Unless I know,
The smothering snow. While by the crackling hearth I stay, My thoughts go forth, and far away They follow where the mad winds play
O'er land and sea.;
Begot of Crime.
Fell source of woe,
To shades below ? When shall the poor whom Heav'n makes so, The wibw, pale with want and woe, And hungry orphans, born to know
That living 's dying, Find that the prophet-feeling crow
E'en yet is flying ?
For the New England Farmer. SHORT-HORN CATTLE. As the raising of stock, and the importance of improving our breeds of cattle, especially in New England, is beginning to attract the attention of the most intelligent farmers of our country, I think it will be interesting to the readers of your paper, to allude briefly to a particular breed of cattle, the fame of which is already too wide spread to require any notice from me. But know
ing as I do from actual experience, the real value of this stock, I think a confirmation of what has been said concerning it, will be no more than justice to the public, and to the intelligent breeder who has conferred so great a benefit upon his brother farmers.
I refer to the beautiful herd of short-horns, owned and bred by Paoli Lothrop, Esq., of South Hadley Falls, Mass. I had the į leasure of examining this stock during the past summer, and was most amply paid for my journey. Mr. L.'s herd is not large, but very select, and in my opinion, is not excelled in the two important requisites, particularly for the New England farmer, of milk and beef, by any family of Durhams in our country. In breeding, Mr. L. has paid particular attention to the milking properties of his stock, as may have been seen by the statement of the quantity of butter made by his cows at different times, which appeared a few months since, in the Boston Cultivator, and which accords entirely with my own experience. He has bred alone from animals of undoubted purity of pedigree, which can in all cases be traced back, on the side of both sire and dam, to the three first volumes of the English Herd Book.
I have bred from bulls and cows of his herd for the last ten years, and have found that a judicious cross of his balls with our best native cows resulted, invariably, in a decided improvement upon our stock. The high grade take on flesh when not in milk much more rapidly, and yield more abundantly at the pail, than the natives. We made from two three-years old heifers of this description, which calved about the first of
July last, being their first calves, in October, 14 good healthy plant in the hill sufficient, as it will lbs. of butter each per day; they were fed on produce larger squashes. When the plants be grass and bushel of roots each, per day. In Sep-gin to cover the ground, cut off all the runners tember, I sold a heifer four years old, which from the main vine except the one nearest the weighed 1080 lbs., dressed. She was į Durham, root, as these will set first and produce the best. and | native, and gave milk during the winter Not more than one or two squashes should be alprevious. This animal never ate a particle of lowed to grow on a vine. Soap suds or liquid meal after she was calf. She was fed on grass manure is good for them while growing, being alone, with the exception of a few corn stocks, careful not to apply it too strong, or on the during the excessive drought in August. She was leaves.- Country Gentleman. reared in the ordinary way, and was not an exception to our stock in general, possessing the
For the New England Farmer. same blood. Her weight on the 15th of June last, was 1200 lbs., and on the 15th of Septem
SETTING OUT FRUIT TREES. ber she weighed 1560 lbs., having gained 360 lbs. There is little difference of opinion among in three months. This cow was a granddaughter nurserymen and fruit growers in regard to cerof Mr. Lothrop's bull “North American,”. (4253) tain ini portant facts connected with the transEnglish Herd Book. A valuable acquisition has planting of trees. All agree that young trees been made to the herd of this gentleman in the should be taken up carefully, as many roots rebull “Kirkleavington” lst, (11640) which is a tru- tained as possible, and that the roots be kept ly noblo animal, possessing great vigor and fine moist until placed again in the ground. All symmetry, and will prove of great benefit to all who agree, likewise, that, in setting out the trees, avail themselves of his services. This superb ani- great care should be taken to pulverize the soil mal was sired by Duke of Wellington, (3654,) and bring it directly in contact with every porwho was out of Oxford premium. cow by Short-tion of the roots. But when it comes to the tail (2624)— his dam, Lady Barrington 3d, out of question of the proper time for transplanting Lady Barrington 2d, by Cleveland Ladd, (3407,) trees, there is some difference of opinion. One and hence to trace his pedigree one step further, nurseryman will tell you that all seed fruit his blood is
(apples, pears and quinces,) should be transShort-tail out of Duchess (32) by Belvidere (1708.)
planted in the fall, and all stone fruit (peaches, cow Oxford, out of Matchem cow by Duke of Cleveland (1937.) plums, cherries, &c.,) in the Spring. Another LadyBarrington (11) out of Lady Barrington by Belvidere 196706, will tell you that
all fruit should be transplanted ((2621.) It will then be seen that he is full in the best belief that spring is the best time. . So many cir
in the fall, and another is quite as earnest in the blood of the herd of the late Thomas Bates, of cumstances of season, of soil, of climate, and of Kirkleavington, England, as any bull in this country, except two or three whose dams were fruit trees, that these conflicting views are scarcely
subsequent treatment, enter into the culture of Duchess cows, and imported at a cost of more to be wondered at. Nevertheless, the w. iter of than five thousand dollars each. B. SUMNER. Woodstock, Ct.
this believes that the great preponderance of testimony will be found in favor of fall transplanting
for all kinds of fruit trees. No good reason has CULTIVATION OF SQUASHES.
yet been given why stone fruit should be affected John McKee, of Bristol, Vt., who raised the differently from seed fruit, by fall transplanting. large squashes mentioned in the last volume of It may be that the peach, which is scarcely hardy the Country Gentleman, page 330, has kindly enough for some of our winters, is injured some furnished us with his method of cultivation, as times by the harder freezing of the ground where follows :
it has been disturbed in the fall ; but the easy As soon as the ground is warm enough to in- remedy for this is the covering of the roots with sure quick germination, I dig, on a southern ex- a greater depth of earth than is intended shall posure, holes two feet deep, and two feet apart remain upon them, thereby shielding them from each way, excluding the bottom soil and retain the too greater severity of the frost. (a.) In ing the top. The holes should be filled within fact, it will be found much to the advantage of ten inches of the top with well-rotted hog or sta- all trees transplanted in the fall, to heap around ble manure ; the former I prefer. The holes them a mound of earth which will be sufficient should then be filled up with the top soil taken to turn off the water occasioned by melting snow, out, and be allowed to remain three or four days and to keep the wind and frost from displacing till the hills are thoroughly warmed before plant- them. ing the seed. Care should be taken to plant the It is customary with some farmers to stock seeds at the proper depth to insure their coming down their young orchards with grass the first, up-in a warm, dry soil, from two to three inches; second, or third year after the trees are set out, in a cold, wet soil from one to two inches deep. and let them take their chance with the browsing
As soon as the plants appear above the sur- of cattle in winter. Money thus invested is worse face, place four bricks, blocks of wood or a small than thrown away. Trees, especially on our old box large enough to place a pane of glass upon ; lands, will not grow with the roots bound down this will force them along rapidly, and protect under a crop of grass. (6.) The frequent stirring them from the depredations of the bugs, &c. of the soil is absolutely essential to the growth They should be watered once a day, till large and development of the tree. There are very few enough to dispense with a covering, being care- soils so poor that they will not grow fruit trees, ful not to apply cold spring water, or at a time if kept well stirred up with the plow, the cultiwhen the sun shines upon them. Morning or vator, or the hoe. In fact, those who have been evening should be set apart for this. I think one most successful in the cultivation of fruit for market, are of opinion that barn-yard manure is jured. In fact, it is better to break or disby no means requisite to the speedy growth of place a root occasionally, than to permit the soil wood fibre ; and the writer of this has grown to become hard, sod-bound, or overrun with apple and pear trees quite as fast as they ought weeds.
E. C. p. to grow on a hard and gravelly soil, with no Somerville. other manure than compost, placed in the hills of corn and potatoes planted among the trees. REMARKS.-(a.) If it can be made convenient The stirring of the earth, in hoeing the crops, to transplant peach trees in the spring, we should was much better for the trees than any possible amount of manure would have been, if left lying recommend that season. So far as our observadormant with the soil. (c.) On no account tion and practice extend, the spring has been whatever should stable manure be brought in found the most favorable. We regret our inadirect contact with the roots of trees. Its inva- bility to give a reason for this, more than the riable tendency is to canker them. nure must be used, let it be upon the surface of simple fact. the grour d, whence its juices will find their way (6.) The roots of young trees will turn away down to the roots quite as fast as is good for from grass, though it may be two or three feet them. But a better way is to dispense with distant, if on another side the land be mellow stable manure entirely, and mulch the trees,
and rich. during both summer and winter, with straw, litter from the barn-yard, potato tops, small
(c.) In our opinion, there is no mistake on the brush, or even shavings. These substances keep farm so prominent as that of neglecting to stir the ground loose, and at the same time impart to the soil sufficiently often. It is to this fact that it that constant vegetable decay, which is essen- wheat, when sown in drills and hoed, often protial to the formation of fibrous wood. Swamp duces more than double the number of bushels per muck and peat muck are also cxcellent substances to place around fruit trees, whether young or acre of that sown broadcast, and the soil not old.
touched afterward. “Stir the soil-stir the soil”— It is also important that judgment should be ought to be inscribed on the trees and gate posts exercised in the trimming of fruit trees. Some wherever the farmer goes. Why should the permit them to grow with suckers at the roots and on the limbs, and others cut and slash away
memory of Watt and Fulton be cherished more as though all a tree had to do was to grow itself than that of Jethro Tull? If the farmers of the away from the knife. Both these extremes are world would but avail themselves of his teachings to be avoided. When the tree is transplanted, and faithfully stir the soil, benefits as great would about as much should be cut from the limbs as Aow from it as have ever been conferred by steam. will correspond with the loss of roots; and the tree should be slightly trimmed from year to
(d.) We regret that our correspondent did not year thereafter, as it developes its suckers or state what season he considers the most proper superabundant wood ; but on no account should for pruning. the larger limbs be severed, unless they are in some way diseased. They may be headed in,
For the New England Farmer. if inclined to grow so as to give an awkward ap
ON PRUNING. pearance to the tree; but the severing of large limbs cannot fail to shorten life. In such matters MR. EDITOR: — The excellent remarks of Wilas these, the better way is, never to listen to the LIAM D. BROWN, in your January number, are suggestions or extravagant opinions of those whose more to the point than I have ever seen. I have knowledge is in inverse ratio to their practical ex- tried all seasons for pruning, and have come to perience, but to pursue that judicious course the conclusion that the best time to prune is imwhich every man's common sense will suggest, if mediately after gathering the fruit. he will but take the trouble to think
the or- I would trim or prune cherry trees in July; dinary rules which govern vegetable life. (d.) plum trees in September; peach trees in the fall;
In some cases trees are set out, and a few feet of quince trees in October ; apple and pear trees soil around their bodies kept in a mellow condi- when the fruit is gathered. Those that ripen tion, while the grass sward occupies the remain- early I would prune early, and those that ripen der of the field. This is wrong. It is the earth at late should be pruned in October, By so doing the extremities of the roots which needs to be we escape any injury to the bark, and there is no kept loose, that they may extend themselves in fuar of the sap oozing out, and the wounds grow every direction from the tree. In order to ascer- nearly over the first season. We also avoid cracktain the difference between these two modes of ing, which often occurs in the winter pruning. cultivation, the writer of this, last spring, pur is the best time to remove them. All trees should
Suckers can be removed at any time, but the fall chased at auction a dozen small peach trees. Half were set in ground planted with potatoes, and the be so trimmed and trained as to allow teams to other moiety in grass land, where the soil and pass under them, and also to prevent cattle from sod were only disturbed sufficiently to give place
browsing the limbs. to the trees. The former more than doubled
S. A. SHURTLEFF. their size, while the latter scarcely grew at all. It may be safely set down as a rule, that land CURE FOR Burns.—The American Agriculdevoted to fruit is in no danger of being too turist says, “Of all applications for a burn, we often or too thoroughly cultivated, provided the believe there are none equal to a simple covering roots of the trees are not broken or otherwise in- of common wheat flour. This is always at hand, and while it requires no skill in using, it pro- amount of those absorbed by the flour, the thicker duces almost astonishing effects. The moisture the protective covering. Another advantage of produced upon the surface of a slight or deep the flour covering is, that next to the surface burn, is at once absorbed by the flour, and forms it is kept moist and flexible. It can also be readily a paste which shuts out the air. As long as the washed off, without further irritation in removfluid matters.continue flowing, they are absorbed, ing. It may be occasionally washed off very careand thus prevented from producing irritation, as fully when it has become matted and dry, and a they would do if kept from passing off by oily new covering be sprinkled on." or resinous applications, while the greater the
This implement was patented July 25, 1854, ture, by bringing it into perfect and close contact by Charles A. WAKEFIELD, of Plainfield, Mass., with the soil under and around it, while the carth and the inventor says, “is designed for planting falling loosely over, cannot obstruct the coming corn, broom-corn seeds, beans, and similar seeds. up and growth of the blade. It is carried and used (as represented in the above “ The Planter is simple in construction, not liengraving) as a cane or walking-stick, requiring able to get out of repair, and weighs about seven no delay and no additional motion and effort. Is pounds, and costs the farmer only five dollars, adapted for planting in rocky and uneven ground, which price he can afford to pay, if used only for and in all kinds of soil. Is easily adjusted to planting in a common garden. With this impleplant at any desired depth, and to drop any re- ment one acre of corn can be planted in the most quired number of seeds in a hill.
perfect manner in one hour." “ The method or mode by which the seed is We have examined the implement described planted with the Planter is new, and it is believed above, with considerable cure, and have practiced possesses advantages over every other, not only in extensively with it on the carpet ; and it seems to facility of use, but in hastening germination.— us to combine the requisite qualifications for doThe seed is forced by pressure obliquely from the ing the work well. Many of our best farmers do surface of the ground to the required depth, thus not think it objectionable—but, on the contrary, ensuring the immediate absorption of the mois- favorable—to drop the kernels of corn quite close