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District of Columbia....
SHEEP AND WOOL.
about in the same proportion; for the rearing
and support of a poor sheep is as costly as of a The annexed table, showing the number of good one. But besides this, the fleeces are much sheep and rounds of wool produced in each of fner than the average of the whole country, and the States and Territories of the Union, according bring a higher price per pound. It is plain, thereto the Census of 1850, has been published in fore, why the Vermont farmers go into the busimany of the papers. We have added, in another ness so much more generally and extensively column at the right hand, the average yield of a than those of any other State. It is plain, too, sheep in each State, in pounds and hundredths : what farmers of other States must do, if they Sheep.
would reap the same profits from this business. 440,943 1,362,986 3,09 There are towns in New Hampshire,where sheop New Hampshire....... 384,656 1,108,476 2,88
of the same breeds yield the same profits; and so 919,992 3,410,993 3,70 Massachusetts. 188,651 585,136 3,10
in some other States. It is probable, however, Rhode Island.
that in this staple the Northern States will always 174,181 497,454 2,85
retain some advantage over the Southern, and .3,454,241 10,070,301 2,91 New Jersey. 160,488 375,896
2,33 the mountains over the plains.— Traveller. Pennsylvania...... .1,822,357 4,481,570 2,45
67,768 2,10 Maryland.. 177,902 480,226 2,69
For the New England Farmer.
2,82 Virginia.... ..1,311,004 2,860,765
1,76 MR. EDITOR :-I do not often turn aside to Georgia...
990,019 1,76 notice articles by correspondents for your paper; 23,311 23,247
371,800 657,118 1,76 believing that it is better, in most cases, to let Mississippi.. 304,929 659,619
every writer have his “ say.” in his own way. Louisiana .........
110,333 109,897 0,99
But in looking over the article of “ A Reader," Arkansas......
91,256 182,595 2,00 in the Farmer of November 18th, I think that Tennessee.. 811,587 1,364,378
some" ideas” offered on the " articles," or some Kentucky. ..1,070,303 2,283,685
2,13 Ohio............. ..3,937,086 10,111,288
of them, need a little explanation. On the artiMichigan.
746,435 2,043,283 2,73 cle of "Some Wants wanted by Farmers,” he Indiana.
.1,122,493 2,610,287 Illinois..
894,043 2,150,113 2,63 says, “ A pretty good article on a capital subject. 756,309 1,615,860 2,28 Want of means, want of knowledge, want of in
149,960 373,898 2,49 terest, love of business is discussed. To raise the Wisconsin..
124,892 253,963 1,03 California..
5,520 0,31 means,' a mortgage is suggested. MortgagesMinnesota Territory.....
1,06 I have learned by experience to shudder at the Oregon Territory. 15,382
mention of that word. How they sweep the Utah Territory.
9,222 New Mexico...
0,08 board to pay the interest annually,' and still
hang over the old homestead generation after gen21,571,306 52,417,287 2,42
eration—a smothering nightmare : on enterIt appears that the average is higher, by six- prise, ambition and hope.' Now what I said in tenths of a pound, in Vermont, than in any oth- a former article on this point, in substance, was er State. Massachusetts comes next, and then this. “When a young farmer has just started Maine. These are the only States where it ex- on a new place, instead of laying out all his capceeds three pounds. In New Mexico and Cali- ital in land, let him save part of it to lay out in fornia,probably the sheep are raised for mutton and farm buildings and other improvements, of course poultry, and few of them are sheared; for though owning less land, and having more ready money we find a very regular diminution in the weight to improve what he has got. But, as is now often of fleeces as we proceed southward, it is not the case in New England, when the farmer occucredible that fleeces actually sheared should av- pies the lands that his father did before him, if erage only about five ounces in California, and ready capital is wanted, and it cannot readily be only about an ounce and a quarter in New Mexi- obtained, put a mortgage on a few acres of land,
and raise the money in that way. For it is better The weight of fleeces in Vermont is not owing to pay interest money for a few years, than to go wholly to the latitude or temperature ; for if it without the means to invest in farming improvewere, New llampshire and Maine ought to yield ments,”' &c. Of course, it will be understood heavier fleeces still. It is doubtless, in part, caus- that this raising money by "mortgage,” is only ed by the quality of the pasturage, air and water to be done in extreme cases of necessity. If the of the Green Mountain range ; an advantage in farmer has a surplus of land, and can “sell” a which Massachusetts partakes. Another, and a few acres, then do su, by all means, and raise the principle cause is, the superiority of the breeds money in that way. But then, as is more often raised there. Almost all the sheep there are des- the case with poor farms, where every farmer cended from breeds carefully selected from the wants to “sell” and none wish to buy, the case best flocks in Spain ; and it has been long since becomes almost " desperate" one. Then, I say, ascertained that, with decent treatment, they do put a mortgage on a few acres at once, (that is not deteriorate in Vermont. Not improbably, if the farm is not already covered with mortgages most parts of the Alleghany range may be found for old debts,) and raise the means for future imnearly or quite as well adapted to the same breeds. provements." I think that “ A Reader"' on mort
Th fleeces in Vermont are very nearly 20 per gages makes an uncommon great “ bugbear'' out cent. heavier than those in any other State, and of very small materials, su, in reality, no one 52 per cent. heavier than the average of the whole need be scared by it. United States. The profit of wool-growing, com- I have both seen mortgages, lived by them, pared with lighter fleeces of equal fineness, is' lived with them, and lived under them, and never
have yet had a turn of the nightmare," and do mentator,” we suggest that he would give enough not intend to hereafter. Of course, every farmer of any article commented on, to enable the general can understand the difference between having reader to understand the drist of the argument on ready money and not having it; and I presume both sides of the question. In the second place, that“ A Reader," with the rest of us, would un- I would give my own ideas in a plain, straightderstand the difference" between having a few forward way, but never mind what others may, acres of our land mortgaged for money borrowed, say. I much prefer to have your own ideas," instead of having a mortgage of a few acres in our independent of other people's, on this point, after pockets ; it would make all the “ difference " in having made them stand by and abidə the issue. the world with me. What I meant to show by But to take a writer's article, pick one sentence the mortgage plan was, that where the farmer here and ridicule another idea there, is not just had bought a worn-out furm, and money was the fair thing, for in that case any writer's ideas wanted and could not be obtained readily by a might be made to appear “ ridiculous," although “sale " alone, the mortgage plan must be re- there may be no such intention on the part of the sorted to. The farmer must see that he cannot critic.
Yours truly, L. DURAND, afford to let his land lie unimproved, and that Derby, Ct., Nov., 1854. money should be had ; there should be no if nor and about it; for where there is a will to do there can be a way provided. If this be the case, then
CANKER WORMS. I am, for one, ready to stand and abide the issue. A good opportunity is now presented, in our
“ Improving soils by shade!” On this article immediate vicinity, of removing any doubts which "A Reader says : "On this theory, cellar may still be entertained as to the habits of the bottoms ought to become rich, and apple tree canker worm, that most destructive of all the inroots in grass land ought to grow all the better sects which insest our orchards and shade trees. for enjoying a shaded soil. Land covered for four The manner in which they possess themselves of years with brush two feet deep, especially such as what they devour with such voracious certainty, would decay in half that time, or even land on and the efficacy of the process of preventing their which flax is spread merely to rot, might be im- ravages by tarring the trunks of the trees, may be proved thereby from the deposit of vegetable clearly seen in some of the orchards in Brookline, matter, and the disengagement of gases conse- where the work is now going on. Our attention quent upon even partial decomposition, without was called, a few mornings ago, to a scene of this giving any credit at all to shade. Though I kind, which almost beggars description. The have little faith that shade will ever be lugged up ground around the trunks of the trees, within a and sold at • fifty dollars a ton’ as a fertilizer," circle of two or three feet in diameter, was literal&c. Very well : now I ask "A Reader," with ly covered with the insects which had fallen in a the readers of the Farmer, to turn to the weekly vain struggle to overcome the tarred barrier by Farmer of Sept. 30, or the monthly Farmer for which the trees were surrounded. Millions of the November 2, and give my article a fair reading spoilers were writhing in the agonies of despair on“ Shade," read your own “comments,' and and death. The mass of the invading army were
you think it a just and fair “ criti- wingless females, who can only ascend by creepcism." What I meant to show was, that “waste ing up the trunk. Here and there a flying male lands” could be improved in the shortest manner was caught in the meshes set for his more helpless by growing trees, and that there was a principle companions. The trees of this orchard, and ininvolved by growing trees, which rendered the deed of a wide belt of country running through soil more or less productive. Has “A Reader” Cambridge and Brookline, including many noble proved, or attempted to prove, any thing to the elms and other shade trees, were last summer and contrary? He has simply glided over it by say- the summer previous, completely stripped of their ing, if shade improves soils, then “ cellar bot- foliage and fruit by these greedy worms, and retoms” ought to grow rich, and that land that duced to withered shreds, looking as if they had was covered with brush two feet deep for three or been scorched by fire. four years, might be improved by the partial de These destructive insects have been fully decomposition of the brush and the retention of scribed, and the remedies against their ravages gases, giving the shade theory” the go by, pointed out by Prof. Peck, in the papers of the which is all very well.
Massachusetts Agricultural Society, and by Dr. What I stated in my article on “shade,” &c., Harris, in a treatise on insects injurious to vegewas, in substance, that a pile of rails or boards, tation, published by order of our Legislature. laying upon the ground for a year or two, the Our farmers, however, either from faithlessness soil under the pile would be greatly improved by in the prescribed remedies, or shrinking from the it. I do not stop to say whether this is done by laborious care and watchfulness involved in the decomposition, gases, or anti-gases ; I only say application of them, have hitherto very much negthat such is the fact, as every observing farmer lected what they must now be satisfied would have knows. Has “ A Reader” offered, or proved any been a wise and perhaps wholly effectual precauthing to the contrary? My own idea is, that the ion. A single orchard in this vicinity, which ingreatest amount of improvement to the soil under good seasons has produced from a thousand to fifa pile of brush, boards, or rails, comes from pro- teen hundred barrels of the best apples, has for tection to the soil from hot suns and washing two or three years past been reduced, by these rains. I may, however, be all wrong in this, or merciless marauders, to a perfectly barren wilderI again may be right.
A word or two more and I am done. As "A The canker-worms complete their devastation Reader” has (he does not see fit to give us his about the middle of June, when they descend and name,) taken the responsible position of “com-l burrow in the earth to the depth of from three to
six inches, and undergo their transformation into whole of it, such was the state of cultivation it chrysalids. It has been generally supposed that was in. It was all in mowing at the time, erthey come out of the ground only in the spring: cept one-eighth of an acre that I sowed oats on, but it is now known that they begin to make their and they were so small that a good stout grassappearance in the autumn; and in mild winters hopper could eat the heads off by standing tiptoe. they continue to emerge from their cells during Circumstances prevented me from making much every month from October to March. The occur- improvement on it until 1849 or '50, and now for rence of mild weather after a severe frost, like the result of the past dry season : that which has just been experienced, stimulates 24 tons hay, at $8 per. ton...
.20,00 some of them to burst their chrysalis skins and 12 bushels corn, at 80 cents per bush.. come forth to commence their instinctive prepara
2 loads pumpkins. tions for another summer's campaign. They come 21 bush. potatoes, 30c....
.6,30 out of the ground chiefly in the night. The
2 bush. beans, 9sc...
.3,00 38 bush. carrots, 30c......
...11,40 males, it is said, are more abundant in the spring. 32 bush. turnips, 20c...
.........6,40 The sluggish females make their way to the 10 bush. graft apples, 500
.......5,00 nearest tree, followed by the winged and active
Growth of 110 standard apple, plum, cherry and males, who futter about and accompany them in pear trees, 10c each,.
..14,00 their ascent, during which the insects pair. Soon
Growth 250 nursery trees, 20 year, 5c each.. .12,50 after this the females lay their eggs upon the
1st year, 3c each. .33,00 1000 seedlings, dc each...
...5,00 branches of the trees, placing them on their ends,
Total....... close together in rows, forming clusters perhaps
.133,20 of a hundred eggs, which is the number usually
Perhaps some may think it is impossible to have laid by each female. The eggs are glued to each so much on so small a surface. I would just say other and to the bark by a sort of varnish, which is that my beans and carrots grew amongst the nurimpervious to water. Having thus provided for a sery, trees, and the most of the turnips amongst succession of their devastating reign, they lan- the potatoes. On one small patch I raised a guish and die. The eggs are hatched in May, good crop of green peas, potatoes and turnips ; about the time that the leaves of the apple tree the peas were planted in the hills with the potabegin to start from the bud, and the worms gath-toes, and the turnips set both ways between the er upon the tender leaves and live and grow up-hills, getting three good crops on the same land on the growing foliage. They leave off eating in the same season, and neither crop appeared to when about four weeks old, by which time they injure the other—at least they all did well. have generally made clean work of the luxurious Now if this will stimulate any other two-acre feast which nature, through the farmer's neglect, farmer to do the like out of nothing, I have my has provided for them.
Truly yours, The methods for preventing the ravages of the Νου. 13, 1854. caoker-worm, which have been tried and found more or less efficacious, are: to apply tar or oil around the body of the tree, either directly upon simple and inexpensive, for preserving of autumn
WINTERING CABBAGE PLANTS.-Any method the bark or over a belt of clay mortar, or on a strip of canvass or strong paper ; to nail boards sown cabbage plants through the winter, is a valtogether around the base of the tree, smearing adopted for the great bulk of people, than the
uable consideration. We know of none better them out-side with tar : to place circular trough following, practiced to a considerable extent by or a belt of cloth smeared with melted India rub- market gardeners, and in dry, sandy or upland ber, &c. Either of these remedies is attended soil, with good success. with considerable trouble, for the tar or whatever
Towards the end of October, prepare some rich is applied to arrest the progress of the insects, well-dug ground; drew some deep drills eighmust be renewed and kept fresh as long as they
teen inches apart, and plant the cabbage one foot continue to rise. Sprinkling the trees to destroy apart in these, on the sunny side of the drills, so the worms when first hatched, has been practised that the plants may have all the benefit of the with some success ; but this method is trouble- sun in the fall before severe frost, and in early some, expensive, and uncertain. It has also been spring. When the frost sets in fairly, place some recommended to dig around the trees after the straw, or other light material crossways of the worms have descended to the ground, and remove off during winter, which is the great point to be
rows, which will effectually keep the sun's rays the soil. But the application of tar is probably attended to. At the approach of spring, remove the most economical and efficacious mode of, wag. the covering, and as the plants grow, draw a liting war upon this annoying enemy.-- Traveller.
tle of the soil to their stems.
If they stand the winter well, they will be in For the New England Farmer. advance of those planted in the spring. The A TWO-ACRE FARM.
strongest of the plants from the sowing made last Mr. Editor :—The article recently in the Far- month, should be selected, while those weaker will "mer, giving an account of a "one acre farın," do to winter as recommended in a previous paper.. has led me to think I might possibly make a state-|-E. S., in Country Gent. ment of facts that would be valuable, and I forward the same to you, hoping you will use it just. DeADENING TIMBER.—When the bark slips freeas it deserves.
ly in June, July or August, it is the best time to Nine years ago last spring I came into pos- girdle trees. Cut the small growth three feet session of a two-acre farm, and at that time it above the ground ; the roots do not sprout, and was barely possible to get one ton of hay from the the stumps are more easily removed.
GALE'S STRAW CUTTER.
The machine is for sale at different prices, acThe improvements in agricultural implements cording to size, at the agricultural warehouse of --although very great within the last ten or fif. Nourse & Co., 9 & 13 Commercial Street, Bosteen years—will not exclude still further changes. ton. The inventive genius of our people will not be
We again urge upon our friends, those who idle, so long as the agricultural interest demands have but a single horse or cow to winter, the more help from the inventor and the mechanic. economy of cutting the fodder which they are There are implements still wanted, which would to consume. Hay is worth $22 to $24 per ton not only save a vast amount of human toil, but pay in the cities, and from $16 to $20 in the country thousands of times over, in the saving of seeds, towns, and the crop may be made vastly more or in the aggregate of crops.
serviceable by being cut. Among the recent improvements on a valuable The engraving, and the following description, machine, which has been many years in use, is will give the reader a pretty good idea of the one represented in the cut at the head of this ar-construction of the machine. ticle. In order to test its capabilities, we have On the 12th day of September last, a patent used it with all sorts of fodder usually found in was granted to Mr. Warren Gale, late of Troy, the barn of the farmer,--hay, straw, corn stalks New York, for the improvement in straw cutters and the butts and husks,-and with them all it represented in the annexed engraving. The performs the desired work with great rapidity nature of the invention relates to the knife (or and ease to the person using it. Combined with knives) of the cutting cylinder, so that it shall these good qualities, it is so simple in its arrange-cut against a flange (or flanges) on the opposite ment and construction that the farmer himself cylinder. The frame of the machine is like that of will be able in most cases to repair any injury common straw cutters; the shaft of the cutting either by accident or the natural wear by use. cylinder is driven by a crank handle, and has a
cog wheel on it, gearing into another above, giv- Passing the Delaware at Trenton into Pennsyl ing motion to the cylinder against which the vania, all the way to Philadelphia, nature and knife cuts the straw. The cutter is attached to a
art seemed to have combined to display to the Aange by setting screws passing through slots to landscape sceneries which would convert melan
traveller a view, as he went along, of one of the make it adjustable. The flange projection on the choly into enthusiasm. The little groves, garupper cylinder, is provided with a piece of raw dens, and shade trees, at that season, during the hide, against which the knife cuts, so as to pro- hottest of our summer weather, appeared like tect the edge of the latter. Tho raw-bide (or be better suited to the weather ; they appeared
the elysian fields of the poets ; no aspect could piece of leather) is secured to the lange by set
as though they had been swept and garnished. screws, and it can be adjusted, or forced down to Copes' garden, with its five hundred varieties of wards the knife, by a screw passing down through the cactus, attracted numerous visitors, many of the cylinder ; a slot is therefore cut in the raw-bide them going away in wonder at the ingenuity, exto allow the fastening screws to pass through, while pense of money and labor bestowed upon it, for its upper end is pressed by the top screw.
the gratification of fancy and to please the eye.
If New England farmers had set out shade trees knife in this machine requires only to be adjusted twenty years ago to ornament their door yards, to cut against its opposing projection, or rotating side-walks, and streets, their property at the table. As the knife and the projecting piece ro- present day would be estimated at nearly double tate, they grasp the straw, draw it forward, and its présent value. It is surprising to see the incut it through by a pincing cut, when they come
Auence such ornamental and refreshing shade
trees have upon the man of property and refined opposite one another.
taste, who wishes to purchase a farm, or country
residence. It is never too late to do good, and if For the New England Farmer. farmers would now go into the work of setting A JOURNEY, CANKER-WORMS, &c. out ornamental shade trees as in the suburbs of
Philadelphia, or in some parts of our own State, In the month of August, 1854, I made an ex- in a short time they would realize ten dollars or cursion through some of our principal cities to more for every day's work. see some friends, as well as wishing to benefit my
In the neighborhood, and to what extent from health by a journey. I made some stay at New Philadelphia I was not informed, a worm, in its York, enjoying the fine scenery in its suburbs more ravages resembling the canker-worm, infested and than the din of the city, or the officiousness of its denuded the trees in the groves, and the ornamengreedy cab-drivers. Passing from N. Y., I went tal trees in the streets much in the same manner into New Jersey, where many important events of that the cunker-worms did here in May and June, the Revolution took place. New Jersey is renowned 1853. They commenced their depredations in for her unparalleled sufferings during the Revolu- August, and continued their ravages to the 7th tion, as well as being the seat of battles where September, when I left, and how much longer I Gen. Washington revived the desponding hopes have not been informed. But, after all, there is of his countrymen by capturing a part of the no place without its disadvantages, though there British army at Trenton. Riding through New may be, without advantages. This Eden about Jersey and some of its principal cities, reminded Philadelphia lacks the fruit trees and fruit, the me of the by-gone days of Washington's army, uncultivated bills covered with forests, the good with their bleeding feet, capturing the Hessians. cold water, and perhaps the exhilerant air, which This State had its share of the drought, it being we have about Boston. Their land is too rich at its height at the time I passed through it,-veg- and valuable to appropriate to forests near the etation seemed in a suffering condition, the corn city, and therefore they are destitute of that would probably fall short of a full crop. I have rude, enchanting wildness, which is so pleasing an idea that, in this State and Pennsylvania, more to a lover of natural scenery: Excess of the corn could be raised upon the acre by substituting beautiful is cloying after a while, and even shrub a variety which would ear neaier to the ground; oaks are pleasing for variety's sake. On my rethe large butt end of the stock from the ground turn to Boston, the contrast was striking ; it to where the ear forms, some four or more feet, seemed like a "city on a hill,” the buildings and exhausts the land to little profit. Were I a Penn- streets, how airy and clean, and every man in sylvanian, I would select some large eared north- the streets apparently a gentleman. ern corn that eared nigher the ground, the King
Silas BROWN. Philip variety, for instance, which has produced Wilmington, November, 1854. 100 bushels to the acre, and it would ripen in season on their rich land to give the farmer an opportunity to raise a second crop, on the same
To PREVENT SHUT IN Wheat.-Our neighbor of land, of turnips, or something else which would the California Farmer says he received the recipe grow quick. It strikes me that the stock and below from a practical farmer who had used it for the ear of the Virginia corn are entirely out of proportion to be profitable. I have no doubt that
several years, and always found it effectual. our northern corn looks diminutive to a Jersey or Pennsylvania farmer, but still their corn stocks
Take one pound of blue stone, dissolve it in wawhich make such a gigantic appearance may ter, and sprinkle it over four bushels of wheat gratify the eye more than enrich the raiser ; a the day before you sow it. kind of corn which would produce larger ears in I never knew it to fail. proportion to the stocks would be an object wor
Oscar P. V. KALLENBACH. thy of consideration and trial.
RECEIPT for SAVING WHEAT FROM SYUT.