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course of draining and thoroughly subduing. His straw at about fifteen dollars a ton. He uses rye drains are three feet deep, or more, most of them and corn, ground together as provender for his covered. They are made by placing short logs horses. He cultivates his crops very much in the across, and covering with old rails, and then with New England style, employing free labor entirely sods, bushes, and roots, deep enough to be below on his farm. The price of labor here does not the subsoil plow. His meadows seem to be full differ materially from New England prices. It is of springs, and to require more ditches than any notorious that slaves do not perform so much laland I have ever seen. Hay usually sells at twen- bor as freemen, here or elsewhere, and when we ty dollars or more a ton, and upon land like this, add to this, the fact, that they always steal whatwhich will produce as well at least as our best ever they can lay their hands on, we naturally grass lands, hay must be a profitable crop. He enough infer, that they are rather unprofitable sows his herds-grass, or timothy, as he calls it, stock. I suppose the poor uneducated creatures in the autumn, and clover in the spring, as we cannot understand their moral obligation to do do, on most of our reclaimed land. He has some all the work for the benefit of others, who do forty acres in grass, most of which has been re- none! Everything here is kept under lock and claimed, at an expense equal to that of reclaim- key, and it is said not to be an uncommon occuring our worst swamps. We found his team of rence for the servants to steal and sell the grain four oxen engaged in plowing his orchard, (on allotted out for the provender of the horses in the 10th of January, remember,) with a Boston their charge. Mr. Morrison had two big dogs plow and a Yankee driver. These oxen were pur- chained near his house, which are let loose at chased by Mr. Morrison, in Brighton, Mass., and night, to prevent pilfering about his premises. brought here, at an expense of about fifty dollars I suppose three-quarters of the corn-barns in New a yoke. I saw a fine yoke of oxen at work a few Hampshire were never locked or otherwise guarddays, on the capitol grounds, moving blocks of ed, except by the consciences of the people, and marble, and remarked to the contractor that they such considerations are to be weighed, by northlooked like northern cattle, when he informed ern men, who are tempted to seek a home, under me that he brought them from Massachusetts. different institutions from their own.

Although there are plenty of bullocks raised The question of emigration from home comes and driven into market here for beef, suitable for up to every New England youth, and I know of work, yet most of them have never been yoked. no better service that can be rendered to New Mr. Morrison has tried mules for farm labor, and England, than to present fairly to view the adis of opinion that, except for the heavy work in- vantages and disadvantages of a life in other parts cident to clearing new lands, they may be more of our country.

HENRY F. FRENCH. profitable than oxen. They are more hardy, less Washington, D. C., Jan. 11, 1855. expensive to keep, and much longer lived than the horse. Indeed, a negro, of whom I inquired how long they lived, gravely informed me that he

APPLES.--THE RIBSTONE PIPPIN. had heard a great many men say that they never There are many varieties of the apple which saw a dead mule, and his inference seemed to be, appear to be susceptible of successful cultivation that they never die at all! I have long had the in almost any variety of soil, and indeed, in alimpression that mules might be profitably em- most any position in which it may be found deployed in New England, on our farms; and were sirable or convenient to place them. There are it not that they are so unnatural a production, I others, on the contrary, which are more fastidishould be glad to see them tried among us. Mr. ous, and which can only be made to grow in the M. is trying the subsoil plow thoroughly, on his richest and most affluent soils. Of this latter farm, running it to the depth of seventeen inches, description, we may mention the Ribstone pipand has full faith in its utility.

pin, which is certainly, in many respects, a most He has horse teams, carrying stable manure desirable and valuable fruit, and one that defrom the city daily to his farm, having purchased serves to be extensively cultivated in every region for three hundred dollars all that is made at a where it can possibly be made to grow. stable, which will give him about a two-horse Ives, (in his “Book of Fruits,'') suggests that load daily. He showed me also a lime-pit where the best soil for it is one rather moist and warm ; he had burned about a thousand bushels of oys- and Mr. J. W. Russell, in a communication on ter shells, much after the fashion of burning a the Ribstone, published in "Hovey's Magazine coal-pit. This lime he applies broad-cast, at the of Horticulture,” Vol X., says that, “Trees of rate of one hundred bushels to the acre. He con- this kind of apple, growing on a flat level plain, siders corn his best crop, and in good seasons gets ripened their fruit about three weeks too early, sixty bushels to the acre. He raises rye also, to therefore did not keep so well through the seaconsiderable extent, and finds a market for the son, as those that were not so early matured.” His remarks on the cultivation of the trees, strikes portions, and applied most of it to corn, reserving us as well worthy of attention.

some for other purposes. My ground for corn

contained about it acres ; two-fifths of it had “In fact the situation that is not unfrequently been planted with potatoes the previous year, supposed most eligible, experience finds to be the manured in the hill with plaster, and a slight reverse. A southern aspect is often preferred, coat of green manure plowed in ; the remaining which is dicidedly the most unfavorable that can three-fifths grass land, all in poor condition, and be selected for this particular apple. "I believe we have much to learn in the choice quite moist. I plowed it about the last of May

rather light soil, a part of it dry, but some of it of the most favorable localities, before we shall and planted it about the 6th of June. Upon the be successful in the cultivation of some of the two-fifths old ground, I spread twenty-five dollars' most superior apples not natives of America. A worth of manure from the barn before plowing ; north-west slope I should prefer to any other for the remainder, sward land, I sowed eight dollars reasons thus : the tree would not start to grow worth of guano, and superphosphate of lime, first so early in the spring ; the roots would not suffer a strip of guano, then one of superphosphate, and so much with the summer drought; and last but so on, throughout the piece, harrowing it in thornot least, the fruit would be larger and finer, and

oughly. would not ripen so early by a fortnight or three weeks. A rich deep soil, rather wet than dry, kept the ground as level as possible. From the

I planted in hills 31 feet apart each way, and is best adapted for the apple tree, (generally) land half covered with rocks, that cannot be well part manured from the barn, I obtained a heavy cultivated with the plow, would be a desirable lo- crop, from the other a fair crop, stalks rather cality, especially in a dry season, as the trees light but good ears. I did not ineasure it, but am

satisfied that it was better in proportion to the would not suffer with the drought.

expense than the other piece. I could see no dif

ference between the guano and superphosphate For the New England Farmer. of lime as sown broadcast. I selected twelve rows, GUANO AND SUPERPHOSPHATE ONCE of these, I applied guano in the hill, to the rest,

six on each part of the piece. To three of each MORE.

superphosphate of lime, about a table-spoonful to My Dear BROWN :-I have been trying to col- the hill. The guano, I covered with my boot, as lect the results of experiments in Rockingham I dropped the corn; the consequence was, it was County, with guano and superphosphate ; but as

not covered deep enough, not more than a quarter

of it vegetated, but what there was of it was much a general thing, farmers had rather work than better than where it was not applied in the hill. write. I send, however, a valuable letter from The corn in the rows that I applied superphosMr. LITTLE, of Hampstead, a good, reliable man. phate of limeto, came up well, and looked finely, IIis suggestion that crops manured with these took the lead and kept it throughout the season,

and were decidedly the best rows of corn I had fertilizers require little hoeing, is worthy of no

upon the piece. The difference was not so marked tice. No doubt most of the weeds which cost us upon the part manured with stable manure as the 80 much labor to eradicate, spring from seeds other. l applied superphosphate of lime to half which we sow with our barn and stable manure. of a small bed of beets, and the product of that The new, unmanured lands of the West, require part was nearly doubled by the operation. I little or no hand cultivation.

sowed ten rows of turnips on a moist piece of land

prepared as follows :—furrowed the rows 3 feet I think well of Mr. Little's conclusions, for the apart, strewed the manure in the furrow, turned same reason that a client once gave me for liking two furrows upon it, forming a ridge, and upon my opinion. “ 'Squire,” said he, “I like your this sowed my seed. To six of the rows, I applied views better than those of any lawyer I ever saw, twice its bulk of decomposed saw-dust ; to the re

manure from the barn and night soil mixed with because you think just as I do!

mainder, guano with the exception of part of a Yours, truly, H. F. FRENCH.

row for a trial of superphosphate of lime. The

result was, that I had more baskets of turnips Hampstead, Feb. 15, 1855. from the four rows manured with guano, than HENRY F. FRENCH, Esq. :-Dear Sir,-After from six where the manure was applied ; the cost considerable delay, I have prepared for you a of the guano was not half that of the manure. statement of my experiments with guano and I could not perceive any difference in the yield of superphosphate of lime. In the spring of 1843, the turnips on the part of the row where superI was short of stable manure, and it being diffi- phosphate of lime was used from the guano. They cult to obtain it, I resolved to try some of the con- were smoother, and would sell better for table centrated manures. By referring to the various use. agricultural papers, I found that nearly all the

the In 1854, I bought of George Davenport, of Bospopular writers agreed that guano was a valuable ton, a half-ton of De Burg's superphosphate of manure ; but as to superphosphate of lime, their lime, and the same quantity of Peruvian guano, statements were so contradictory, that nothing re- for my own use and that of my neighbors who liable could be obtained. I determined to test the felt disposed to try it. A little more than half value of it by comparing it with other manures; of it was taken off my hands, mostly by one inand not caring to risk much on an uncertainty, dividual, who applied it to grass, corn, potato I purchased only one bag of De Burg's superphos- vines, &c., without any other manure, with comphate of lime, and one of Peruvian guano. Be- plete success. He had as good corn from a tafore using it, I mixed it with plaster, equal pro-ble-spoonful of guano in the hill buried three inches deep, and the same quantity of superphos- potatoes, using plaster in the hill. The yield was phate on the top of the hill before the seed was very light. The quantity of guano and superdropped, as from the rate of 40 loads of stable phosphate of lime used in the foregoing experimanure to the acre, side by side. I planted the ments, was equal. same piece with corn that I did the year before, I prepared a piece of ground for carrots as fol. giving it a good dressing of manure from the lows :-first plowed it, then sowed guano at the barn-yard before plowing, and using superphos- rate of two or three hundred pounds to the acre ; phate of lime in the hill, with the exception of plowed it again, then sowed about the same quansome rows for other manures. I selected rows tity of superphosphate of lime, and harrowed it both from the dry and wet parts of the piece, in. I obtained a much better crop than I ever using guano dug in around the hill, after the had on the same, when stable manure was apcorn was up, salt around the corn on the surface, plied. ashes both in the hill and on the surface, and plas- The best crop of potatoes, both as to quantity ter in the hill. The salt put the corn back one and quality, I raised upon a piece prepared by week and injured the crop. Ashes applied in the plowing in a dressing of stable manure, using suhill injured the corn, on the surface benefited it, perphosphate of lime in the hill. I had a fine plaster about the same, superphosphate of lime yield where both superphosphate of lime and much better than either.

plaster was applied in the hill without any other The guano produced heavier stalks than the manure. The soil upon which I conducted my superphosphate, but no better ears. In making experiments is rather moist, with a good supply of these trials, I used three rows for each kind of vegetable matter. A'light, dry soil, deficient in manure, leaving one row between each kind with- vegetable matter, would be likely to give a differout any thing applied to the hill. I obtained as ent result. My neighbor's experiments on a dry good corn from that part of the piece, where I soil resulted in favor of superphosphate of lime. applied guano and superphosphate the year be- On a moist soil, guano took the lead. I sowed fore, as from the part manured with stable man- while raining, some guano, on a piece of grass. ure, with the exception of a small part where there The result was very marked, changing it to a dark was a small per cent. of fowl manure mixed with green color, and increasing the quantity considit. This produced larger crops both seasons. erably. Judging from my own experience and

I selected six rows in a piece for potatoes, two observation, I have come to the conclusion that for guano, using a table-spoonful in a hill, two both guano and superphosphate of lime are valufor superphosphate, using the same quantity in able fertilizers, and will pay well, if judiciously the hill. To the remainder, I put a shovelful of applied to root and corn crops, reserving the barn green manure in the hill.

manure for the benefit of the hay crop, which I The guano rows yielded.

..4 bushels.

consider the most important. I think guano in The superphosphate....

a crude state is better adapted to a moist than a ..34 bushels.

dry soil. This, I think, is owing mainly to the I had about three-quarters of an acre that had presence of a larger proportion of vegetable matbeen planted with potatoes the previous year, ter in a wet soil. I think when applied to a dry, using plaster in the hill, without any other ma- light soil, it should be mixed with decomposed

This piece was flat, rather moist, and in muck or loam. poor condition, and I selected it expressly for a Superphosphate of lime, when properly pretrial of concentrated manures. After plowing pared, I consider a better proportioned manure, it, I sowed 150 lbs. of guano, harrowing it in as and better adapted to perfect all parts of the soon as possible, mixing it thoroughly with the plant, than guano. Hence the result depends soil. I then furrowed it the usual distance for much upon the nature of the soil. Taking into potatoes. In half of the first row I strewed gua- consideration the labor saved by hoeing and in no, in the other superphosphate of lime, cor- applying superphosphate of lime to corn in the ered it lightly, and planted with pumpkins. The hill, and the fact that it will not injure the seed row yielded well, but the part where superphos- to come in contact with it, I consider it the best phate of lime was applied, much the best. I preparation I know for that purpose, and shall then took eight rows for potatoes, planting them continue to use it until convinced to the contrain drills. In two of them I applied guano, and ry. I have not been so minute with my experireceived six bushels of potatoes. To the two next ments as I should have been, had I expected to I applied superphosphate of lime, and received 54 communicate the results to you. bushels. Two were liberally manured with ash- If these few lines are of any use to you in makes, and from these I obtained five and one-fourth ing up your statement, they are at your service ; bushels. In the other two, plaster was used, and they were due long ero this, and I have no apolofrom these I dug only three bushels. I do not gy to make for the delay. think I received any benefit from the plaster. In

Yours, truly, WM. C. LITTLE. half of the next row I used guano; in the remainder superphosphate of lime, formed it into a ridge, and sowed it with cabbages. The result

Carolina CULTIVATOR.—Published at Raleigh, exceeded my expectations. I obtained much bet- N. C. WILLIAM D. COOKE, Publisher. $2,00 a ter heads than I generally do, when manure from year. In its inaugural the Editor says:-—"It is the barn is applied. I next sowed eight rows with too common to read, assent, and then forget. turnips, manured four with guano, the remain- It does more harm than good for a farmer to read der with superphosphate. They looked finely the first of the season, but the severe drought and practical lessons for mere amusement. It genthe plant lice, combined, completely ruined the erates a habit of indifference to improvement crop. The remainder of the piece I planted with which is hard to shake off. Let our readers,

..3} bushels.

The stable manure..........


p. 539

therefore, be punctual in putting every valuable string, it may be considered a very justly proporthought which they may find in books and papers

tioned animal. on the various branches of agriculture and the

But the most important part, and that which kindred arts, into immediate use, and our word fleece. When I first commenced in the business,

has caused the greatest variety of opinion, is the for it, they will have the satisfaction at last of some twenty-five years since, the strife was for witnessing a decided improvement on their own the finest wool without much regard to any thing premises and around them."

else. The first question asked was “How much did you get?" But the tables are turned ; people

have taken the other extreme. The great question SHEEP BREEDING---FINENESS vs. SIZE. now is, “How much will they shear.” But

Whoever, therefore, would obtain a large and without designing to tread on the toes of others, vigorous race, (of merino sheep) should keep his

I will give a description of such as would suit my ewes from the rams till they are three years old. fancy, and such as I believe will eventually be Rams are not usually allowed to leap till three sought for. The sheep should be of medium size, years of age. Thaer's Principles of Agriculture, ibs., the skin loose but not rolling in folds, the

fleece thick, particularly on the belly, and exThat the size of sheep would be enlarged by the tending well down on the legs and face; the staabove course there can be no doubt, but, allow ple uniformly of one length—from two and a us to ask, what are the advantages to be derived half to three when of a year's growth—the curves from increase in size. Most assuredly the amount plain and uniform as possible, from one end to of wool would be diminished in its proportion to the other, and not less than twenty-four to the the size and consequently to the amount of food inch-if more the better--the fleece sufficiently consumed. The principal advantage that I can oily to render it soft to the touch, and the surface perceive to be derived from the above course is in a little dark. If the fleece be entirely destitute the increased longevity of the animal. For, from of oil, the wool becomes harsh and wiry; on the my experience in the matter, I am satisfied that other hand, if there is an excess, it must be at sheep, male or female, will attain a greater age the e. pense of the fleece, as well as carcass ; by not being allowed to breed until three years being made from the same materials, and causing old. If kept in moderate condition, getting neither the flere to be thin and light after being cleansed, too fleshy nor too poor, they will frequently last and th) sheep hard to keep. Both extremes, and be profitable till they are twelve or fifteen particul:rly the latter, should be avoided.— Woolyears old. I have now one twelve years old, thatGrower raised her first lamb at three years, and now has as good teeth as any in my flock, and is apparently ECONOMY IN THE RIGHT PLACE. in her prime except that her fleece has become coarser and somewhat lighter.

Men who have made fortunes tell us that it is But among the advantages of pursuing the

much easier to acquire property than to keep it. above course, to the wool-grower, whose locks Whether this be true or not, we have not had must be limited to a certain number, is the small very ample means to determine, but are convinced number of breeding ewes he will be enabled to that it is much more difficult to expend money jukeep in consequence of having so many younger diciously, than to earn it. We know this, from sheep. The successful wool-grower will endeavor to raise sheep, as well as wool, for sale. If young esperiments in a small way, ourselves, as well as sheep are kept so as to get twelve months growth from cbservations on the rest of mankind. Alin a year (which is frequently not the case) there most every man who will make up his mind to is no difficulty in breeding from them at two have money, and devote his time and energies years old, and raising a flock that will be sufficiently large and hardy for mutton and wool. early and late to this object, will succeed in his ungrowing purposes, and that will last and be val- dertaking. But there are various difficulties in uable until eight or ten years old. Such a flock the way of spending it to the best advantage, will produce finer wool and more of it in propor- arising partly from the fact, that every man intion to the amount of food, than one forced to an tends, when he gets enough, to change his mode unnatural size. I have used bucks at different of life, and adopt one more agreeable. One man ages, from six months to five years, and have had as good success, and raised as good lambs from leaves his country for half a generation, and havthose that were one and a half years, as at any ing made his fortune, returns to find his youth

ful friends all dead, or forgetful of him, and the In breeding sheep for wool, we should also pay whole world so moved away from its former posome attention to form, which is of much more sition, that he cannot find the place in it which importance than size, so far as its adaptation and value for mutton is concerned. If merino sheep

he formerly occupied. His money cannot buy measures from the withers to the root of the tail, for him the smiles and sunshine of which for and from the withers to the nose, and likewise years he had been dreaming, under a foreign sky. from the withers down the fore leg to the hoof, The city merchant looks anxiously forward toalike; and the three lengths put together or three wards the day when he shall close his counting times the length from the withers to the root of the tail, being put around the sheep lengthways, room, and turn his back upon the perplexities of passing the string under the neck and around the his business, return to his native village in the thighs, and the sheep is broad enough to fill the country, and re-purchase the old homestead, and

other age.

then spend his declining years, under his own shrubs we like, but the expensive fence we do not vine and fig-tree, in the delightful pursuits of ag- like. Often a hundred dollars are expended in riculture. But, alas! a life of care and luxury this way for as many feet in length of such a in the city has unfitted him, as well as his fami- fence. Instead of this, we would either construct ly, for simple rural pleasures. His wife is tor- a plain fence of pine, painted, which should mented for want of faithful and capable servants, not cost more than two dollars a rod, or we his daughters sigh in vain for the promenade on would plant a hedge uf buckthorn or privet, supthe pavement, and for the opera, and even the ported by a wire fence, for strength, if necessary. good citizen himself begins soon to suspect that In orery case, we would avoid running straight the "old familiar faces” on 'change, or at his fa- fences from the street to the house, and would vorite resort, the insurance office, are more agree- leave a liberal plot in front, and if possible, at one able companions than cows and oxen, or even the side or both, graded and finished as a lawn. But farmers about him, who know so little of freights let the fence be plain and cheap. There is no and the stock exchange.

beauty either of symmetry, harmony or utility, The leading thought, however, with which we in such front fences as we may see in every village started, related more particularly to expenditures in New England. Save your money to gratify by the farmer, upon his own house and lands. some correct and rational taste, and do not follow He can calculate pretty accurately, as to the ex- an unreasonable fashion. Use the reason, the pense of plowing and ditching, and the common plain common sense which Providence

gave you labors of the farm ; but our thoughts extended to use, before you suffer your hard-earned money beyond this, to the time when having acquired a to be taken from you, to gratify a carpenter's little surplus, he undertakes to adorn and embel- foolish ambition to work out a more elaborate lish his residence. Here he is beyond his usual piece of architectural folly, than has ever before depth, and has not his usual landmark to guide been presented to the public. We have noticed him. He desires to ereet a stable or barn, which so much of this display of squares and crosses and he thinks should cost some five or six hundred dol-triangles in our travels lately, that we think we lars. He sets out with the sensible idea, that it shall feel better after having spoken our mind on should be a plain, substantial, modest structure, the subject. We think the people of the rural for cows and horses to live in. He consults a districts, especially of the villages, have yet many carpenter or architect, who persuade him to allow lessons of economy to learn, in the structure of him to take charge of the building, and present their houses, out-buildings and ornamental fences. ly, by the side of his simple mansion rises a sort How to expend a limited amount of money so as to of cross between a martin-house and a temple of produce the greatest amount of physical comfort, Minerva, clap-boarded and painted, with the doors intellectual gratification and moral improvement, hung in all the new-fashioned methods, so that is a problem well worthy of attention. they will neither open or shut, with a tall ventilator and a magnificent weather-vane on top—the

COUNTY TRANSACTIONS. whole resembling less a farmer's barn, than a vil We are under obligations to gentlemen of the lage church, erected under the direction of a com- several County Agricultural Societies for copies mittee of nine pew-holders. Now these fancy of their Transactions for 1854. We have reout-buildings are well enough on fancy places, but ceived copies of the Franklin County Society, are in bad taste, to say the least, on a farm, where Bristol, Berkshire, Middlesex South, Housatonic, economy is consulted ; and the worst of it is that Hampden, Norfolk, Hampshire, Worcester and the owner finds, when it is completed, that his barn Essex. Each of these Transactions contain pacosts twice as much as he could well afford. pers of value to the farmer, which we should be

Then, again, he determines upon having a bet- glad to spread before the reader did our limits ter fence in front of his house. The carpenter permit, -and where any new mode of operation, shows him a beautiful pattern,which is like 'Squire new and valuable designs of implements, or methWealthy's, in Roxbury, and persuades him to ods of making or preserving manures are noticed, adopt it. The work is completed, and behold a we shall endeavor to publish them. Our acsmall front yard, as we call it in New England, knowledgments are gratefully tendered to gentlejust as wide on the street as the dwelling-house, men who have kindly supplied us with these and running straight to the front corners of the reports. Norfolk, Bristol and Middlesex are house, enclosing three or four square rods of beautiful specimens of the typographic art. ground! and for what purpose ? Kind reader, did you ever ask yourself for what these little The Norfolk Herald announces to the farfront yards are designed? Usually, they contain mers of Virginia and North Carolina, that the corn

dealers in that market have come to the determinaa few lilacs, half-a-dozen rose-bushes, and occa- tion to buy and sell corn by weight on and after the sionally a small flower bed. The flowers and 1st of April next.

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