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EIGHTH LEGISLATIVE AGRICULTU-
Reported for the New England Farmer,
BY WILLIAM W. HILL.
he had ever tried. He preferred subsoil, both to put under the barn and in the hog-pen. It has more power than the top soil to absorb ammonia from the air. Such, at least, is the operation of things on hilly lands.
The eighth meeting of this series was held in Mr. HOWARD, of the Cultivator, attributed the the Senate Chamber, at the State House, on Tuesday evening. The reason of its not being holden process of Mr. Dodge's method to the peculiar in the Representative's Hall was, that the hearing nature of the soil, and differed from the concluin regard to the removal of Judge Loring was sions which that gentleman drew therefrom. He going on in that room. The subject was the same had examined the soil on Mr. D.'s farm, and found that the subsoil was of a decidedly aluas at the last meeting-Manures. Hon. B. V. FRENCH, of Braintree, presided, minous character, much more so than the top soil, which is loose and gravelly. The material and on taking the chair, made some pertinent of this subsoil (clay) possesses great powers of remarks upon the subject of manures. In regard to the use of guano, he had been informed, by a absorbing the manurial properties of urine, renmerchant of Baltimore, that he could see the dering it perfectly pure, while a loose, sandy soil, will produce hardly any effect. This fact is effect of the use of guano in the increased receipts of flour in that market-that it came in from well known, and is the cause of the effect noticed sections they never thought of. But it is becom- by Mr. Dodge. But subsoil does not necessarily ing a great question, how does it leave the land? absorb ammonia any better than the top soil, unless it be clayey. Mr. Howard said Mexican So far, the opinion is that the land is impoverished by it after a few years. He had been in- guano, which was alluded to at the last meeting as probably preferable to the Peruvian, was no formed, by the captain of a vessel who brought new thing. It was tried in England fiiteen years guano to this country, that guano is not used on the farms in Peru. The planters do not value it, ago, being introduced shortly after the Peruvian. How it was esteemed there, was shown in the and it is said that it finally gets the land in such a condition that nothing wili grow but weeds. fact that the demand for Peruvian guano is conStill, it is an open question. In regard to barn- stantly increasing. Dr. CHARLES T. JACKSON followed, in some exyard manures, we do know what effect they produce, and it is of great importance to the farmer tended remarks upon the scientific branch of the that they be saved and made the most of. To subject. Barn-yard manures are the most valushow their value, he entered into a calculation in able, but at the same time they may be improved regard to the value of the manure of the domestic and their fertilizing power augmented. They act animals in the Commonwealth-embracing both mechanically in the first place, and should be liquid and solid-from which it appeared that it loose and open when applied to light soils. They is worth $8,000,000 per year. In order to save then ferment, and the woody substances contained manure, it should be kept under cover, composted in them produce acids, some of which will kill and enlarged in quantity; and by this means a plants, as rotten wood, it is known, produces a man's hay crops may be increased, and he will be vinegar which will kill plants. In the next stage enabled to add to the number of cattle he keeps. of decomposition, they produce carbonic acid gaɛ. In regard to the application of manures, he was This stage is the most important, for it is now more inclined to top-dress grass lands than for- that the most powerful action of the manure The acids dissolve solid rocks, and exmerly. On this subject he would refer farmers occurs. to the report of the Secretary of the Board of tract the potash contained in them. When the Agriculture, as some very careful experiments animal matters ferment, they produce alkalies. have been made at the State farm in Westboro' Urine is converted into carbonate of ammonia. during the past year. Urine will kill plants when pure, but when deMr. DODGE, of Sutton, on being called upon, composed the urea changes into ammonia, which made some remarks in regard to the manner of combines with the organic acids and forms the keeping manures. He thought it best to have ammoniacal combinations with those acids, while manures in an open barn-yard. He had made carbonic acid gas is eliminated. Carbon forms his own yard, pitching to the centre, and was the leaves of plants. Barn-yard manures are using upland subsoil taken from the bottom of perfect in themselves, containing all the matters ditches for composting, throwing it into the cen- that were originally in the soil; but their supply tre of the yard, and adding straw, corn-stalks is limited. Lime, under certain chemical condiand litter with the manure; also adding salt in a tions, will drive off the ammonia from manures, liquid state, keeping the heap continually wet and if the heap is discovered to be losing its ama mixture of until September. Manure prepared in this way monia, it should be covered with he found to be more valuable than any compost peat and plaster of Paris, in the proportion of
20 lbs. of plaster to a barrel of peat. If a sub- of wool. They are choice, the No. 7 particularly. soil contains copperas or sulphate of alum, it is The No. 4 is a good sample of its kind. There is necessary to decompose the salts, either by means no market here for that kind of wool. There is of ashes or lime, to render them useful. Alu- now no mill in the Union making broadcloths; so that the demand for fine wool must be very limmium has power to absorb ammonia. Water ited, and should such a state of things continue which has been through clay, retains all its saline long, we shall have to cease raising it, or send it qualities. Clay precipitates the vegetable matters abroad to be manufactured for us.-Wool-Grower. contained in water, and absorbs vegetable and animal odors. Ashes is a perfect manure of saline matter, and the quantity of alkali depends upon the nature of the plant from whence it was derived.
UNITED STATES AGRICULTURAL
The third annual session of this society commenced February 21, 1855, in the "East Room" of the Smithsonian Institution. Twenty-six States were represented by credited delegates
The Hon. M. P. Wilder, of Mass., President of the society, on taking the chair, delivered a pertinent address, in which he recapitulated the operations of the society during the past year, in
The amount of phosphate is much larger in pine than in oak ashes, and phosphoric acid is from State and county societies, and there was much more abundant in pitch pine than in oak also a large number of individual members of the ashes. When ashes are used they take out the society. soluble portions of the soil, as they contain a large excess of alkalies, which dissolve and carry off the vegetable matters of the soil. When this excess of alkaline matter is removed, ashes cluding the cattle show at Springfield, Ohio. can be used freely, say 120 to 150 bushels to the The address was received with applause, and has acre, especially on light, sandy soils. All fresh been printed for distribution in pamphlet form. ashes destroy the soil. It is advisable to mix mittee of one from each State represented was On motion of Mr. King, of New York, a comMexican with Peruvian guano, in order to in- chosen by the President, to nominate a board of crease the proportion of phosphates which chiefly officers for the ensuing year. compose the former, while ammonia predominates A letter was read from Col. Selden, resigning in the latter. Too much ammonia is injurious, ties for the funds of the society deposited in the his office as treasurer, and, accompanied by securitending to too great developments of the leaves bank, was referred to Messrs. Wager, of New and stems of plants. Dr. Jackson re-iterated York, Calvert, of Maryland, and Worthington, of the views expressed by him at the previous meet- Ohio. They subsequently reported, complimenting in relation to the value of fish as a manure, ing Col. Selden for his integrity, and expressing declaring that they were better than guano. He confidence that the funds are secure. also stated that a manufactory had been estab- of Delaware, and Kemmel, of Maryland, which Resolutions were offered by Messrs. Holcomb, lished in Rhode Island for the purpose of pro- were sustained by Messrs. Calvert, Peck, and ducing artificial manure for fish. Dr. Jackson Kennedy, of Maryland, King, of New York, and took occasion to recommend to farmers, Johnson's Jones of Delaware, and then laid on the table for future discussion. Lectures on Agricultural Chemistry and Geology. Messrs. Wager, of New York, Kennedy, of We have given but a fragmentary sketch of this Pennsylvania, Proctor, of Massachusetts, Steadgentleman's remarks, which, from their techni-man, of Ohio, and Jones, of Delaware, were apcal nature, could not be fully reported without pointed a committee to receive and report on going beyond the limits assigned to these reports. amendments to the constitution.
recommending political action on the part of agMr. Calvert, of Maryland, offered a resolution riculturists, and supported it by able remarks.
Mr. HALLIDAY, of Rhode Island, a gentleman engaged in the manufacture of manure from fish, related his experience in regard to manures, and He was followed by Messrs. French, of New made some statements relating to his artificial fertilizers.
Hampshire, Dyer, of Connecticut, and Kennedy, of Pennsylvania, and the resolution was laid on the table for future discussion.
Mr. BUCKMINSTER,of the Ploughman, alluded to Mr. Jones, of Delaware, presented a memorial, the discrepancy of views which exist among ag- showing the effect of legislation upon agriculture, riculturists and scientific men in regard to the and embracing a mass of historical facts. application of guano, and desired to be informed After having been read, it was, on motion of what were the exact proportions to be observed Mr. King, of New York, placed on the files of the society. in composting guano.
No response was elicited, however, and at past nine o'clock the meeting adjourned. The subject for the next meeting is the tion of Crops.
Mr. Clenson, of Maryland, introduced a resohalf-lution recommending agricultural education.
An informal discussion of the potato rot, deep ploughing, and other matters of great agricul tural interest, followed, in which a large number of gentlemen participated. Many facts of importance were elicited, as gentlemen from various of sections related their "experience," and the de
SHEEP IN VIRGINIA.-Mr. John E. Sissions,
In the evening the society were favored by a Steadman, Cowley, and other gentlemen particilecture from their vice president from Virginia, pating. The resolution, as finally amended and the venerable George Washington Parke Custis. passed, reads:
His eloquent narrative of the illustrious "Farmer Resolved, That we object to the doctrine of of Mount Vernon" was listened to with marked free trade for agriculture and protection for other attention by a large audience, and was warmly interests. applauded.
Col. Calvert, of Maryland,offered the following After the lecture, a large number of ladies and preamble and resolutions, which he supported in gentlemen were introduced by the President to an able and earnest manner, deprecating all applications to Congress, and urging action on the After the lecture, the officers and committees part of agriculturists, as calculated to command were unexpectedly entertained at the National Ho- success. tel, by Colonel C. B. Calvert, the proprietor of The resolutions, after having been discussed by "Riversdale." A sumptuous repast graced the Messrs. Kennedy, of Pennsylvania, Jones, of Delfestive board, and the festivities were prolonged aware, and King of New York, were carried:
until a late hour.
Whereas, The prosperity of a country is in proportion to the improvement of its agriculture, therefore,
This morning the society met at 10 o'clock, and, after the report of Mr. King, of New York, chairman of the nominating committee, elected the following
OFFICERS FOR 1855.
MARSHALL P. WILDER, of Massachusetts.
John D. Lang, Maine,
A. P. Hatch, Ala.,
A. G. Brown, Miss.,
1. D. B. DeBow, La., Gen. Whitfield, Kansas,
John A. King, New York.
A. L. Elwyn, Penn.
J. Wentworth, Ill.
WILLIAM S. KING, Boston, Mass.
Resolved, That agriculture should be the first interest considered in legislating for the general welfare, and that such legislation should be had as will foster and protect this interest, which is paramount to all others.
After the election, the discussion upon the resolution offered by Mr. C. P. Holcomb, of Delaware, on the "Reciprocity Treaty' as injurious to the agricultural interests of the Republic, took place. Messrs. Holcomb, Peck, King and Jones participated in the discussion.
This evening the Hon. G. P. Marsh lectured on "Notices of the Rural Economy of Continental Europe."
Resolved, That the time has arrived for the agculturists of the whole country to meet in convention, and determine for themselves what legislation is necessary for their protection.
Resolved, That such a convention, to be composed of delegates from each State of the Union, be earnestly recommended by this society, in order that an agricultural platform may be established, which will meet the views of, and be sustained by the whole body of agriculturists as a profession.
Mr. Wagner, of New York, submitted a report on the proposed amendments to the constitution, which was discussed by Messrs. Fay and Waters, of Massachusetts, Cook, of Rhode Island, King, of New York, Hamilton, of New Jersey, Calvert, of Maryland, and Worthington of Ohio.
The constitution was so amended as to have the payment of ten dollars constitute life membership, and to change the time for holding the annual meeting to the second Wednesday of Jan
Various reports were read, among them one on the Chess in Wheat, from the Smithsonian Institute; on Agricultural History, by B. P. Poore; on Mr. Glover's Collection, by Mr. Peck; and on Western Fruits, by Dr. Warden.
B. B. FRENCH, Washington, D. C.
On a report of the executive committee, Dr. Elwin. of Penn., Henry Wager, of New York, Mr. Peck, of Maryland, reported that the comDr. W. T. G. Morton, of Mass., Col. Anthony mittee appointed to urge upon Congress the purKimmel, of Md., and Chas. L. Flint, of Mass., chase of Mr. Glover's collection of modelled were appointed delegates to attend the coming fruits, had had an interview with the proper Industrial Exhibition at Paris. committee of Congress, and received assurances that the matter would receive their attention.
A communication from Professor Henry was read, detailing experiments on the culture of the Oregon pea," made under the direction of the Smithsonian Institution, at the request of the soless for that region. ciety. The results at Savannah proved it worth
A paper on Alderney Cattle," by Dr. W. J. G. Morton, was read and referred. Also, a paper on the "Potato Oat," from New York.
After the election yesterday, the Society dis- Dr. Warden, of Cincinnati, exhibited over thircussed a resolution offered the day previous by ty different varieties of western apples, which he Mr. C. B. Holcombe, of Delaware, denouncing descanted upon with his wonted accuracy. the "Reciprocity Treaty" as injurious to the ag- An invitation was received and accepted invitricultura interests of the publie, Messrs. Hol-ing the society to visit the Metropolitan Mechancombe, Peck, King, Waters, Elwyn, Kennedy, ics' Institute to-day at 11 o'clock. Invitations
to visit the office of the Coast Survey and the ag- the press be requested to urge the importance of ricultural room at the Patent Office were also ac- the subject. cepted.
Resolutions were passed complimenting the agricultural press, and urging its conductors to consider political economy, and urge united action on such matters connected with it as their judgment
After some remarks by Mr. Custis, giving his experience in growing wheat in Virginia, the society adjourned until 7 o'clock, when the Hon. G. P. Marsh had been invited to address them on may suggest. the Rural Economy of Continental Europe.
On motion of Mr. Taylor, it was
Resolved, That the thanks of the National Ag
The lecture was listened to with great interest, embodying, as it did, a great amount of original ricultural Society be tendered to the Hon. Mr. information, and its publication will constitute a Morton, of the United States Senate, for his able valuable addition to agricultural literature. report upon the subject of an Agricultural Department.
Dr. Warder followed, with an eloquent lecture on hedges, replete with practical information.
Resolutions were passed complimentary to President Wilder; to the Regents of the Smithsonian Institution; to Lieut. Maury, (for an invitation
FRIDAY MORNING, MARCH 2.
The society met at 10 o'clock, and passed an to visit the Observatory;) to Mr. King, the Sechour in familiar conversation on agricultural sub-retary of the society; and to Mr. Poore, of the jects. executive committee.
After a discussion on the appointment of Com- Adjourning, after three days session, in which missioners to the Industrial Exhibition at Paris, agriculturalists from twenty-six States particithe matter was referred to the Executive Com-pated with great harmony of feeling, the members of the society felt encouraged by this renewed On motion of Mr. Poore, of Massachusetts, it and increased manifestation of the great interest of was unanimously the Republic to assert its position.
In the evening many of the officers and members called upon Mr. Clayton, to thank him for his
Resolved, that the thanks of the United States Agricultural Society be presented to the Regents of the Smithsonian Institution, for the facilities speech of the previous evening. afforded for holding this session. The utility of this Institution, in thus serving as a nucleus, around which all useful associations can rally, at the capital of our Republic, shows the wisdom of the course pursued by the present Regents.
For the New England Farmer.
PRUNING TREES, AND SUN-SCALD.
Col. Kimmel, of Maryland, read a curious ex-notice a communication over the signature of S. tract from the Maryland Gazette, of September 8, A. Shurtleff, in which he concludes as follows,viz.: 1748, showing that "cattle shows" were estab- "All trees should be so trimmed and trained lished at Baltimore in that year. as to allow teams to pass under them, and also to prevent cattle from browsing the limbs."
On motion of Mr. Waters, of Massachusetts, it was unanimously I am aware, sir, this was the practice in the Resolved, that the thanks of this society be early settlement of New England, and the prac proffered to Hon. Geo. P. Marsh, for the very tice was handed down from father to son to the beautifully written and exceedingly interesting lec- beginning of the present century, and by some to ture he was so good as to present to us last even- a still later period. ing, and that Professor Henry be requested to wait on him and request a copy for publication. On motion of Col. Calvert, of Maryland, it was unanimously
But I am not aware that this sentiment now prevails, and is acted on, by our best informed cultivators of fruits; but on the contrary I have been led to suppose that the practice is now considered injudicious, and is abandoned by our best
Resolved, that the thanks of this society be presented to Dr. Warder, for his interesting pomologists in the United States. lecture on the cultivation of hedges, and that he It is well known that the rays of the sun in be requested to present a copy of the same for this country are far more powerful and scorchpublication in the transactions of the society. ing than in Europe, more especially in England. At eleven o'clock, in accordance with their ac- Here the trunks of our fruit trees need protecceptance of the invitation, the society adjourned tion by the shade of the branches and their folito visit the exhibition of the "Metropolitian Me-age, otherwise they will be seriously injured by chanic's Institute." the sun-scald. The bad effects may readily be
After visiting the Exhibition yesterday, the so- seen in all fruit trees, but more particularly in ciety returned to the "East Room," and, on mo- the pear and cherry, when they have been so setion of Mr. King, of New York, it was verely, and I believe I may add, cruelly pruned, Resolved, that the thanks of the society be pre- that they resemble a long-handled corn broom sented to the officers of the Metropolitian Mechan- stuck into the ground. The trunks of trees so ics' Institute, for their polite invitation to attend treated, are sure to suffer severely, unless they their exhibition, which they have visited and are shaded by wreaths of hay, boards, or someexamined with great pleasure. thing suitable to protect them from the intense
After some debate, in which a strong desire heat of the sun. for concerted action on the part of American Agriculturists was manifested, it was, on motion of Col. Calvert, of Maryland, Resolved, That the first Friday after the next severed from their trunks for 8 or 10 feet from annual meeting of this society, be fixed for the as- the ground. Is not the fruit of the lower bransembling of the Agricultural Convention, and that ches of the tree of a very choice variety, of more
There are other reasons which may be urged against severe pruning. Trees will not, and they cannot be so productive, when the branches are
value than any vegetable crop that can be raised branch near the ground for profit and for ornaunder its branches? For one, I should think so; I therefore disapprove of the too free use of the axe, the hand-saw and the knife among highly valuable fruit trees.
I believe also that a great and frequently a fatal injury is annually done to young orchards by dents to be correct, in part. Fruit trees are sadinexperienced persons by severely mangling and ly injured sometimes by severe and otherwise insevering the roots of valuable fruit trees by deep judicious pruning; on the other hand if the limbs plowing close to their trunks. come from the stem at about five feet from the For many years I have carefully considered the subject, and it is my conviction that "teams" ground, teams can come near enough in cultivashould not be allowed to pass under the bran- tion, and the loss will not be great in such trees ches, or even very near valuable fruit trees. I by sun-scald. But as in everything else, to take am also convinced that cattle should never be care of trees properly, a man must know how to turned into valuable fruit gardens or young or- do it, first, Guess work, and a blind fancy, are chards; but should be fed where they can do no injury, for they are always mischievous among alike dangerous. Col. LITTLE is one of our best young trees. I would remark in conclusion that informed horticulturists, and his opinions are I believe it advisable to suffer all fruit trees to worthy of consideration.
Mr. DOWNING, the author of "Country Houses," cottage, with veranda. The description will be and other works on Landscape and Horticulture, found in the letter of Mr. BRADLEY, as communiis no more, but the precepts and the examples he cated to the Rural New-Yorker, published at has left us are alive, and his influence is as ver- Rochester, N. Y. :
dant and as powerful as ever. We never see a tastily planned country house or a suburban cot- of a cottage recently erected by my neighbor and "I send you a daguerreotype view; and plans tage, surrounded with appropriate lawns, trees friend, Prof. S. W. CLARK, of the East Bloomfield and shrubbery, but we involuntarily think of the Academy, N. Y. benefits he has conferred on the country by the SIZE. The upright part, two stories high, 34 diffusion of a knowledge of the fitting, beautiful by 22. North wing, one story, 14 by 16. Leanto, west end, 6 by 25. Bay window, 8 by 5. and useful, as connected with our homes and the Front piazza, 5 by 18. scenery around them.
ACCOMMODATION.-First Floor.-Front hall, 7 To promote this end we have given, from time by 15. Parlor, 15 feet square. Dining-room, to time, designs of houses suitable for different 13 by 16. Library, 9 by 12. Bed-room, 11 feet classes of our readers, and this week take great by 12. Closet, 3 by 7. Pantry, 5 by 6. Back square. Cook-room, 9 by 12. Wash-room, 11 pleasure in presenting the accompanying eleva-entry, 4 by 5. W, C, Water Closet. tion and ground plans of a bracketed suburban Second Floor.-A, Entry, 10 feet square. B,