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For the New England Farmer..

WHITEWASH. There has been of late a great deal of prejudice against the use of whitewash for fruit trees. Nor is it to be wondered at, if we look at the manner in which it is usually done. Lime paste and whitewash are two different things; the former is lime slaked and stirred up with cold water; this forms a thick paste, unfit as a whitewash for trees or for other purposes, but is most commonly used for fruit trees. Whitewash is lime dissolved in water, which should be made by slak



1 X 15

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ing lumps of quick-lime in boiling hot water, pouring on but little at first, till it swells and cracks, and then more may be added, till sufficient for the purpose. If this be set aside,

the upper portion will be a transparent limewater, and this is as thick as ever ought to be put on to trees. This will deposite, on evaporation, all over the tree a thin and uniform coating of hydrate of lime, which will kill the plant-lice and mosses effectually, and do no injury to the tree. For whitewashing rooms, a portion of the paste is stirred in with the lime-water, forming a inilk of lime. I am aware that it is rather unpopular, just now, to wash trees at all, but after having seen trees covered with lice and moss, rendered smooth and healthy by lime-water, I

have no hesitancy respecting it, but earnestly Parlor, 15 by 13. C, Bed-room, 12 by 9. D, advocate its use. The idea that a tree is healthiChildren's bed-room, 12 by 16. É, Bed-room, 10 er with a covering of parasites is too absurd to by 12. F, and G, Closets. H, Lumber garret. be tolerated by intelligent and cleanly men. So,

Cellar.–Cement bottom, 22 by 24 feet. too, is the opposite extreme equally absurd, of

Cistern.---Capacity, 190 barrels, with filtering stripping all the covering from it tree, especially apparatus.

when exposed to the powerful rays of the sun, as The plan of the house, in point of convenience is the case on Boston Common. Look at an oak and taste, will place it in rank among our model or maple growing in high, open pisture ground, cottages. Cost.---Exclusive of land, $1,400,-all and you will see that nature generally does her the material and workmanship being of the best work about right. quality.

REMARKS.—Like potash water on fruit trees, lime may

be used without positive injury-per

haps usefully-in the hands of careful and conE

siderate persons; but we greatly prefer tlie use of

good soap suds. 12-16 H

For the New England Farmer.

Mr. Editor :- I beg to say in the start, I am

not an advocate for spring wheat; yet circumF

stances will justify me in advocating its cultivaG

tion the present spring. Flour at $13 to $14 a barrel," (making the price of wheat nearly

$3,50 per bushel) is a hard price for the farmer, B с

while he can afford to raise it at the price of rye, 15-13

say one dollar a bushel. 12-9

The main objections to spring wheat are—that it does not mature so early in the season as winter wheat, is more liable rust, does not yield so much, and makes a heavy, dark bread. But luxury in this matter at the present time is out

of the question; it is bread, at a reasonable price, that the farmer requires.

For the spring crop, select the warmest patch F At Patterson's Falls, in Sparta, N. Y., a boy of ground on the farm, to secure early maturity; four years old fell 100 feet, striking in the deep snow, sow early. The failures may generally be attribunhurt.

D. T. T.


A 10-10



uted to sowing too late, and on a backward, cold to be adduced in its favor, viz.: the improvement soil ; a rich, tenacious soil is better for a winter of the soil, which is as certain to result from the crop. Sow a bushel and a half to the acre ; soak

systematic observance of the principles and rules it over night in a pickle of four quarts of salt to

of this culture, as any effect on which we can eight buckets of water; this might destroy any insect that should be deposited in the grain, or rationally rely. Those who have but little land, perhaps in the berry itself, as is often the case in and who are desirous of renderiag that little proold grains or peas. Too much salt would injure ductive, should cultivate root crops in preference the germ. Roll it in ashes on the floor ; sow to all others. and harrow in, and the grain will come up in three days ; should it be a dry time, use the roll

For the New England Farmer. er; I use it on all my grain crops at all times. Yours respectfully,

PROPAGATING APPLE TREES. New York, March 5, 1855. H. Poor. FRIEND BROWN :- I suppose the design in pube

lishing agricultural journals, is to diffuse a corand much longer than did the "famine” prices a few years find articles on the culture of apple trees so con

*War prices for flour may continue for quite a length of time, rect knowledge of scientific farming. We often since. Europe looks to the United States as their unfailing

Alicting, that those who are seeking for knowledge

are left in ignorance as to the best and most THE WHITE CARROT. economical mode of proceeding. Therefore, all

who write should experimentally understand what Col. De Couteur, in some very able remarks they are communicating to others. It is common upon the value and productiveness of this vegeta- for good farmers to try experiments in the various ble, says, that the acreable product is about thir- branches of their occupation, and, so far as they ty-eight tons. When we take into the estimate have been successful, I think they may be justified the superior excellence and value of the Belgian

in communicating their mode of practice to othor White carrot for stock feeding, this will ap- in fruit growing, mostly apples. My method of

ers. My principal business and income has been pear a very good crop, although far less than is treatment, both in pruning and grafting, has, for often afforded by turnips or even beets. The car- the past twelve years, proved so conducive to the rot, in all its varieties, is a crop requiring a good health, beauty, and productiveness of my trees, soil and thorough cultivation, but probably one a.) that I have felt justified in communicating of the best crops the farmer can produce. Lord practice, hoping, at the same time, it might prove

through your valuable journal, my method of DUCE estimates the expense of cultivating the beneficial to others. white carrot “at little more than half the cost of My mind has been more particularly interested growing any other root crop known to him. The in the management of apple trees, since reading product also of the "whites” exceeds that of the an article in the Farmer, signed '“C. Goodrich, "reds" from eight to nine tons per statute acre selection of trees for transplanting, and many

Burlington, Vt.” As regards his theory in the on the same soil.” We have cultivated the white other topics of his discussing, I do most heartily carrot only in small quantities, and cannot say concur with him. But as to pruning, there is an with any degree of confidence what their com

essential difference between us as to the time and parative merits are. But the opinions of others all of the New England States, my labor in

mode of treatment. If his theory will apply to may, perhaps, lead us to a higher estimate of pruning, for the past twelve years, ought to have some crops not now usually cultivated among been very disastrous, and to have destroyed three us.

hundred trees, which, I am happy to state, are Having caught something of the popular pre- now living witnesses, showing to all

beholders the judices against the cultivation of roots, for many process ! Mr. G. says, "the time for pruning years we entertained a strong belief that they is in June, or early in July. February, March were of little value as feed for stock; but experi- and April, are the worst three months in the ence—that excellent teacher-together with a year for pruning any trees. Sap soon after flows careful investigation of the experiments and from the fresh wounds made by cutting large opinions of many of the best English stock grow-general pruning is then done, it is very destruc

limbs, poisoning and killing the bark, and if ers-has dissipated that belief, and we now deem tive.” He further says, “trees properly planted, it a duty earnestly to recommend the cultivation require attention during the first few years. of root crops to all who have stock of any kind to After this, the pruning required is very trifling in feed. In no way can the farmer produce so much most trees-none during the ordinary life of man. valuable food at so small an outlay of time and of better quality than those grown exposed to the

Apples protected by leaves are much larger and cash ; and if will give the subject a little in- sun in July and August. The most common vestigation, and refer to an article in the June error in pruning is m taking out too much of the number for 1854, basing his estimate of a crop of central portion of the tree, leaving naked limbs, carrots at not less than 800 bushels to the acre, producing fruit only at the ends, beyond the we think he will come to a conclusion favorable This is a very great error indeed, and I have no

reach of any thing larger than a raccoon." to the cultivation of the root crops.

doubt that excessive pruning has frequently come There is also another very important argument under his observation. I also believe that a negleet of pruning at the time specified by Mr. G., (6.) Mr. M. says he commenced pruning in during the ordinary life of man, would be at- February as a matter of economy. Certainly, tended with consequences equally as great. If friend Goodrich could see some of our Rosbury

and that is the usual reason why pruning is done Russets, R. I. Greenings, and many other varie in March—because there is more leisure at that ties, that had not been pruned for ten or twenty season.

We have no doubt that is the reason all years, I think he would come to the conclusion over the State. that nothing larger than a raccoon could get

(c.) After giving the products of his trees for among the branches to harvest the apples. I commenced pruning the orchard I now own

several years, he adds, “so much for February twelve years ago last February, thinking it would and March pruning,'' as though the increase of be economy in me by so doing, as the various the crop were the consequence of the pruning. other branches of farming would soon require my That increase, however, should be imputed to the whole attention. (6.) I have pruned every year, manure, cultivation and care, and not, in any generally selecting the warmest days of February particular degree, to the cutting off of limbs. and March, taking out all limbs that were liable to come in contact and injure others by galling.

(d.) Mr. Goodrich, in his article of April of I have taken off limbs five or six inches in diam- last year, says, “apples protected by leaves are eter, rubbing the wound with cold beef tallow much better, larger and fairer, (being grown as until thinly coated, and thus far they are vigorous Nature designed,) than when grown on long and healthy. The product for the first, third and branches, exposed to the sun in July and August.” tenth years, were as follows :—1842, 45 barrels of winter apples, (early not included ;) 1843, Will any man acquainted with vegetable physi86 barrels ; 1814, 183 barrels ; and in 1852, 400 ology doubt this ? He does not deny the necessity barrels. So much from February and March of sun and air, but is an advocate for a good pruning. (c.), I do not apprehend, from what many leaves. We once knew an intelligent lady, experience and observation I have had, that early and one who understood much about horticulspring pruning of healthy trees would, if judiciously done, ever be attended with serious conse- ture, strip her grape vines of a portion of their quences, in any extreme of climate to which New leaves, in order to let in the sun and ripen the England is subject. But I am aware that, in fruit; but to her surprise, where the leaves repruning diseased trees in any season, there fre, mained as Nature had disposed them, the grapes quently Aows a poisonous sap, blackening and killing the bark below the wound.

were the earliest, and every way the best. This As for apples grown in the shade, protected by led her to investigate the mattor, when she was leaves, being larger, fairer and of a better quality delighted to learn that the leaves were not only than those grown exposed to the fair rays of the the protectors, but the caterers of the fruit, consun, is a question easily to be decided by presenting them for sale in our markets. (d.). A few

stantly elaborating and supplying it with the years since, I selected two barrels, (most of them pabulum it required to bring it to perfection. grew where they had a pretty fair peep at the Mr. Morrison 'is a careful and successful orsun,) and carried them to Boston to be sold on chardist, and it is because he is so, that we are commission. I received twenty, dollars for the unwilling our readers should believe that we enapples, after deducting the commission for selling: dorse his theory of March and April pruning. Now if Mr. G. will select the same quantity of apples grown in the shade, protected by leaves,

If he had pruned a portion of his trees in June or and receive the same amount of money from any October, there would be opportunity of comparof our markets, then we may conclude that his ison on his own grounds—but there is none now. theory and mine, in this respect, hold equally The highest authorities we have are opposed good, although we somewhat disagree in the mode of treatment which produces the fruit.

to Mr. Morrison's theory. Prof. LINDSLEY, the Somerville, 1855.


most eminent horticulturist in our knowledge,

says— take care never to wound trees at the REMARKS.-(a.) Mr. Morrison commenced his time when their sap first begins to flow; after a operations upon trees set by another person, that time, the demand upon the system by the leaves were generally healthy, but selected without a becomes so great that there is no surplus, and particle of taste, being crooked and the limbs of therefore bleeding does not take place when a many of them coming out within two or three wound in inflicted.” feet of the ground. He cleaned and pruned DOWNING saysThere are advantages and disthem, and thoroughly manured and tilled the advantages attending all seasons of pruning, but soil. Where limbs were cut off, the wounds our own experience has led us to believe that were immediately covered with tallow, and the practically, a fortnight before midsummer is by sun, wind and rain kept from their fresh surfaces. far the best season, on the whole, for pruning in By this careful mode of treatment, and giving the northern and middle States." great activity to the growth, he has, undoubt- PONTEY and LOUDon both say—“There is, howedly, gone so far without the usual bad results ever, one season for pruning unquestionably of March and April pruning. If so, however, preferable to all others, as far as the welfare of it is the exception to the general rule.

the tree is concerned. It is well known to physiologists and observant gardeners, that when the am aware, sir, that the foregoing will take up såp is returning, wounds heal with the greatest too much room in your useful columns, for the rapidity. This, in hardy trees, is uniformly a practical farmer, will give us a condensed column

matter it contains, and hope that you, being a week or fortnight after midsummer."

on the use of guano, so that we may not pay out Sang suspends pruning from the end of Feb- as for quack medicine, all our substance for ruary to the middle of July, but carries it on nothing. during every other month of the year; pruning

Respectfully yours, &c., N. COLBY. the cherry, or any other tree very apt to guin,

Derby, Me., Feb. 19, 1855. only in July and August. We have again examined Mr. GOODRICH's ar

EXTRACTS AND REPLIES. ticle, and think it, as we said at the time, worthy

COCK'S-FOOT OR ORCHARD GRASS. of more than the usual attention.

MR. EDITOR :-Can you give me any information about American cock's-foot or orchard

grass ? I see it is highly spoken of in PennsylFor the New England Farmer. vania. Is it cultivated in your State, and how AN EXPERIMENT WITH GUANO.

far North would it succeed? Is it better adapted

than timothy-grass to sow with clover on dry, MR. EDITOR :-A year ago last November, an arid soils, and is the seed kept for sale in your agent of yours asked me to subscribe for the vicinity ?

A SUBSCRIBER. Farmer. Í told him I was taking so many pa- Rewarks.—We have not cultivated this grass, pers that I could hardly afford another, though I was satisfied from representation, that the Far- but find by the books that it thrives well in mer was among the best, and consented to try it. moist, shady places, and especially in orchards. Accordingly it came, and in one month it became It grows freely in most situations, is hardy and so familiar and interesting an inmate of my fami- productive, but rough, harsh and coarse,

and ly, that I could not resist its company ; there- much improved by cultivation in open grounds. fore paid for one volume, and now enclose two dollars for a second, as it grows more and more use

As a single plant to sow with clover for hay, it ful and interesting.

is altogether unsuitable. On good lands, it But I must relate withal, a little sad experi- shoots up strong, coarse stalks, too tall and few ence in following its advice, which if it do not in number, and unfit for fodder; but on inferior elicit something from other pens by which I can soils that are used for pasturage for several profit, this relation may benefit somebody. I have long thought that farmers were too penurious in years in high situations, it forms one of the most making outlays upon their farms—looking too valuable grasses, shoots early, and affords from much upon the amount expended, rather than to its tufted growth, an early bite for cattle or the interest to be derived from the outlay, and the sheep. The seed is for sale at Ruggles, Nourse, extraordinary security of such investment. For Mason & Co.'s, Boston, at $2,50 per bushel. instance, most farmers have more or less swamp covered with deep muck worse than useless in its natural state, which by expending one hundred

SULPHURIC ACID. dollars per acre in clearing it up, root and branch, MR. EDITOR :—In the monthly Farmer for Ocand ditching it, may be made more valuable than tober, 1852, is an article giving the process of any other land whatever ; sure to return to the dissolving bones in diluted sulphuric acid. As I owner from 9 to 12 per cent. on the outlay, be- wish to try this as a manure, I would like a litsides paying all expenses.

tle information concerning the price of the acid, Last spring, with this view, and hearing so much and place of obtaining it. about guano, I thought I would try it. Accord- The price given in the article referred to, is one ingly I sent to Boston and got 150 lbs., which dollar for forty pounds ; but our merchants here, cost me here $5,00—and which whe pounded ask three cents for an ounce, which would be fine, measured about three bushels. This I mixed forty-eight cents per pound. At that rate it thoroughly with nine bushels of good rotten would make rather costly manure. swamp muck. I had “broken up,

as we say,

Weston, V., Feb. 26, 1855. about an acre of grass ground, good land for corn, after putting on 20 loads of long manure ; har

REMARKS.—The price of sulphuric acid as givrowed it smooth, made a nice hill, and planted it en in the October article was correct, as we went with corn as far as the guano went, by putting directly to the dealers for it. It may be a little one pint of the mixture (one gill of guano) to the higher or lower now, and can be purchased in hill, placing the corn directly upon the mixture quantities of any of the large druggists. It comes and covering it with fine soil

. This seemed to in large demijohns of about 150 pounds each. dry up and look as though it were caked and never sprouted. After four or five days, I planted it over by putting the seed on the top of the old hill, and with the same result. The rest of MR. EDITOR :—In the April number of the the piece I planted with muck from the hog-yard Horticulturist for 1852, a communication from a in the hill and had a good crop. The seed was “Montreal Subscriber" is published in reference all alike, and prepared in copperas water, accord- to "Mowing Machines for Lawns,” which he ing to directions found in the Farmer-and it represents as doing the work in a superior manall came up well except that with the guano. I ner, and very expeditiously. He gives what he

L. B. P.



J. B. C.


calls a cut and description of an English mowing conveys it to the roots of the plants. Plaster machine for lawns, furnished by Messrs. Shanks may be applied to pasture or mowing lands in & Son, Arbroath, N. B., but little idea of its March or early in April, often with fine effect. construction, operation or utility can be gathered from either, further than—that it is made When applied to these lands it ought to be sowed to cut different breadths from 20 to 42 inches, when there is a heavy dew, or when it is cloudy performing three different operations at the same weather. time, viz. : rolling, mowing and collecting the grass, and works with perfect ease, producing a beautiful smooth surface,and attended with a great saving in abridging labor. We will all agree, I

MR. EDITOR :-Please tell "J.T. W." of Marlpresume, that if there was an article for mowing boro', N. H., to graft his plum tree, if it has fawns which could be obtained at a moderate not been done. If it has been grafted, tell him price, that would do its work well, and expedi- to prune the roots, if the tree is thrifty, and, my tiously, it would not only be of great utility to word for it, he will have a good crop of plums, many who are endeavoring to keep extensive if the curculio don't find its location. grounds in order with the scythe ; but would North Reading, 1855. probably induce hundreds of our friends to have their grounds in good keeping who are deterred by the time, expense and trouble now required

FRIEND BROWN :-Will you please inform me for that purpose. And now, Mr. Editor, will through your excellent paper, what month of the you or your correspondents be so good as to put us on the right track for obtaining the most desi- year you consider as best for applying muscle-bed rable article of the kind for the above purpose land is rich, though a little dry in summer, as it

manure ; also, in what quantity to the acre. My now in use, and oblige many as well as

lies on a substratum of sand at the depth of 2 feet. A HARTFORD SUBSCRIBER.

Boston, Feb. 15, 1855. A SUBSCRIBER. Hartford, Conn., 1855.

REMARKS.-We have never used “muscle-bed” REMARKS.—Mr. Nourse, the proprietor of th is paper, when in England, sent home an English dence. We should think, however, that it must

as a manure, and cannot speak of it with confilawn grass-cutter, or mowing inachine, which

be a valuable fertilizer ; it contains common salt, we had the pleasure of examining, and thought which is an important ingredient in the best of mait among the most highly-finished and beautiful machines of that character that we have ever

nures, and most with putrid animal substances.

Some of our coast correspondents will be able to seen. It not only cut the grass, but collected it

answer the interrogatories. as fast as it went along. We believe it was the intention of the house of Ruggles and Company to manufacture them, but the demand, as yet, does not seem to justify it. It is thought that

MR. EDITOR :—If I lay on the bottom of the a one-horse mowing machine, taking a swarth

ditch a board, and slate on the board, (such

as is used for houses) lengthwise, and then comabout three feet wide, would be admirably adapt- mon bricks on each side of the slate, edgewise, ed to lawn mowing, as well as to the common half-an-inch apart, and slate on the top to cover fields. We hope something will be found to the same, and then fill the drain, will it not anmow lawns rapidly, because there is no one thing

swer equally as well as drain brick ? more ornamental to the farm than a handsome, close pasture, I thought she might have strained

Having a lame cow last fall while going in a well-kept lawn, and if it could be cut rapidly herself in some way, but did not take much noand conveniently, no other part of the farm would tice of it. She went as though sore in her fore be more profitable.

feet, and finally grew worse, until the first of January, when I examined her, thinking she might

be sore between the dew-claws, but could find no I wish to inquire through your paper the best symptoms of discase there; I thought it must be time to use plaster? Whether to put it in to the previous number of the Farmer. I got a bone as

I hill when planting potatoes, or at hoeing time?

big as a man's fist, and burnt it to a white powAlso, when to use it on grain at sowing time as der, and gave her in four of her regular doses of when the grain is up, and what ground it will do meal at night, which soon effected a perfect cure. best on. Stubble ground or grass land, plow this Newburyport, Feb. 17, 1855.

Q. Z. spring, or how will it do mixed with ashes? My farm is somewhat of a gravelly soil.

REMARKS.-We suppose the inquirer means to

SALMON GERRY. ask whether the plan he describes will answer as Cabot, Vt., March 3, 1855.

well for draining as to use what are called drainREMARKS—After plowing a field, sow the plas- ing tile? Where stones are plenty, no bricks or ter broadcast and harrow under, two or three slates are required. A good stone drain, with a hundred pounds to the acre. Use yonr ashes at gullet of three to six inches in diameter, covered some other time. Plaster operates beneficially with stone first, and then with straw, grass or on light, dry, and sandy or open soils, as they sods reversed, will make a drain which will stand soonest admit the rain water which dissolves and for a great many years.



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