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have taken from this swamp, and the potatoes of evaporation is then kept up, to such a degree, which they have grown upon its surface, have that the temperature is not sufficiently elevated paid them for their labor from year to year, and, to afford the needed stimulus to the roots of now they have a valuable estate which will con- plants. Hence the object aimed at is not attaintinue to yield them large crops, with but little ed. Deep draining, that shall free the whole expense in its cultivation. How could they have soil from stagnant water, is the only draining made a more profitable investment than this ? that can be effectual, or that is worth attemptBut they did not invest money. They have cre- ing. In many instances border draining that ated this property by their own labors, and the shall cut off the spring water fromt he surroundproper question is, in what way could they have ing highlands is the only effectual method. employed their labor more profitably. The effect But enough for once. produced upon such lands by draining is truly astonishing. There are several reasons by which the beneficial effects of draining may be account- CULTIVATION OF THE PEAR TREE. ed for. But we shall speak of only one of these In a recent number of the Farmer we gave reasons at present.
Draining elevates the temperature of the soil many minute suggestions about the cultivation many degrees, and thereby fits it to yield a vig- of the grape, with such plain outline illustraorous growth to plants, which before refused al- tions as would enable any one, however unskilled together to grow upon it. When a soil is satu- in the practice, to proceed with success.
We rated with water, the most intense heat of the
propose now to do the same with the pear, availsun can raise its temperature but very little. If you place a kettle filled with water over the fire,
ing ourselves of such help as we find in the the temperature of the water will rise rapidly
books---particularly Thomas's American Fruit until it reaches 212 degrees. The water then Culturist--and of suggestions gathered from conbegins to be converted into steam. You may versations with some of the best pear culturists continue to add fuel. and apply the bellows, but in Massachusetts. But this article will be dethe water grows no hotter. All the caloric add- voted to dwarf trees; the standard trees being od is rendered latent in the change of form which the water undergoes. In other words, the calor- those in which the natural form is developed, and ic is carried off by the steam as fast as it is im- which attain the largest size, and produce the parted to the water. Steam is water combined most fruit with the least care. They are slow of with a certain amount of caloric. Abstract this growth, however, and occupy a good deal of caloric from steam, and it becomes water again. So the heat of the sun poured upon a wet soil, is
space. employed in converting a portion of the water
The dwarfs, on the contrary, may stand within into vapor, and is conveyed away by the vapor, ten or twelve feet of each other, or even less, and just as the heat of the fire is carried away from will produce fruit abundantly, in the course of the water by the steam. Thus the temperature three or four years. They require a deep, moist, of the soil of the swamp filled with water, is sev- rich soil, such as would produce good garden eral degrees lower than that of the soil of the adjacent dry land, and you cannot by any possi- vegetables, with frequent cultivation during all bility raise the temperature of this soil until the the growing months. Thomas says : water is evaporated from it. When the water in the kettle is all converted into steam, you may frequently to dwarf pears,) the early treatment
For pyramids, (a form of training applied most heat the kettle to a red heat. So when the is quite different from that of standards. As the swampy soil is freed from water, the heat of the
sap tends to the summit of the tree, producing sun will warm it equally with adjacent lands, the strongest side-shoots towards the top, and the and indeed its temperature will often be found shortest and most feeble towards the bottom, the higher than that of other lands, for its black car- natural form of the tree gradually becomes a bonaceous soil absorbs caloric more rapidly than trunk or stem, with a branching head. To prebrighter colored soils. Thus the first effect of vent this result, and give a strong broad set of draining is to prepare the soil to be warmed by branches at the bottom, a thorough and regular
It is equivalent to transporting it system of shortening-down must be adopted at many degrees south into a more genial clime.. It the outset. The following is a brief outline of is the first step in the redemption of such soils; the course usually pursued. all other means without this will be of no avail.
After the single shoot from the bud has grown You may level and plow and top-dress, and sow grass seeds. But it will constantly tend to return to its natural state. Meadow grass will be constantly coming in and the herds grass and clover constantly dying out, because the soil is not warm enough to produce any other kind of grase. Many swamps and meadows overlie a stratum of sand, or hard pan. The draining should, if possible, be sufficiently deep, to carry of the water from the whole depth of overlying soil. Whether the water is carried off only to the depth of a few inches and the soil is left wet and muddy below this, the water is drawn up by ca- one season, (fig. a.) it is cut down so as to leave pillary attraction to the surface, and the process not over one foot, and if the tree is weak not over
six inches, (b.) As a consequence, the buds on
The new side shoots thus
Horizontal training is effected by carrying out
All persons intending to cultivate the pear, 4.- Four-year Pyramid. shown at the figures 1, 2, 3, even if on a limited scale. will be well paid for and the cross lines indicating the place for the the trouble by visiting the gardens of those who fourth pruning. Fig. e. represents a perfectly have had experience, and looking at the forms of pruned pyramid in bearing:
the trees and learning the modes of management After the tree has attained sufficient size, its further extension is prevented by pruning back
by others. As much may be gained by observathe shoots. If the fruit spurs become too nu
tion, perhaps more, than in any other way. merous, a part of them are to be pruned closely Below we give a list selected by Col. WILDER, out, so as to give an even and not crowded crop. and another by Mr. JAQUES, of Worcester, both When spurs become too old, they may be mostly distinguished for their success in pear culture. removed for new ones to spring from their bases. Some varieties of the pear throw out side
COL. WILDER'S LIT. shoots spontaneously the first year. Such trees may be treated in a manner not unlike the or- For three varieties : For twelve varieties, add,
Bartlett, dinary two-year pyramid. On the contrary, such
Belle Lucrative, sorts as have small or flat buds, may need a more Beurre d'Aremberg.
Seckle, severe cutting back than others, in order to
For sir varieties, add, Flemish Beanty,
Urbaniste, arouse the buds into action and induce them to
Louise Bonne de Jersey, break into shoots. Throughout the whole process of pruning and
GEORGE JAQUES' List. training pyramids, as well as every other tree, the frequent error of allowing the shoots and
PEARS ON QUINCE. branches to become too thick and to crowd each
... September. other, should be carefully avoided. The size and
2. Louise Bonne de Jersey..
.Sept. and Oct.
3. Urbaniste..... beauty of the fruit, and its perfection in richness
4. Duchesse d'Angouleme.... and flavor, where there is plenty of room for the full, vigorous, and healthy development of the LEAVES which supply all the material for the grow
..Aug. and Sept. ing fruit, will repay well the labor required for 2. Bartlett.................
... September, (early.) this excellent result.
Golden Beurre of Bilboa.
TIMB OF RIPEYING.
5. Beurre Diel...
...Oct. to Nov. ..... November. Nov. and Dec. .Dec. and Jan.
3. Flemish Beauty.
...September, (late.) 4. Seckel..
...October 5. Dix...
..........Oct. and Nov. 6. Beurre d'Aremberg............... .Dec. and Jan. Extending the list, I would add, 7. Madeleine..
..August 8. Andrews.
. September 9. Belle Lucrative....
.September 10. Louise Bonne de Jersey.
............Sept. and Oct. 11. Urbaniste...
..........Oct. and Nov. 12. Winter Nelis..
Dec. and Jan.
BY WILLIAM W. HILL.
cultivation of forest trees, in which he had been interested for a few years. The cultivation of forest trees, he said, required as much knowledge and skill as that of fruit trees. In the first place, we should know how and when to save, and when to sow the seed of our forest trees, and should understand what trees are best adapted to
our soils. Ornamental trees often fail from a We observe that in the above lists the old St. want of knowledge on this latter point. GenerMichael is omitted. When in perfection, this ally, if a man fancies a particular kind of tree, pear is scarcely excelled by any that grows; or, he transplants it to his grounds, without any reat any rate, by only three or four varieties. Of gard to the adaptation of the soil to its growth. late years, we are told that it has succeeded quite In the matter of sowing trees we must follow nawell in many localities. In setting even one dozen ture as closely as possible, and get the seeds of trees, we should certainly include the St. Mi- when they are in the right state to sow. We chael,--known also as the White Doyenne, Vir- know that the chestnut, oak, &c., are ripe in the galieu, Butter Pear, &c.
autumn, when the frosts bring their fruit to the
ground; the pitch pine ripens any time during TENTH LEGISLATIVE AGRICULTU. the winter; the white pine in August; the RAL MEETING.
yellow and black birch in July; the elm and Reported for the New England Farmer, maple in June ; and the sugar maple in August
and the first of September. A great cause of Number ten in the course of Agricultural meet-failure, is want of knowledge in saving the seed, ings took place at the State House on Tuesday and also in covering them too deep, or plantevening, 20th inst.
ing them where they will be exposed to a burnHon. ALBERT H. Nelson, of Woburn, a mem- ing sun. Nearly all trees will fail to come up if ber of the Governor's Council, presided. planted in such situations, and should be put
The subject for consideration, was—The Culti- where they will be shaded. Maples and birches, vation of Fruit and Forest Trees.
however, being hardy, vigorous trees, will come Mr. Nelson, on taking the chair, made some up and grow anywhere. It would be a good eloquent remarks upon the general subject of plan to sow white birch (which ripens in Noagriculture, and alluded to the fond hope which vember and December) with white pine, as the he cherished, of at some time breaking away from latter is apt to come up too thick. By so doing, his professional labors, and cultivating a farm— the pines will grow up more slender and make his own broad acres,—and following that occu- much better timber. Forcible reference was pation which he believed more completely than made to the Yankee propensity to destroy trees. any other promoted the best interests of the We clear land which is good for nothing, burn it community. He was happy to believe that the over, and leave it a waste. There is great diftime has come when the dignity, beauty and im- ference in setting out trees. It is almost impos portance of agriculture are perfectly understood, sible to make oaks and pines live—whereas maand the farmer is no longer ashamed of his call-ples do very well. The river or silver maple is ing. Yet there lingers the idea that farming is a superior variety, which is almost always found not so remunerating as many other pursuits in with its roots in water. Four years ago the life. It was his earnest conviction, however, speaker took up some in a half bushel basket, that if the farmer would devote the same amount and planted them, and now they are twelve feet of mental and physical labor to his calling that high and three inches through at the butt. They . the merchant does to his if he would work as will grow well on good uplands. Pitch pines may many hours, and direct all the energies of his be sowed, but white pines may be transplanted mind to the great object of success, studying ag- if a good sod is taken up with them. The speakricultural works and reading agricultural news-er concluded by recommending Emerson's work papers, with the same application that the tra- on trees as the best within his knowledge. It der bestows upon the financial articles in his was published by order of the Massachusetts Legdaily paper, and informing himself of the wants islature. of commerce and the laws which govern it—the Mr. Flint, Secretary of the Board of Agriculfarmer would reap large rewards more surely ture, made some interesting statements in regard than the merchant. Mr. Nelson concluded by to the extent to which forest trees are cultivated calling for remarks from
in this State. In Barnstable county, twenty Mr. CUTTER, of Pelham, N. H., who proceed- years ago, the cultivation of the pitch pine was ed to relate his experience and observation in the commenced as an experiment, and now it is esti
mated that there are fifteen hundred acres cov- sand to the acre are wanted, and after they come ered with a growth of these trees. In Plymouth up they should be thinned out. If a plant fails, county, also, considerable attention has been be- or is of poor growth, by cutting down to the surstowed upon growing trees, and forests of oak and face of the earth, new shoots will spring up locust have been successfully planted. If the ex- thriftily, and in this way just such a tree as is periment has proved successful in the sandy soils desired may be obtained. As to the varieties of of these counties, there can be no question that oak, of course white oak is the best, although it trees might be cultivated elsewhere with profit, is slow of growth. Yet there are other kinds almost and to the great benefit of the community. The as good, particularly chestnut oak, which is seed of the pines is easily obtained. The burrs beautiful in foliage and form, perfectly hardy, are gathered in the fall and dried, either gradu- and will grow on soil where the white oak cannot ally or by heating them, and the seed rattles out. Pourish. Another excellent variety is the pin It sells in Barnstable for $1,00 per quart, and a oak, which is a rapid grower. The English oak, quart is sufficient for one acre. When our fore- also, grows faster than ours, and will adapt itself fathers landed at Provincetown, on Cape Cod, to almost any kind of soil. English oaks imwhich is now but a barren sand heap, the prom- ported by the speaker eight years ago, now proontory was covered with a dense forest and the duce a bushel of acorns, and are four feet in cirsoil was a spade deep; but on cutting off the cumference. They grow as rapidly as the wiltrees the winds had a clean sweep, and blew the low. Another valuable species is the ash,
which sands completely over the whole surface, thus will grow as well as the oak. The Scotch larch, converting it into a barren waste. In some parts too, is a superior tree, particularly for posts. of the Cape cedars have been tried to some ex- They can be imported a foot-and-a-half high tent, and they are now multiplying rapidly. for $7 or $8 per thousand. They will grow upon Mr. Flint read an interesting letter from J. W. any barren soil, and the wood is almost indestrucProctor, Esq., of Danvers, in relation to the tiblefar better than cedar. Some set out eight cultivation of trees, in which the remark was years ago are now thirty feet high. If it is promade that there could be obtained from an acre posed to grow oaks, take land which is of no val. of rock maple trees as much value in sugar, and ue for any other purpose, planting 3000 to the that without injuring the trees, as could be ob- acre, as many will not come up, and thin out so tained from an acre of corn, while the wood of as to leave only four or five hundred trees and the trees would increase the profits.
at the end of forty years ten acres treated in this Mr. Fay, of Lynn, was the next speaker. He way would yield-a sum which would hardly be said his experience in cultivating forest trees only credited—they would be worth all the rest of the covered a period of ten years, yet he had tried farm. almost all sorts of trees, and had in particular Lieut. Gov. Brown said he had had no praetiexperimented with oaks, of which he now has cal experience in regard to the cultivation of forsixteen or seventeen varieties on his place at est trees, but he had noticed throughout New EngLynn. We have a vast deal of waste land, which land a prevailing desire to eut down and extermiis too rough for the plow, and too rocky and ster- nate forest trees. People enter a piece of land and ile for grazing, which is capable of producing make a clearing, cutting down all the beautiful all kinds of indigenous oaks, and the only ques- maples, oaks, &c., and burning them, and then the tion is, how to get this land back to forest again. very next thing go and plant trees for ornamental Nine years ago he planted with acorns a good purposes ! Their passion to destroy does not piece of land, once covered with oaks ; they came stop till they find perfect desolation all around up,and the first year grew seven or eight inches,and them, and then they go to the swamps and pick that is their height now. It seems as if they were out a few poor varieties for shade trees. If we waiting for some course of nature with the soil, go on as we have done here in Massachusetts, exto get an impulse to grow. At the same time terminating our forests, before many years there these were planted, he sowed some in a seed bed, will be a great scarcity of indigenous trees, and covering them a couple of inches, took them up the capabilities of the soil will quite likely be the next spring and cut off the tap-root, and then very seriously affected. It is doubtful, if the planted them in rows a foot apart, there being trees were all cut off, whether we could raise a six inches of space between the plants, and after crop of corn. Trees are great condensers of moisletting them grow for a year or two, until they ture, absorb much nutriment from the air, and were two or three feet high, he transplanted some drop their leaves; and in other ways tend to benof them to the same piece of land where the oth-efit the soil. A greater crop of grass can be got ers were planted, and they are now ten feet in from a field where there are ten or twenty apple height. Care should be taken to keep cattle from trees to the acre, and one or two hundred the plants. In planting acorns, about three thou- bushels of apples will be obtained beside. Mr.
Brown said he would like to hear something in and suspend them as chandeliers for their dwelregard to pruning forest trees. He had always lings. The bottle-nested sparrow, or baya, is one understood that it would not answer to trim for- of the kidnappers. Its nest is closely woven like
cloth in the figure of a large inverted bottle, with est trees, particularly evergreens. The argument the entrance at the orifice of the neck. The inwas that when the tree was done with the lower terior is divided by partitions into two or three limbs, they would die and fall off. But he knew chambers, one over the other. These are proof a forest of white pines in New Hampshire foundly dark until lit up with fire-flies caught which the owner had entered and trimmed, and with pieces of wet clay or cow-dung for sconces.
alive, and mercilessly fixed to the walls or ceiling he believed that it grew faster than any other -From “The World a Workshop. within his knowledge. Mr. Fay, of Lynn, said there was much differ
LET US TRY TO BE HAPPY. ence of opinion about pruning forest trees. If
Let us try to be happy! we may if we will oaks are stunted they should be cut off down to
Find some pleasures in life to o'erbalance the ill; the ground, but after they are twenty feet high, There was never an evil, if well understood, the pruning should be done in a regular series, But what, rightly managed, would turn to a good. taking off the lower branches each year. The
If we were but as ready to look to the light
As we are to set moping because it is night, best time is in the summer, when the sap has as- We should own it a truth, both in word and in deed, cended, as healing takes place when the sap de- That who tries to be happy is sure to succeed. scends, so that if cut in July the wounds almost Let us try to be happy! some shades of regret immediately heal over. A great mistake is made Are sure to hang round, which we cannot forget ;
There are times when the lightest of spirits must bow in going into a forest with an axe. The trimming
And the sunniest face wear a cloud on its brow; should be done very gradually after trees get We must never bid feelings, the purest and best, twenty or thirty feet high, or their growth will To lie blunted and cold in our bosoms at rest ; be checked.
But the deeper our own griefs, the greater our neod
To try to be happy, lest othor hearts bleed. Mr. CUTTER, of New Hampshire, said that he
Oh! try to be happy! it is not for long had noticed that where large limbs had been cut
We shall cheer on each other by counsel or song ; off it injured the timber. If white pines are If we make the best use of our time that we may, trimmed when small, the wound heals over and There is much we can do to enliven the way. they make good timber. An axe should not be ap
Let us only in earnestness each do our best
Before God and our conscience, and trust for the rest ; plied in trimming a tree, as it invariably injures
Still taking this truth, both in word and in deed, it. The great error in pruning is in doing too That who tries to be happy is sure to succeed. much at a time. If green limbs are to be trimmed it should be done in December, when the tree GRAFTED CHESTNUT TREES. is frozen ; April is the worst time in the year to The Cincinnati Gazette publishes an interesting trim. The dead limbs should be taken off in Ju- letter from Mr. Sheldon 1. Kellogg, to the Wine ly and August.
growers' Association, dated Bordeaux, France,
on the cultivation of the chestnut. He says: Rev. Mr. Trask, of Fitchburg, followed in
“I have been much surprised in seeing the some appropriate remarks upon the æsthetic great dependence the poorer classes make upon branch of the subject of cultivating trees. the large chestnut for their daily food. It is culMessrs. Brigham, of Worcester, and BUCKuin- for this purpose. All classes use them more or
tivated in this neighborhood in great abundance STER of the Ploughman, made some excellent re- less; the rich having them daily brought upon marks upon the general subject.
their tables as dessert, either boiled or roasted. Mr. SHELDON, of Wilmington, spoke practi- It is often made into a soup, which is highly cally on the matter, particularly in regard to esteemed. They are cooked in a multitude of fruit trees, and would have any one who designed nature which is so very delicate and nourishing.
ways, and I know of nothing of a farinaceous to raise an orchard, take twelve trees, and trim “The marron, or large chestnut, is the produce one of them each month in the year—and thus of the wild chestnut after being engrafted. The decide practically the proper time for pruning wild tree, at three or four years of age, is cut trees.
square off, say four or five feet from the ground.
The stump is then split twice. These splits interOn motion of Mr. Flint, the subject of Fruit sect at right angles at the centre of the stump: Trees was continued to the next meeting. Ad- There is then inserted one good-sized branch of journed.
the same tree in every section of the splits,
making four branches in each stump. Care is FIRE-FLIES.-In tropical climes, various lumi- always taken to make the bark of the branches nous insects are attached to female head-dresses. and the bark of the stump join each other as They are also used as lamps. I have read fine closely as possible. The graft is then surrounded print in a dark room by the light of two small with clay and moss, to prevent the overflow of Long Island fire-flies in a tumbler. But man the sap, and it scarcely ever fails of success. The was not the first to rob these living, gems of their period selected in this climate for this operation liberty and radiance. There are birds that seize is the month of February. The produce of this