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J. R.

graft is usually a fine, large, beautifully colored Injurious to Vegetation ; Youatt and Martin on marron, about the size of our buckeyes. They Cattle, by Stevens ; and Farm Implements, by J. are much more delicate in texture and flavor than J. Thomas. our own wild chestnut. They are never eaten

Begin with these, and as opportunity offers without being cooked. The tree is very beautiful.

read Loudon's works—especially his Arboretum

which are a library in themselves, Downing's, EXTRACTS AND REPLIES. Stephens', Lindsley, Sinclair's Code, &c. &c. We

can boast now of an elegant agricultural literaMR. Brown :-You will greatly oblige a con- ture, and you will find pleasure in perusing these stant reader of the Farmer, and a tyro in agricul- works, as well as profit. tural matters, if you will answer the following questions. I have six acres of land, and intend making it

MR. Brown: I had a fine cow, eight years a market garden. I wish a select list of the earliest and best varieties of vegetables,as follows :

old, tough and hearty, who was apparently well Best early peas for market ; early cabbage : dead. She lay in her usual position, as though

at nine o'clock at night, and in the morning late cabbage ; early cucumber ; early sugar corn; there had been no struggle. On an examination early potatoes ; early squash.

Can the "Valparaiso squash" seed be obtained the stomach appeared blistered and highly inin Boston ?

flamed, and the blistered part slipt off. There Can the top onions” be obtained in Boston ?

were no other symptoms to describe. Can you At what seed store can I best obtain a supply

or Doct. Dadd throw any light on this case ? of the above seeds together with others ?

Bethel, Vt., 1855. A Young FARMER. Saco, Me., 1855.

REMARKS.–We cannot enlighten you. Will

Dr. Dadd? REMARKS.–For peas take the early Kent-cabbages, early York-late cabbage, the Drumhead

WHAT PEARS SHALL I SET ? for cucumbers, the "frame"—sugar corn, eight

If you could give us in the Farmer a list of rowed sweet potatoes, early white blue-nose—for pears hardy enough for this locality, you would squashes, early summer crook-neck. We cannot do us a great kindness. I have tried the Barttell you where the Valparaiso squash seed is to be lett, and several other kinds, but they are not found—but it isn't worth raising. The “top on

hardy enough; they grow well in the summer, ions," and all the other seeds you desire, may be the snow is dead.

but the next spring every twig that stood above

JOHN H. CURRIER. found at Ruggles, Nourse, Mason & Co.'s seed McIndoes Falls, Vt. store, at Quincy Hall, and probably at the other

Remark8.— The English Jargonelle, Dunmore, seed stores in Boston.

Louise Bonne de Jersey, Urbaniste, Seckel, Buerre
Diel, Vicar of Winkfield, Winter Nelis and St.

Michael, are hardy varieties. These should be on Simon Brown, Esq. :—Dear Sir, I have a desire to study the science of agriculture, and re

the quince, except the Jargonelle, Dunmore and quest you to furnish, a small list of the very best Seckel, which are best on the pear stock. The primary works for me to commence with-say to Bartlett is a noble pear, and will do well, we the extent of from $10 to $25.

think, if grafted on a hardy pear tree. Several of my country friends wish a plain work on agricultural chemistry, and have spoken of Chaptal and also of Johnston. Please name

For the New England Farmer. the best works on that special subject. I am

PATH-BREAKER. willing to devote my leisure hours for three or

MR. EI OR :-In these days of snow, take two four years to a preparation for farming. I wish to understand the theory and the practice of true widths of plank (hard wood is the best) 18 inagriculture.

B. D. Holcomb.

ches wide, shape in the form of a harrow (trian

gle) with an iron to hook the chain-board Cincinnati, Feb., 1855. office,

over the top, to pile on the boys, and with one REMARKS. -We reply with pleasure to our cor

yoke of oxen, you break your own paths and can respondent. The book wbich we shall first re- lar attention to these small matters of comforta

do much for the village s who do not pay particucommend is the Farmers' Encyclopedia, adapted ble sidewalks. The cost is a mere trifle, and they to the United States by Gouverneur Emerson. It last for years if kept under cover. is a royal octavo of some 1200 pages, and treats

Yours respectfully, both in a scientific and practical manner, of near

Brooklyn, New York, Feb. 26, 1855. ly all the topics coming under the farmer's care. Then Elements of Agricultural Chemistry and Ge PRUNING.—THOMAS says—“The season for prunology, by James F. W. Johnston ; Davy's Agri- ing old orchards is late in autumn, or in winter, cultural Chemistry; Farmer's Companion, by Bu- or at mid-summe; but not in spring, when the ell; Downing's Fruits and Fruit Trees; Ameri- flow of sap is apt to injure and cause the decay can Muck Book, by D. J. Browne; HarrisInsects of the wood at the wounds."


H. P.

For the New England Farmer. The gentleman refers to the four hornless, illA CHINA PEACH.

looking cows, that average one and a half pounds

of butter each, for a period of forty days from I noticed in some numbers of the Horticulturist, June 1st to July 10th, for which the 1st premiof 1853, some account of a China peach, raised um of the Essex Society was awarded. Mr. John in one of our southern States. It was spoken of Stowe, Jr., of Marblehead, was then the owner of as probably or undoubtedly the only tree in this these cows; he can tell all about the quality and country from such a source.

weight of their butter, and whatever he may say There are in the grounds adjoining my own about it, is worthy of entire confidence. some peach trees, imported from Shanghai, in

The gentleman from W. appears to be quite China, several years since. They were rooted in sensitive, as to the use of the term native, when tubs, and the owner of the vessel for whom the applied to animals, as do many other gentlemen captain obtained them, sent them to his natural of distinguished intelligence. I presume it is not home in this town. The original trees have not in my power to enlighten him on this topic. A proved good bearers. But other trees budded gentleman, so entirely conversant with the best from them have yielded very good crops. One of farms in the best county of the commonwealth, my neighbors has had trees in bearing (budded nine-tenths of the stock on which are natives, and from these) for four or five years. I also have nothing different from natives, if he does not know some, which bore last fall for the second time. what is meant by the term native, I would not It is a very large peach, above the usual size, but presume to instruct him. My idea of the meanby no means so large as to prove the truth of the ing of the term, is the same as that of the great dictum of the captain who imported them, who mass of the yeomanry of the commonwealth. I said that he had seen them in China as large as have no patience with gentlemen when they unhis head. The skin and flesh is pale; and, with- dertake to mystify this matter. There is an affecout being at all deficient in juice, it is a very tation of learning in so doing, which is not to meaty peach, the flesh seeming, to have more be commended. substance than is usual. I consider it a superior 1 repeat, sir, that I feel under great obligapeach, much above a medium quality ; yet there tions to the gentleman from W., for his careful are others I should prefer if mature at the same and accurately stated management of his dairy : time. This, ripening just as the best peaches are and am glad to know that his success was mainly leaving us, becomes a superior variety, at that to be attributed to the skill and fidelity of his time. 'If you would like, I would be happy to excellent wife. I was quite sure that no bachelsend you a specimen next season. The leaves are

or could ever have earned or merited such a presubject to the mildew; the fruit has unequal mium, as he obtained, and I am equally well sides, forming a marked ridge around it.

pleased to know that our own New England Yours, &c., Lewis S. HOPKINS. breed of cows (by whatever name they may Northampton, Feb. 15, 1855.

called) with the same care and the same feed,

are as good (to say the least) as any others. REMARKS.–We should be gratified with a sight

Essex. and taste of this peach.

For the New England Farmer.

For the New England Farmer.

Sir :- I noticed in one of the late numbers of

the Farmer, that you say that quinces are used Friend Brown :-I am most happy to notice only as a preserve. It is, perhaps, unknown to by your paper of this morning, (March 10th,) your readers that they make a very agreeable that the rappings of the spirit of the "old Oaks pickle, if boiled in vinegar, with brown sugar, to cow' have not in the least impaired the wits of which are added cloves, cinnamon, &c. Even the gentleman from Worcester, and although he when they have been unluckily hard frozen, they may not be able to milk as freely as he could he will answer for this purpose---only less sugar will fore his hand was lame, he certainly writes with be then required. They are quartered and pared out any perceptible impediment.

and the cores cut out. Ten pounds of fruit are If the gentleman had charged me with partial-boiled, to which add five pounds of sugar und ity, instead of prejudice, I should at once have from three to five pints of vinegar, one ounce of owned up-for I must confess, other things being whole cinnamon, and half an ounce of whole equal, I do like our own, better than I do foreign cloves, and boil down, place in a jar and pour the breeds—whatever description of animals they may hot syrup upon it. With many the quince, be. I am in spirit a native American-though baked like an apple, is a favorite, adding syrup not in the modern use of the term, professed by or molasses and water to the dish in which they such. I detest secresy and double-shuffle, wher- are baked. Those fond of a tart baked apple, ever it may be found. In truth, I am a plain will probably be pleased with the baked quince, Yankee, neither more or less.

and much prefer it. Yours, &c., The gentleman from W. charges me with being

LEWIS S. HOPKINS. unfair. I certainly did not intend to be unfair, Northampton, Feb. 15, 1855. either towards himself or his stock. He would represent his pastures as being of an inferior or- MEASUREMENT or Hay in Bulk.—Multiply the der. I had no suspicion of this. I supposed they length-breadth and height of the hay into each were ordinarily very good pastures, only a little shortened by the extraordinary dryness of the sea-other, and if the hay is somewhat setiled, ten son, as were all pastures that came within my ob- solid yarıls will weigh a ton. Clover will take servation.

eleven to twelve yards to a ton.


For the New England Farmer. body who has handled an oyster shell, must have INTERESTING EXPERIMENT WITH observed that it seemed as if composed of succes

sive layers or plates overlapping each other. PEAR SEEDLINGS.

These are technically termed "shoots," and each Having some pear trees which started from seed of them marks a year's growth ; so that by countlast spring, 1 tried in mid-summer the experimenting them, we can determine at a glance the year of cutting the tap root of all of them a few inches when the creature came into the world. Up to below the ground, to make them throw out the time of its maturity, the shoots are regular lateral roots, having heard that it was very diffi- and successive; but after that time they become cult in our country to raise pear seedlings, be- irregular, and are piled one above the other, so cause of their being thrown from the ground by that the shell becomes more and more thickened the frost, and that this was attributable to the and bulky. Judging from the great thickness want of lateral roots. I took a rainy morning to which some oyster shells have attained, this for my division of the tap root, but, in an hour mollusc is capable, if left to its natural changes or two after the operation, the sun came out unmolested, of attaining a patriarchal longevity. clear and warm.


have watered them once or twice subsequently, at evening. In two or

For the New England Farmer. three days the leaves began to look like leafblight; first the edges, or the edge on one side

THE WHEEL HOE. was discolored, and finally on some all the leaves MR. EDITOR :- I have lately become a subscribbecame entirely black; on others, some leaves er for your truly valuable paper, and on the first were entirely destroyed, while some were but side I find much to interest, and learn. In a late partially affected, or escaped entirely: Out of number, in your remarks on Raising Carrots, you twelve or fifteen of these seedlings, but about say "the wheel hoe will save one-half the labor of one-half survived. I had cut off the main source cultivation.” Now I have raised from a quarter of the supply of moisture from the ground, and to a half an acre, yearly, for a few years, with the leaves appeared to have the leaf-blight. Was pretty good success; but it requires so much.lathe affection of the leaves a consequence of the bor to weed them, I almost resolved last weeding, division of the root? (a.) It would look so, and time to quit them and try something else, but if if so, is a cessation or essential diminution of a I can find an implement that will save one-half supply of moisture to the roots, the cause of leaf- the labor of weeding, I think I shall try them blight to the pear tree? If I remember rightly, again. I wish to inquire of you through the it is almost or entirely unknown in the moist columns of the Farmer, how much does the climate of England. But if drought at the roots "wheel hoe” cost? Where can it be obtained ? and a rapid exhalation from the leaves under our How does it operato, &c., by answering the above hot sun is the cause, then we would find the questions you will greatly oblige me, and I doubt leaf-blight more than usually prevalent in such a not many of my brother farmers. summer of uncommon drought as our last. Was

Caledonia Co., Vt., Feb. 27, 1855. it more prevalent last summer than usual? I had no more of it than usual. And are pear REMARKS.-The wheel-hoe costs from $1,50 to trees, with a moist subsoil, less afflicted with the $2,00, and may be found at Ruggles & Co.'s. leaf-blight? Yours, &c.,


We shall republish a cut of this hoe as soon as we Northampton, Feb. 15, 1855.

can get a correct sketch engraved. REMARKS.---(a.) Pear seedlings are difficult to

For the New England Farmer. raise, seldom doing well except upon a soil pe- ABOUT CHERRIES AND PEARS. culiarly adapted to them. They are found to

MR. EDITOR :-You will confer a favor by ansucceed best on a strong, rich soil, containing swering the following queries through the colperoxide of iron, and which is moist, but not too umns of the Farmer, wet.

1. I have now the May Duke, Black Tartarean, To promote the formation of lateral roots, Downer's and Honey Heart cherries, and wishing transplant from the seed bed when two or three to add to the number of my trees, would it be ad

visable to get any other varieties, and if so, what inches high, and cut off the end of the tap root varieties ? with a sharp pair of scissors. They should be 2. Has the Early Purple Guigne sufficient mulched, to protect them from the action of the good qualities to entitle it to a place in a collecsun in summer, and should be protected from the tion of a dozen trees ?

3. I have the Madeleine, Early Catharine, Fulattacks of the cut-worm in the seed bed ; the

ton, Bartlett, Jackson, Golden Beurre of Bilboa, best remedy I have found to be tobacco waste, Beurre of Aremberg, and Vicar of Winkfield strewed thickly over the surface of the ground. pears, and I propose to procure the Lawrence, Ashes and bone dust are the best manures. A Owen, Rostiezer and Seckel. partly shaded place is better than the full sun.

What alterations or additions would you advise me to make to this list, and particularly, is

there any variety ripening at the time of the AGE OF OYSTERS.-A London oyster-man can Early Catharine, which produces abundant crops tell the age of his flock to a nicety. The age of and of good quality. an oyster is not to be found by looking into its The soil is a rather compact loam, with "hard mouth. It bears its years upon its back. Every- pan" at an average depth of about two feet, with

F. J. S.

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a moderate descent to the north; it has, how- LADIES' DEPARTMENT. ever, always borne good crops of pears.

4. What amount of fruit will a well-grown pear tree produce as compared to an apple tree

DOMESTIC RECIPES. in similar circumstances ?

Best BREAD.—The best bread is that made of 5. Is there any very late keeping apple which unbolted wheat flour. In some cases a small porcomes so near to the Baldwin in productiveness as tion of white bread may be desirable, but the to make it profitable for extensive culture ? brown, after a short time, will be found more Ashfield, 1855.

M. F. BASSETT. palatable, and conducive to a more regular and

healthy condition of the system. It has been as Remarks.—1 and 2. In addition to the four certained that even dogs cannot live over fifty varieties named we would recommend the Napo-days fed upon fine flour bread and water ; when leon Bigarreau and Black Eaglethe last we con- fed upon such as contained the whole or a large sider indispensable ; the Early Purple Guigne is portion of the bran, they are found in no respect

to suffer.- Water-Cure Journal. a good early cherry, and of course apt to be tak


OR LARD.-Take a pint of cream, and six new3. We should recommend as additions to the laid eggs ; beat them well together ; put in a list of pears, the English Jargonelle, Beurre Diel, quarter of a pound of sugar, and one nutmeg, or Glout Morceau and Winter Nelis.

a little beaten mace—which you please, and so

much flour as will thicken-almost as much as 4. The pear will not compare with the apple for bearing.

an ordinary pancake flour batter; your pan must

be heated reasonably hot, and wiped with a clean 5. We consider the Hunt Russett to be the cloth ; this done, spread your batter thin over it, best late keeping apple. It is prolific, excellent, and fry. and

may be kept through the year under favora- Indian Muffins.—A pint and a half of yellow ble circumstances.

Indian meal sifted. A handful of wheat flour.
A quarter of a pound of fresh butter. A quart

of milk. Four eggs. A very small tea-spoonful SPRING WORK.

of milk. Put the milk into a saucepan. Cut the TREES.- Make all necessary preparations for butter into it. Set it over the fire and warm it transplanting; do not delay it until the trees are until the butter is very soft, but not until it swollen, for to remove a tree then, gives it a

melts. Then take it off, stir it well till all is shock which it will scarcely recover from through

mixed, and set it away to cool. Beat four eggs

very light; and when the milk is cold, stir them the season. Be generous with the spadeloosen into it alternately with the meal, a little at a and pulverize the earth over a liberal breadth, time of each. Add the salt. Beat the whole working in a little well decomposed compost. very hard after it is all mixed. Then butter some Transplant early in April, if the ground is suit- muffin-rings on the inside. Set them in a hot able.

oven, or on a heated griddle; pour some of the

batter into each; and bake the muffins well. Spring Rye.—More profit may be realized from Send them hot to table, continuing to bake while one acre thoroughly plowed, 10 inches deep and a fresh supply is wanted. Pull them open with well manured, than to skim over two acres of your fingers, and eat them with butter, to which old fields indifferently. A bushel and a half of you may add molasses or honey.-Farm Journal. good seed on the best land will be sufficient, while

MODE OF MAKING YEAST.—The following mode, on the poor, two bushels will be required.

which was found very convenient in practice, was stated to us by a notable house-wife. One

quart of hops is boiled about three hours with The Peach Crop.—The temperature falls in about seven gallons of water ; after that the reConnecticut and Massachusetts to 12 and 15 deg. sulting liquid is passed through a cullender on below zero every few years, without injuring the three quarts of Indian meal, or so much that the peach crop. In 1834, at Windham, Conn., one mixture will be like batter. Half a tea-cup of morning, on the high hills, the thermometer in- salt is added, and when cooled to new milk dicated 18 deg. below, while on the plains and warmth, half a pint of yeast. After stirring valleys it was 22 ; yet there were plenty of well, it'stands fifteen or twenty hours, and Inpeaches the following season on the hills, and dian meal added till of the consistency of dough, none in the plains and valleys. A year or two when cakes, three inches in diameter and half after, the temperature, one windy night, was ex- an inch thick, are made from it, and dried on a actly teversed. The next year there was not a board by the fire ; much heat will destroy the peach on the hills, but a full crop in the val- yeast, and if not dried in two or three days, ferleys ; the tree buds were not injured. Who will 'mentation will proceed so far as to destroy it. inform the public where the exact frost-line of These cakes will be good for three months ; one the peach is ? Another question to the curious is, of them soaked half

an hour in warm, not hot at what temperature the peach-tree is killed by water, will be enough for a large loaf. frost ? F The particular attention of the reader is

When friends come to see you uninvited, called to the article by Dr. REYNOLDS, on Re

do your best to entertain them, but make no apol

ogy or comment; it sounds to your guest like a claiming Swamp Lands.

reproach for taking you unawares.

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