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LONDON VEGETABLE MARKETS.
We have received from our attentive corres-
AGRICULTURE IN NORTH CAROLINA.
We have before us an address delivered by the Hon. KENNETH RAYNER, of Hertford, before the North Carolina State Agricultural Society, in Oc
or 93,000 bushels; three half. tober last. Mr. Rayner was for several years a member of Congress from that State, and was an
sieves go to a bushel. Gooseberries-140,000 bushels.
6 bushes on an average fill a sieve.
Strawberries-58.000 half-sieves, or 638,000 pottles; 11 pot
tles go to a half-sieve.
Currants-Red, 70,000 sieves; white, 3800; black, 45,000, or active politician. We are glad to find that he 178,200 half-sieves; being the produce of 1,069,200 bushes, as has turned his attention to the development of the agricultural resources of the "Old North State," and hope that through the influence of the State Society, thousands of the acres of sand and pine barrens within her borders may be brought into a state of beauty and fertility. Below are extracts from the Address, all we have room for at present.
Raspberries-30,000 sieves, or 22,500 bushels.
Cabbages-16,000 loads, 150 to 200 dozen each, or 33,600,000
Turnips-10,009 loads, 150 dozen each, or 18,800,000 turnips
200 dozen each, or 12,000,000 carrots.
Onions-500,000 bushels. Brocoli--including cauliflowers-1000 loads, 150 dozen each, or 1,800,000 heads.
Peas-135,000 sacks. A sack is two bushels.
Asparagus-400,000 bundles of 150 each, or 30,000,000 buds.
French Beans-140,000 bushels.
Watercresses-21,060 hampers or 26,325 cwt., each hamper being 14 cwt.
EFFECTS OF SCIENTIFIC DEVELOPMENT.
It is our good fortune to live in an age of wonderful invention, of startling scientific development. It is emphatically the age of rapid progressive improvement. The striking peculiarity of the knowledge of the age is its direction and application to useful and practical ends; in minin-istering to the necessities, the comforts and luxuries of man. In fact it is the demand for that species of knowledge, that is whetting invention, stimulating ingenuity, and taxing intellect for its mightiest achievements. Geology, mineralogy, chemistry, botany, zoology, and natural philosophy, are not now cultivated, as the mere avocations of intellectual research, or to satisfy the philosopher's abstract thirst for knowledge; but as the instruments by which man is to subdue the material world to his control, and apply the immutable laws of nature to the satisfying his wants. A minute knowledge and classification of primeval rocks, from the disintegration of which the soil is composed-the deductions arrived at from an acquaintance with the various strata and fossil deposites of the crust of the earth-an examination of the constituent elements of all material nature, their relations, affinities and repulsions for each other-an acquaintance with the structure and vegetable physiology of plants and trees and flowers; and the principle of their growth, decay and reproduction-an understanding of the peculiarities, habits and capacities of animals, whether of the higher type or of crawling insects-the study of those laws of motion,
BOROUGH MARKET. In all the returns "cauliflowers" are
cluded under the head "brocoli."
Cabbages-8000 loads, 200 dozen to a load, or 19,200,000 cab-
Turnips-2000 loads, 200 dozen to a load, or 4,800,000 turnips.
Carrots-1000 loads, 200 dozen to a load, or 2,400,000 carrots.
Brocoli-1200 loads, 200 dozen to a load, or 2,880,200 bushels.
It is a curious fact connected with this market, that whatever and physical forces, by which Infinite wisdom
were sent almost exclusively from thence-of course at the risk of the lives of all who ventured into the pest-stricken city. FARRINGTON MARKET :
produce is sent to it from Enfield, in Middlesex, is subject to neither turnpike nor market tolls; an exemption granted to governs the boundless universe-all these branches Enfield, because, during the Plague, in 1665, vegetables and fruit of knowledge are pursued with a vigor and tenacity unknown to the votary of ancient learning, and to answer the purposes of practical utility. They are made to serve the purposes, and direct the course of the miner in his search for mineral treasures in the bowels of the earth; and in ransacking the coal-fields which nature has laid aside in her great store-house for the use of man, after the forests have fallen before a redundant popu'lation. They afford data by which the physician
Carrots-442 loads, 300 dozen each, or 1,571,200 carrots.
SPITALFIELDS MARKET, all home grown:
Cabbages-5000 loads, 200 dozen to a load, or 12,000,000 cab
French Beans and Scarlet Runners-3,000 bushels.
Cabbages-3500 loads of 200 dozen each, or 8,400,000 cab
Brocoli-1300 loads, or 5,320,000 heads.
Turnips and Carrots-700 loads, averaging 50 dozens a load,
or 504,000 turnips and carrots.
INFLUENCE OF RAILROADS ON AGRICULTURE.
is enabled to minister to human suffering ; by other domesticated animals, confined for an an-
anomalous cases where the food is of the simplest
and most humble kinds ; as, for instance, the poOne of the most striking manifestations of the tatoes of the Irish, and the no less simple aliment industrial enterprise of the age is in the struggle of the people under the tropics. man is now engaged in, with the obstacles pre- A consideration of this fact is of the greatest sented by nature—in opening channels of commu- consideration to farmers, who, though frequently nication, in laying down the pathways of trade and commerce, in pioneering the way for the iron guided in the treatinent of their domestic animals rail and steam-engine. The vast stores of the In- by the most benevolent sympathies, are yet liable cas of Peru dwindle into insignificance compared to err, and commit involuntary mistakes on nawith the hundreds of millions that have been ex- ture, purely through a misconception of the nepended in these monuments of human industry in cessities imposed by an irreversibie natural law. the United States, in England in France ; and their march is onward towards the steppes of In feeding cattle of all kinds, it will be found that Asia. In their construction man has achieved a variety of food is always better than an unvavictories over the elements, of which Archimedes ried course. The same article falls, by repetition, never dreamt. It was the boast of Napoleon, that upon the palate, and a dislike is engendered for whilst Hannibal had scaled the Alps he had food, which, though nutritive and sapid enough turned them—but the engineer has done more than either of these great conquerors ; he has in itself, when craved by the appetite, long and tunnelled them, not for the march of desolating compulsory habituation deprived of all its natural armies, but for the transit of the products of the attractions, and invests with attributes that cause pursuits of peace-for the conveyance of the trav- it to be contemplated, even in hunger, with loatheller in comfort and safety beneath the roaringing and disgust. avalanche above his head. And what are railroads, but the veins and arteries, through which
FRENCH GARDEN IMPLEMENTS--the products of agriculture, either in their crude
STONE.LABOR. state, or as fashioned in the workshop, circulate, in seeking the market of commerce ? Whilst rail
I sometimes wonder that anything grows in roads are dependent upon the products of agricul- France, the tools used in gardening and in agriture, yet the two are inseparably identified in in- culture are so uncouth and unhandy. The hoe, terest. They act and react on each other. It is an instrument of constant use, has å handle but upon the productions of the field and the work- two feet long, so that the hoer is obliged to bend shop that the railroad must rely for the materials into the very earth, in order to reach the object of freight, the very means of subsistence—but
of his care.
He thus has his back continually then again, the construction of the railroad, by
horizontal--a position as laborious and painful the benefits conferred, in contiguity to market, as it is degrading, for it gives to a man the apcheapening the cost of transportation, increased pearance of a beast of the field, crawling on all
The convenience in procuring the cornforts and luxu-fours. The French spade is even worse. ries of life, affords a stimulus to the land-owner,
handle is straight, like the American hoe ; it is to improve his land to its highest capability or not furnished with a hand-piece at the end, which production ; and as the products of the land are at home is thougt to increase its efficiency twoincreased, the railroad finds increased employ- strength to labor, and, as might be supposed, per
fold. This tool is a monstrous misapplication of ment, and enhanced profits.
forms very small days' work. In fact, the spade
and the shovel are both one, whereas they ought CHANGE OF FOOD.
to be as distinct as poker and tongs. The rake, There appears to be, in all animals, a propen- with nails in the place of teeth ; but as it is often
an ornamental instrument at best, is furnished sity frequently to change their food, the periodi- double, being a rake on both sides, it is a toleracal indulgence of which, within reasonable limits, bly vigorous utensil. The watering-pot, on the is highly conducive not only to the gratification other hand, is a superior article. It is constructed of the appetite, but to the promotion of health. on mechanical principles. The two handles—the In our own species, this propensity is strikingly carrying and the watering handles—form but one displayed, and the necessity for its gratification is gardener thus slides his hand from the one posi
handle, passing along the top to the side. The incontestably demonstrated by the fact that indi- tion to the other, and may hold a watering-pot viduals confined for any considerable length of in each. The wheelbarrow is an ill-built affair, time to the same diet, are much more liable to and usually creaks. The mortar used in the condisease and loss of health, than those who indulge struction of stone walls is the best in the world. in a variety. This is evinced by the extreme prer
In two hours it is harder than the stones it cealence of those fatal maladies attending long vog. pieces. It is expensive, and even the wealthiest
inents, and never, at any age, does it crumble to ages, where the seamen are necessarily restricted proprietors resort to the following expedient to difor months to the same rations. Dogs, cats, and ininish their consumption of it. At every twenty
feet of the wall to be built, a fragment of it-say this is done by the food consumed, which serves a portion two feet wide-is made with mortar, as fuel to sustain that temperature. A sheltered the rest is cemented with mud-the commonest position tends to keep up the animal heat, while mud, made upon the spot, with any earth that exposure decreases it, or rather makes more food happens to be at hand. The whole wall is then or fuel requisite to support it. An equable temfaced with mortar, thus assuming a similar ap- perature is also more healthy than one continupearance in its whole length. The result is a ally changing. No animal, however hardy it wall that will last for centuries, there being no may be, can be exposed to a winter storm, especfrosts powerful enough to upheave or disjoint it. ially a drenching rain, without injury to its
I said the mortar was stronger than the stone. health and condition. The moisture may rapidly No one who has ever seen French building-stone, evaporate, but every drop of water thus passing in the neighborhood of Paris, can form even a re-off, takes with it a portion of vital heat as it rises. mote idea of what it is. The masons snip it, Comfortable stables and sheds for horses, catshape it, edge it, as if each lump were a pine-ap-tle and sheep--not neglecting the pigs and poulple cheese. I have seen the adze penetrate a try are a part of the essential requisites of a block as it would have penetrated a ripe water- good farm. Still they may not always be conmelon. This quality, which adds to the facility veniently provided, and in such cases, one should with which it is adapted, is in no way disadvan- do his best to prepare a substitute. Sheds may tageous. The stone will bear any weight, and be built of poles, rails or boards, and straw, never splits or chips of its own accord. With which will shelter sheep and cattle almost as time its color changes from a rich cream color to well as more costly structures--though of course a dingy brown, but a scrape every five years re- not as conveniently. When built of rails, the walls stores it. Its softness is in fact as great an ad- should be made double and filled in with straw, vantage as malleability is to a metal; for while which may be also used as a thatch; or evergreen it is as easily fashioned as cheese, it is as durable boughs answer well this purpose.
It is poor policy to pinch stock in the early I told you that I once hired an old woman to part of winter. Let them be kept in good heart, weed a gravel path and strawberry bed. I am if it can be done, from first to last, and if they happy to state that this venerable creature is now must be put on short allowance, let it be at the well provided for. She and her good man are close of the season. To make the best of the engaged as husbandmen upon a neighboring farm. fodder, a straw-cutter in the barn is a prime neThey work twelve hours a day, steadily, and she cessity. Corn stalks cut fine are eagerly conperforms the same labors, and quite as much la-sumed by cattle; and clover, and all coarse hay bor as he. She digs, weeds, plants, "snatches" goes much farther when cut, and even the best potatoes, trains grape-vines, mounts drays, as- of hay is increased in value by this preparation. cends ladders, gets into trenches, sinks wells, like If grain of any kind is fed, it should be ground the veriest male of them all. I sat the other day and mixed with cut straw, first moistened with upon a hay-cock of her making. She is richly water. It will be better digested, and consebronzed, and her limbs-which she exposes with quently less will be required. Apples and roots an agricultural freedom-are gnarled and knotted are of as much value as food for all kinds of farm to a degree quite unusual with the sex. The two stock.
are boarded and lodged by their employer, and Much may be done towards increasing the the wages they get are proportionately reduced. quality and quantity of the manure heaps. The Still, the smallness of the figure will astonish you stables should be kept well littered, for the com as it did me. They earn, together, $180 a year fort and health of their occupants, and the pig-being thirty cents a day for him, and nineteen pen be supplied with the raw material for the cents a day for her. They lay by $100 a year, young porkers to manufacture. Muck, leaves and when they are too old to work, will be able from the woods, coarse hay and such absorbent to keep them out of the poor-house and avoid the materials will add much to the value of this "eshospital, even though saddled with sickness in ad-sential to productive farming-manure. Enough dition to poverty.-N. Y. Times. of these or of straw should be mixed with the horse dung to prevent its heating, and to take up the liquid portion of the same. No farmer who studies true economy, will suffer any fertilizer to Winter is at hand, with its storms of sleet and go to waste which his reasonable care can save. snow, and all necessary preparations for the comWater as well as food is necessary. This fort and thrift of his stock should be made by the should be brought into the yard, if it may be, so farmer. These duties will now nearly monopo- that every animal may have the supply his wants lize his attention. Every season has for him its demand. It is an excellent plan to have proper appropriate and varying work, and that of winter cisterns constructed to take the water from the brings him often among his domestic animals, as barn roof, where springs are not available, and their sustenance and shelter is mostly provided by in this way a full supply of the best water may his care and labor. On these subjects we offer a by secured.-Wool Grower.
PREPARE FOR WINTER.
Considerations of economy as well as humanity NEW FOOD FOR SHEEP.-Whilst I was at Geneshould induce attention to the protection and va, I observed every one collecting carefully the shelter of domestic animals in inclement weather. fruit of the horse-chestnut, and on inquiry I Less food is required to sustain in thriving condi- learnt that the butchers and holders of grazingtion an animal kept in a comfortable stable, stock bought it readily at a certain price per than one not thus sheltered. The vital heat must bushel. I inquired of my butcher, and he told be kept to a certain point-about 100°-and me it was given to those sheep in particular that
BY HENRY F. FRENCH.
were fattening. The horse chesnuts were well crushed; something in the way, so I understood, that apples are, previous to cider being made. They are crushed or cut up in a machine kept solely in Switzerland for that purpose; then At the annual meeting for the election of offiabout two pounds' weight is given to each sheep cers of the Rockingham Fair, last week, part of morning and evening. It must be portioned out the day was devoted to a discussion of the use of to sheep, as too much would disagree with them, Guano and Super-phosphate of Lime. Many being of a very heating nature. The butcher
told me that it gave an excellent rich flavor to the farmers in this county have made experiments with meat. The Geneva mutton is noted for being as both in various ways, and I have been intending, highly flavored as any in England or Wales.-E. if that leisure time, of which we sometimes fondD., in Agricultural Gazette. ly dream, ever should arrive, to collect the experience of our farmers and publish it for the good of the community. Enough facts might be
For the New England Farmer. TALK ABOUT GUANO.
WINTER MANAGEMENT OF SHEEP.
In wet weather it is of great advantage to be brought together from what has been done with able to fodder under shelter. I have abandoned these fertilizers in this county alone, to afford the practice of salting my hay, except when compelled, by stress of weather, to house it before it pretty satisfactory means of conclusion as to the is thoroughly cured. My sheep are salted about advantages of their use. Before proceeding faronce a week the year round, and instead of giving ther, it may as well be suggested, that I shall not them tar, as recommended by some persons, I oc- undertake just now to be very decided in the excasionally strew the yard with pine boughs, of pression of any opinion on the subject, for fear which they are fond.
I regard the fall management of lambs one of I may not agree with the principal editor. One the most important branches of sheep husbandry. gentleman, who did not seem to have a realizing Having paid for my experience on this point as sense of the Protean character of editors, said in well as that of winter shelter, I can speak with our meeting, that he heard Professor Brown say confidence. They should be separated from their at the State Fair in New Hampshire, that he had dams about the first of September, and with a few no doubt that the guano used in Mass., the past old sheep, that require nursing, turned to the best pasture. Care should be taken that they are not season, had done the farmers much more hurt stinted till removed to winter quarters, when they than good.
This statement was received with manifest sur
should have a small allowance of grain or oil-meal in addition to a plentiful supply of good hay. prise, and inquiries were at once made as to what As soon as the pasture begins to fail, the ration of grain should be supplied. By neglecting to prosort of a Professor this could be. Some one vide suitable pasture for a lot of upwards of 100 suggested that it must be Professor Brown, of very superior lambs one season, I lost the greater Dartmouth College. "No," said our friend, “it part of them the ensuing winter. My utmost ef- was the gentleman who delivered the address at forts, after I discovered the error, were of no the State Fair." The Editor of the N. E. Faravail. I gave them a comfortable shed, plenty of
litter, good hay, a regular allowance of meal, and mer," added another. "The Lieutenant Governfree access to water; but they never recovered, or elect, who delivered our annual address last and the greater part died before spring. year," remarked a third, and then followed the My bucks and ewes are put together about the usual shout of laughter, which puts every body first of December. The flock which I keep at my in good humor, when the subject of Massachusetts home barn, under my own eye, and from which I raise bucks for the supply of my own, and many politics is named, since the last election. Now, of my neighbors' flock, is managed in this way. it may readily be conceived, that a man may be The ewes, in lots of 20 to 35, are placed in separate a Know Nothing in politics, and yet know somepens, and a select buck is turned into each pen, thing in agricultural affairs! Possibly, it may where they are kept together 15 or 20 days. be true, that guano has injured crops in some The ewes in each pen are marked with a letter in localities, more than it has benefited them.* tar and lampblack, to indicate what buck they were served by. At shearing time, the best buck lambs are selected, and receive a mark to denote their origin.
If so, it must be, because it was improperly applied. The man who put half a pint of salt in each hill for potatoes, concluded that salt, as a
In my judgment, water is as essential to sheep fertilizer, is a humbug, and a farmer who should as it is to any other animal. They will go through| the winter on snow instead of water, and so would give his colt a peck of corn at once, would proba man or horse, if compelled by necessity to do ably infer from that single experiment, that corn so; but either would prefer to have it thawed be- is poison to colts. Every one who has used guafore using it, rather than perform that office in no, has doubtless been informed that it is so powhis bowels.
When my sheep run in large flocks without What we said at the meeting at Keene, was, that great shelter, they were occasionally affected with the losses had occurred in Massachusetts the present year in the scab, but since I have provided comfortable sheds use of guano, but not that those losses were greater in the agfor them, they have been troubled with no serious had no means of judging; and this loss, we represented as springdisease. This climate is well suited to sheep.-ing from the want of a proper knowledge of its application to E. KIRBY, Jeff. Co., N. Y., in Morrell's Shepherd.
gregate than the benefits derived from its use,-for of that we
various soils and crops.
erful, that corn and even potatoes will refuse to for while we have not yet experience enough in vegetate, if the seed be placed in contact with it. the use of guano, to satisfy us how it may be Many persons destroyed their seed last season, by used to the best advantago, there can be no placing it over guano, imperfectly covered. If doubt that it is a powerful stimulant and fertilyou converse with these persons, you will find lizer, when properly applied. most of them will declare, they did cover the The great question yet remains open, whether guano an inch or two deep, at least, before drop- at the present prices of guano, and of crops, it ping the seed, and if you pursue the investiga- can be profitably purchased. tion further, you will,in nine cases out of ten, as- I will now give a statement made by Mr. Rucertain that the covering was done with the foot, fus Sanborn, of Hampton Falls, at the meeting and not with a hoe. It is true, that it makes no before named, as I pencilled it down, when he particular difference how the earth is put upon gave it. It may be remarked, by the way, that the guano, provided it be thoroughly done; but the Hampton Falls Farmers' Club, of which Mr. where we see men go into the field and actually Sanborn is a member, has been conducting a cover an acre of corn or potatocs with a cowhide course of experiments, with the various fertilizers, boot, instead of a good polished steel hoe, we which may be of great service, if we can procure shall continue to look upon the kicking process them for publication. with suspicion. With the help of my boy Wil- Mr. Sanborn's first experiment was with potalie, of ten years old, I applied guano to about an toes. He planted them on dry land, on which he acre of corn, at the rate of one ounce to the had applied sixteen loads of manure and plowed hill, and covered it about an inch and a halfjit in. He put one hundred pounds of Peruvian deep, with a hoe, with my own hands, and not guano into the hills, on half an acre, leaving the one single hill was injured, and the whole was rest with no manure except what was plowed in. much benefited, while close by, on similar land, He dug the potatoes in July, and sold them'at part of a neighbor's cornfield to which guano an average price of one dollar fifty cents a bushhad been applied, looked as one might imagine el. He got just twenty-five per cent. more poSodom and Gomorrah to appear, after the first tatoes where the guano was applied, and they shower of fire and brimstone. One-half the piece were of better size. was nearly destroyed, while the other grew very
His crop was one hundred bushels to the acre. handsomely. I inquired the reason of the differ- The value of the guano and labor of applying it ence, and was informed that the first half was was three dollars, and the gain by its use about carefully covered with a hoe, and the other with twelve and a half bushels of potatoes which sold the foot.
for $18,75. On another piece of similar land, For one, I am not yet prepared to admit that he applied swamp mud in the hill, to the whole, guano is not to be used to advantage, by our and to a part Peruvian guano at the rate of 100 farmers in New England.
pounds to the acre, which increased the crop one That it will supercede the use of other fertil- bushel in ten. The crop was understood to be a izers, no sensible farmer will pretend, and no one later crop than the first, and to have been 200 should neglect to use all the means which Nature bushels to the acre, so that the 100 lbs. of guano has put within his control to increase the quan- worth three dollars, gave twenty bushels of potity of manure on his farm. But, after we have tatoes worth about sixteen dollars. carefully saved everything from the stable and Mr. Sanborn applied 100 lbs. to three-quarters barn and vaults and sinks and swamps and woods, of an acre, and plowed it in for Rye, leaving a we often have not enough, and sometimes may part of the piece with no guano. It was cut by purchase with profit. Everybody knows some- his men in his absence, and not kept separate. thing of the labor and expense of hauling and The whole crop was twenty bushels to the acre, composting stable manure, and the time necessa- which he called a small crop. His opinion is, rily consumed in these operations. If we con- that there was fully double the quantity of straw, sider, that when we have loaded a ton of man- and nearly double the quantity of grain on the ure in our barn cellar, and hauled it out with part where the guano was applied. lle applied four oxen, and perhaps laid it in a large pile, 200 lbs. to an acre for Barley, and increased his and afterwards reloaded it, and dropped it in crop one-third by the means, as compared with a small heaps, and once more handled it all over part of the field not guanoed. in spreading, if we consider that of the whole The part on which the guano was used, gave ton, all but four hundred pounds is water, just a crop of fifty bushels to the acro, so that he got such as we are deluged with every spring, it does about twelve and a half bushels of barley, worth not seem unreasonable that farmers should look as many dollars, for about five dollars worth of carefully for some more concentrated form of fer- guapo, to say nothing of the increase of straw. tilizers. My intention now is, to say enough to The barley was raised last year, and the land keep the subject in mind, as still an open one, 'laid to grass. He says there was this year, no