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A MECHANIC'S GARDEN. the entire season. In addition to a bountiful supWe have frequent inquiries for some plan of ply for his own use, Mr. Smith sells strawberries, cultivating small plots of ground such as are blackberries, plants, &c., enough to pay all extra owned by multitudes of mechanics, traders and labor employed, and for most of the manure he merchants, residing in the suburbs of our cities purchases. and villages. We cannot well put down on one,

After reading this enumeration, who will say or even on a hundred pages, all the minute direc- that a single balf acre, if rightly managed, is not tions these men require ; we will,

however, do capable of ministering greatly to one's taste and what we can to meet their wants. We give them comfort, as well as profit? What Mr. Smith ena list of what is one plot of ground of half an joys from his plot of ground, could not be puracre ; and lest the statements may seem rather chased for many hundreds of dollars, if it could large we may as well say in advance, that we de- be purchased at all ; while, as before stated, the scribe just what we saw on the grounds of Mr. cost is comparatively trifling. The time and labor J. H. Smith, at Norwalk, Conn.; and further, devoted to these grounds serve as a recreation, that although there is such a variety of trees, rather then a tax upon the labors of the day.fruits, vegetables, &c., there is no confused crowd-American Agriculturist. ing or jumbling, but every thing seems to be arranged in perfect order. Mr. Smith showed us a

SEED SOWERS. large sheet of paper, upon which he has marked out the ground occupied by each tree, plant and

Now that so many persons engage in the cultiplot of vegetables or berries, with the name and vation of the root crops, it is important that all variety written down. We should also say that labor-saving machinery that is valuable, should be Mr. S. is a laboring mechanic, and that he does known and brought into requisition. The first nearly all the work required in his garden with his own hands, and out of the usual hours of

sower here represented we have not used, and business.

suppose that it is intended merely for garden purHis lot is about 100 feet wide, and of course poses, such as sowing beds. No. 2, and No. 3, extends back some 220 feet to make an acre. The we have used many times, and have found the front half contains the house with front and side seed to come well fter them. But any sower plots--the house being upon one side of the lot. should be carefully tested on a board or floor beÎn this front area, in part covered with grass, are quite a variety of fruit and ornamental trees, in- fore going to the garden or field with it. cluding 14 cherry trees of different varieties, 4 standard and 10 dwarf pear trees, 3 dwarf apple trees, 6 peach trees, 8 Norway spruce, 1 white pine, 2 balsam firs, 1 horse chestnut, 1 mountain ash, 4 common whitewash, (in the street outside the fence) 4 common forest dogwood, 2 elms, 5 roses of Sharon, 2 wax plants, 12 varieties of roses, beside flowering currants, sweet-scented shrubs, &c.

Back of this ground commences the garden, which is not, as it should be, separated from it by any fence. In the rear is a cold grapery, 14

SEED SOWER No. 1, by 13 feet, with a grape-border in front, 18 feet wide. The rest of the ground is planted with This is a small hand drill, designed for the various fruit trees, and divided into plots containing each of the following: beets, two varie garden. It is a cheap, light, pretty sower, well ties of onions, cabbages, potatoes, sweet corn, cu-adapted to the wants of those who cultivate root cumbers, peas, three varieties of beans, gherkins, and vegetable crops on a limited scale, and will summer and winter squashes, radishes, two varie- sow all such crops, excepting peas and beans. It ties of lettuce, nasturtions, eleven varieties of strawberries

, five varieties of raspberries, several opens the ground, sows the seed, covers and rolls vigorous hills of New-Rochelle and white black- it at one operation or passing. berries, two varieties of gooseberries, and three varieties of currants. In addition to these, there are plants of hops, sage, parsley, pie plant (in abundance,) wormwood, and a variety of flowers.

On this ground are three apple trees, three plum trees, 20 peach trees, 75 dwarf pear trees of 12 varieties.

The cold grapery is new, and cost near $400. A plain one for common use may be built for onehalf, or one-fourth of this expense. This one has a cistern, with a simple and inexpensive force pump, to which is attached hose and pipe for

SEED SOWER No. 2. throwing water into every part. It contains 24 grape vines of 13 varieties.

Seed Sower No. 2 is adapted to garden or field The various vegetables and fruits are so selected sowing, is a size larger than No. 1, and is deas to furnish a succession for the table during signed for sowing the same kinds of seeds. The

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some with steep rumps, big heads, and dull eyes, or sluggish gaits, that were called Morgans, and probably enough were gotten by them, but the characteristics of the dam were too potent to be subdued by a single cross. In conclusion we are compelled to say, that the true type of the Morgan horse is as desirable an animal for the road, whether our taste, or convenience, or pockets are concerned, as we have ever seen in harness; and success, say we, to the Vermont enterprise

of rearing and maintaining a cylinder and brush within the hopper go by

new and highly creditable family of horses." gearing, and thus are always sure to operate. Seed Sower No. 3, combines several important

OUR GARDEN. improvements upon the English Drill, particu- There is practical wisdom in the following artilarly in those additions which fit it for sowing cle. Read and follow lead. large seeds. The brush and cylinder of No. 3,

It is in the rear of our dwelling on State street, which distributes the seed, go by graduated rows sides, and each end with apple, pear, plum,

five rods wide by ten rods long, skirted on both of iron cogs or gearings, which operate simply quince, and cherry trees, of numerous parieties; and uniformly, are durable, not likely to get out interspersed with currant, gooseberry, black and of order, and by which the speed of the dropping white raspberry bushes and flowers of numerous may be increased or lessened, large or small seeds tints and hues. It was well manured with a sown, in all their varieties, at any desirable dis- compost of muck and the droppings and drip

pings of the kitchen and barn, and plowed tances, in hills or drills, and the several necessary twelve inches deep in the fall of 1853. In the changes for the purpose are made with ease and following spring, it was again plowed eight expedition. The brush is used for small seeds, as inches deep, and harrowed until not a lump was turnips, carrots, &c., and the cylinder for corn, to be seen upon the surface. As soon in May as peas, beans, &c. Six tins, with different sized

the earth was sufficiently warm, the seed was

"cast in” with a patent seed sower, drilling, dropholes through them, accompany each machine, to ping and covering the sced as fast as one could be used in connection with the brush, as circum- run a wheelbarrow over a smooth surface. The stances inay require.

work of planting, cultivating and harvesting, was principally done with a light hoe in our own

hands, before breakfast and after tea. The result MORGAN HORSES.

is as follows: One of the editors of the American Agricul- 3 bushels Top Onions, 75 cents per bushel.. ..$2 25 turist, who attended the Vermont State Fair,

Ruta Bagas, 25...“,

Sugar Beets, 25...“ makes the following candid and judicious remarks

Mangel Wort.20...",

Carrots, in regard to this stock of horses :

Blood Beets, 34...“,

187 heads Cabbage, 4. “One of our correspondents has recently char

22 Acorn Winter Squashes, 20... acterized the Morgan horse a humbug. We wish 74 Black Pumpkins, 4..... there were more such agricultural humbugs. He

2 bushels ears sweet Corn for seed, $1 00.

1 bushel Pop Corn, 50..... has equally failed in characterising this fine fam- 75 Melons, 10..... ily of horse flesh. He has evidently drawn his 3 bushels Cucumbers, $1 00.

Currants, ideas from the throng of miscellaneous brutes that

4 Gooseberries, 200.. have been picked up by jockeys of every hue, and palmed off among the unsophisticated, wherever

$94 04 such customers could be found. Of course there With beans, pie-plant, early, potatoes, peas, is no such thing as a pure Morgan horse, as their asparagus, &c., for the supply of one's family, to origin dates from a single animal, and less than say nothing of the stalks, cabbage leaves, turnip sisty years ago. But they have had about the and carrot tops, to make the cows laugh, gire same period to form a peculiar race as the Ayr- milk and grow fat. He that will not cultivate a shire cattle, and their success is fully equal. good kitchen garden, “neither shall he eat” good They are not homogeneous in form, appearance, sauce nor fine fruit.— Watchman. nor character ; but they are enough so to be entitled to the possession of a distinctive family name. There are wide departures from the gen. but especially all young men, to read, carefully,

“OUT OF WORK."—We ask all our readers, eral resemblance, in many of the progeny that are bred from uncouth dams. We have seen some the article in another column from “ A City Me. over sixteen hands high and some scarcely twelve ; 'chanic.”

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ELEVENTH LEGISLATIVE AGRICULTU- rich treatment, and a trench should be dug RAL MEETING.

around them and filled up with rich manures. Reported for the New England Farmer,

Mr. Grout also alluded to the effect of electricity

on trees,-their growth, &c.—and suggested The eleventh Legislative Agricultural Meeting whether a tree could not be made a proper conwas held in the Representatives' Hall, at the ductor. For instance, attach a wire to the roots State House, on Tuesday evening, March 27, at of some tree which does not bear very well, and 74 o'clock. The subject for discussion was the carry it along to the water in some spring. same as at the last meeting-Fruit and Forest Mr. Brooks, of Princeton, followed, and reTrees.

marked that trees, which he pulled up in his Elias Grout, Esq., of Ashland, presided. He pastures and wherever he could find them, would remarked that he had been so unexpectedly called grow much better when transplanted, than those upon to preside at the meeting that he had he obtained from nurseries, and were much less had no opportunity for preparation, and felt that infested by the borer. He thought this plan the his audience was better able to instruct him than most judicious in growing fruit trees,-take the he them. He alluded to the almost wanton de- natives and plant them, no matter what they are. struction of forest trees in New England, and He had some trees, which he obtained from a hoped that a reform would be effected in this nursery, that did not grow any for four or fire matter. In cultivating forest trees, he thought years. He recommended digging five or six feet they should be allowed to grow as thick as possi- around trees, and applying manure and muck, ble, in order to secure handsome trees and good one-half of each, as operating exceedingly welltimber, and they should not be trimmed for a not only on dry, but moist, clayey lands. In renumber of years. In the West, the woods grow gard to the cultivation of forest trees, he thought up thick and prune themselves, producing fine it a matter of much practical importance to fartall trees with very few limbs. Coming to the mers, for besides beautifying an estate, if plantsubject of fruit trees, he remarked that it is ed around the farm buildings, they will break off sometimes asked why the old apple trees are the cold winds and make them warmer, and also wasted—why not graft them, as by so doing you protect them from decay by exposure to the can save time and trouble and get earlier fruit ? weather. ' Mr. Brooks doubted the expediency of The answer is, they last but a few years, and if the suggestions of the Chairman in regard to they have grown up near stone walls, where they opening the tops of trees, because the sun will could not be cultivated, surrounded by bushes, be let in too much, which is a serious evil in our and have felt the axe or the saw but rarely, the hot, dry climate, inasmuch as the tree will be borers are found in them abundantly, and they burnt up and destroyed. He said he had had thus become nests of these destructive insects. good success in following up borers with a wire When, on the contrary, the trees are in an open when they are boring into the trees; and as to lot, it is a good plan to take as much green ma- washing trees, he had used ley of such a strength, nure as one horse can draw and place it around that an egg would just sink in it, and he could the tree, covering it with straw, and allow it to see no ill effects accruing from it. remain a year, after which plow it in. Ley is

Mr. DARLING said he had washed his trees with often used with injury in washing trees, but if ley, (in the proportion of one pound of potash green manure is mixed with it the ill effects will to a gallon of water) during the month of July, be prevented. Upon stone fruit trees ley may be for three successive years, and by that means had used much stronger than upon apple trees. The got rid of the borers. speaker suggested that a wash of strong lime Mr. Fisk, of Framingham, remarked that he water, mixed with salt, would have a happy ef- considered it a good plan, in setting out trees, fect on the growth of trees. It is of no use to to set them a little to the south south-west, as dig about trees unless a considerable space is dug they thus receive the rays of the sun less direct.

The ground should be deeply plowed Mr. Flint remarked that nothing showed the about the roots at proper distances. In regard progress of agriculture for the last twenty years to trimming trees, they should be kept open, giv- better than the attention which is paid to the ing, say, a border of two to three feet of foliage. cultivation of fruit trees, and as an interesting It the practice to allow trees too much foliage, historical fact, remarked that the first fruit trees particularly the apple. Fruit that is not shel- cultivated in this country were planted on Gore tered by foliage will ripen quicker. (a.) Vigor-ernor's Island, in Boston harbor, by Gov. Winous shoots that come out after grafting, should throp. Mr. Flint also ensorced the necessity of be cut down very close, because they will absorb great care in the process of transplanting trees. too much of the nutriment of the tree. As Mr. MERRIAM, of Fitchburg,made a detailed stateregards manuring fruit trees, pears will bear very ments in regard to an experiment which he tried


with one thousand fruit trees which he obtained ers (as they are very improperly called,) in order from a nursery at Duxbury, close by the sea, to supply leaves which may prepare the sap to and which he transplanted to Fitchburg and set carry on the usual work of the tree, that is to go out during the time between the 1st of May and on with its regular habits. Scions themselve s the 3d of June. The only remarkable thing will grow better where there are some "suckers,”' about it, he observed, was that they all lived. because the natural vigor of the tree is kept up. · He also stated that by driving four or five nails into a tree infested by the borer, just below the

For the New England Farmer. surface of the ground, with some perhaps on

EXPERIMENTS WITH POTATOES. parts of the tree most affected, he had completely destroyed these worms; and in his opinion, towards the stock of general information on the

MR. EDITOR :-Hoping to contribute my mite the iron would not injure the fruit in the least. culture of potatoes, I send you my experience

Mr. DAVENPORT, of Mendon, said that in set- the past summer. I cultivated one patch of poting out an orchard it was best to apply manure, tatoes and assisted at two more patches. and dig about the roots. He would mix potash

No. 1. Had raised potatoes several successive with muck and put it about the roots—the pot- sheep manure, and refuse straw and

hay unrotted,

years—was covered siightly with chip, hen and ash being dissolved, and about a pound to six or land moist, plowed clean about 20th of June, eight bushels of muck used. To preserve trees and planted without harrowing; seed, smaller from borers, he recommended strips of common than fit for table use, dropped without any hill, tarred paper put around the trees near the ground. and from 12 to 18 inches in rows, and covered

in rows far enough to plow between one way; Care should be taken in transplanting trees, to with hoe. A man may plant one-fourth of an have roots spread in all sides. In trimming, the acre in a day in this way; seed were Sand-Lakes ; first limb to be cut is the top, in order to get a yield two hundred bushels to the acre. growth of limbs as near the ground as possible.

No. 2. Plentifully covered,say 50 loads to acre, By this means a better crop of fruit is secured,



with stable manure ; buckwheat on the ground

year before with manure; plowed clean, hartree is less liable to be injured by the wind, the rowed then ridged and hills made with hoe; fruit is more easily gathered, and the tree is much planted about 1st of June, seed mostly Pinkless exposed to the effect of a drought, because the eyes ; small and refuse potatoes ; plowed shallow ground beneath is sheltered from the sun and re- and hoed once, hilled very small and steep; yield

250 bushels to acre. tains moisture longer.

Land was wet, hilly land.

Average weight of potatoes from 6 to 8 oz.; some Mr. Farnum, of Boston, made some well-chos- of them weighed 1 lb. 3 oz. en remarks in regard to the great beauty which No. 3. Half turf, half sowed to turnips year ornamental shade trees add to towns and villages, before, turfy, slightly manured, plowed clean, and the enhanced value which estates derive from

shallow furrow struck with plow ; seed 31 feet them. He urged the formation of tree associations 16 inches apart, and planted 16th of June at 15

apart ; seed very small, dropped in furrows 14 to in every town in the commonwealth, whose ob- bushel of plaster to acre; variety of seed, Sandject it shall be to adorn the streets with shade Lakes ; plowed between rows and hoed once in trees. Several such societies already exist.

very broad flat hills ; yield 130 bushels to the Mr. BUCKMINSTER, of the Ploughman, followed

It is my impression, if more plaster had

been used a larger crop would have been sein some excellent observations in regard to apply-cured. I submit it to every one, which ing the principles of a correct taste to the matter tillage is superior? For myself, on good moist of setting out ornamental trees, as well as the ne-ground, with small-pointed hills and Sand-Lakes cessity of consulting the adaptation of the tree to for seed, I think I can get more potatoes to the the soil where it is to grow. He also referred to acre, than of the other kind spoken of, although

for goodness, I consider Pink-eyes equal, if not the subject of fruit trees, and spoke at length in superior, to any other variety I am acquainted regard to their management, varieties, &c. with.


Bristol, Ct., Feb. 17, 1855. Remarks.-(a.) If the tree-grower, everywhere, P. S. If your correspondent “W. D. B." is will always keep in mind a single fact, it will not yet “posted up," I can inform him that the save him from the commission of many errors. peanut and popped corn supper referred to was a Leares are the lungs of the tree. To take away "Humphrey House,” and was a season of unu

matter of fact, occurring in New Britain at the the leaves from a well-balanced tree so that the sual hilarity. fruit shall ripen earlier and better, would be like cutting away a portion of the lungs of a well-pro- WHERE CORK COMES FROM.-Cork is nothing portioned boy, so that his body might be more more or less than the bark of evergreen oak, rapidly developed and matured. In this climate, growing principally in Spain, and other countries particularly, we need an abundance of leaves. it is only a curiosity. When the cork-tree is

bordering the Mediterranean ; in English gardens So after cutting away nearly all the small limbs in about fifteen years old, the bark has attained a grafting a tree, nature throws out numerous suck- thickness and quality suitable for manufacturing


way of


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purposes ; and after stripping, a further growth light which these innocent creatures afford, the injuof eight years produces a second crop; and so on ry done to the farmer, and to the community at at intervals, for ten or twelve crops. The bark is large, by their destruction, is almost incalculable. stripped from the tree, in pieces two inches in I take this occasion, therefore, to entreat every farthickness, of considerable length, and of such mer, and every man who has any regard for the pub width as to retain the curved form of the trunk lic good, to use his influence to put a stop to this pracwhen it has been stripped. The bark pealer of undisputed right, but throughout his neighborhood

tice, not only on his own premises, where he has an cutter, makes a slit in the bark perpendicularly and town. Stringent laws already exist against the defrom the top of the trunk to the bottom; he struction of ¡birds. Let every man see too it that these makes another incision parallel to it, and at some laws are rigidly enforced, and rest assured that he distance from the former ; and two shorter hori- will be richly rewarded, not only by the consciousness zontal cuts at the top and bottom. For stripping of an act of mercy in preventing their annual and off the piece thus isolated, he uses a kind of knife rapid diminution, but also by the fulness of joy and with two handles and a curved blade. Sometimes song with which these sweet messengers of hearen after the cuts have been made, he leaves the tree will surround his dwelling, and testify to every passerto throw off the bark by the spontaneous action by that there is practical Christianity enough in its of the vegetation within the trunk. The detached owner to protect and save them. pieces are soaked in water, and are placed over

I will thank any man, in any section of the State, a fire when nearly dry; they are, in fact, scorched to inform me of the extent of the violation of the laws a little on both sides, and acquire a somewhat

of mercy and of the Commonwealth, in order that, if more compact texture by this scorching. In or

necessary, more effectual measures may be taken to der to get rid of the curvature, and bring them protect the birds, and thus invite them and encour

age them to live among us. flat, they are pressed down with weights while Very respectfully, your obedient serrant,


Secretary of the Board of Agriculture. SPARE THE BIRDS! We have received the following circular from WHAT VEGETABLES ARE BEST FOR the Secretary of the Board of Agriculture, and

STOCK? heartily commend it to the attention of our read

Mr. Dewey is a careful farmer. He watches ers. The wanton and indiscriminate slaughter carefully the effect of his own methods of cultivaof birds, at this season of the year, is becoming a tion, and the value of his crops, and tries to imserious evil, and if not speedily checked, the con- prove every year by his own experience. He can

not fail to be emulous of improvement, for he is a sequences will weigh heavily upon the farmers of

constant and interested reader of the Granite the commonwealth. The laws of Massachusetts Farmer, and some other agricultural papers. A provide that a penalty of one dollar be paid for few observations of Mr. D., on the business of the destruction of every robin killed between the the farm, showed so much exact and valuable first day of March and the first day of September; knowledge, that we have not heen satisfied without and every person shooting at or killing any birds

longer and more minute inquiries on various

matters, of which the following is one : “upon lands not owned or occupied by himself,

Speaking of raising vegetables for stock, Mr. and without license from the owner or occupant Dewey took us into his cellar, where was heaped thereof, at any time between the first day of up nearly 200 bushels of beets, the large kind for March and the fourth of July, shall forfeit and stock, called the Mangel Wurzel, and not far off pay to the occupant or owner of such lands the sum The beet yields bountifully, and after five years

an ample store of turnips, carrots, potatoes, &c. of ten dollars in addition to the actual damages experience, Mr. D. is satisfied that the Mangel sustained, to be recovered by such owner or oc- Wurzel is by far the best vegetable to raise for cupant in an action of trespass." We hope the stock. To satisfy our curiosity, he allowed us to penalties of the law will be rigorously enforced, measure the ground where the beets were grown and that a stop will be put to this wholesale The piece of ground is about eight rods long by

this year, and ascertain the quantity produced. murder of the joyous, innocent and useful deni- five in width,

containing almost one quarter of zens of the woods. The circular alluded to is as an acre. The rows run across and were about follows:

two and a half feet apart. Fvery other row was AGRICULTURAL DEPARTMENT, carrots nearly all the way, there being 30 rows of

State 1855. DEAR SIR,—There is a custom, very prevalent in rows of beets filled a 25 bushel cart, giving in all many sections of the State, of regarding the Annual seven loads, good 175 busliels to the quarter acre, Fast as a holiday, and using it for gunning and shoot- (or 700 busliels per acre.) Besides, the 24 rows ing. Many thousands of our most useful and beauti- of carrots gave 1,760 lbs. or about 32 bushels to ful birds, to none more useful than to the farmer, the same quarter acre, (or 128 bushels or throe since they destroy innumerable insects injurious to and a half tons of carrots to the same acre.), vegetation, are thus sacrificed to the wantonness and cruelty of those who know not what they do. Many beets and alternate rows of turnips or carrots for

Mr. D. has planted the same piece of land with painful instances of this came to my knowledgea year six years, and with constantly increasing success. ago, when robins, blue-birds, sparrows, and other vårieties of birds, which occasionally visit us in the ear. The land is a clayey loam. Sand is added where ly spring, were shot down without distinction or it is too heavy. "It is plowed as deep as can be mercy.

conveniently done, say from eight to ten inches, I need not say that apart from the pleasure and de- and barn-yard manure put on and plowed in


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