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watching the signs of the times, and let him you have been doing all summer. I supposed you make up, by foresight and skill and energy, what were watering your garden all summer, and I he lacks in the natural fertility of a New England wondered why you should be doing that when there has been plenty of rain. Now I see the mystery."



That garden, Messrs. Editors, had the reputation of being the most thrifty and the most proMESSRS. EDITORS :—-A few years ago I had oc- ductive of any garden in the county. That was casion to occupy a new garden. It had been worn my first experiment with the waste water of the by continual cropping without manuring, till it family. And as that was applied to a half acre would not produce half a crop of any thing. I of worn-out land for only a part of four months had no manure to put upon it. I could have in the year, I came to the conclusion that had bought open barn-yard manures, that had been the whole been judiciously applied one entire year, washed and bleached through the year till most of it would have been amply sufficient to keep, in a the salts and all the urine was gone, but I thought high productive order, two acres. But in this estiit would not pay well. Nor could I any better mate, I have not included the excrement from the afford to cultivate a garden to the halves. There privy. My opinion was then formed, and has was a half acre in the garden. I planted about been confirmed by later experiments, that the one-third of it to white sugar beet. The remain- manure from the family would be amply sufficient der to corn, potatoes, peas, beans, squashes, mel- to enrich as many acres for all the purposes of ons, cabbages, tomatoes, onions, &c. &c. There agriculture, as there are members in the family, was one thing that I could do. I had a family of and this, too, exclusive of absorbents to be used. five, three adults and two children, one an in- But, by the judicious use of absorbents, the fant. I placed a half hogshead, convenient for amount could be easily doubled or quadrupled receiving the dirty slops of the family, including even. And this would be the true way of saving the urine of the chambers. This was filled about and using the liquid. With the expense of oneonce a day through the week and two or three half ton of guano, in permanent fixings, any times on Mondays. My method of applying it farmer could make from his house one ton a year was this: at evening I began at one end of the through several generations. It will certainly garden, and with a pail and dipper, I threw it pay. J. L. EDGERTON. Georgia, Vt.-Country upon the hills and beds of every thing I planted, Gentleman. till the tub was emptied. The second evening, I began where I left off the first, and continued on

For the New England Farmer.


till the tub was again emptied. So I continued SPRINGS----LIVE AND DEAD WEIGHT till I had gone over the whole garden. I continued to repeat the same process through the entire season, or until the garden had become so matured I would like to propose one or two questions, as to need no more food. The first time going for you or some of your able contributors to exthrough the garden, as the seeds were not up, I plain. Last season, it being very dry and water used a large watering-pot, with a coarse nose. scarce, I thought it would be a good plan to The second time through, I used the pail and bring water into my yard for cattle, although I dipper, and applied the liquid around the young already had a well with a pump: so I went to plant. As the plants became large and nearly work and dug me a well, before any of the rains covered the ground, I applied the liquid to the came, where I had four feet fall from the bottom ground wherever it was naked. of the well to the top of where I wanted my And now for the result. I had a neighbor, Dr. trough to stand. I dug my ditch, put down my C., a competitor in the gardening line, that sum-lead pipe, and it worked finely. But the query


His garden joined mine, the same size and is this: I have observed that, for some few nights the same quality of soil. He had plenty of open in succession, the trough would not get full, and barn-yard manure and plenty of time to work his at others it would fill to overflowing, with the garden. He often boasted of having had the best same outlet. Now will you, or some of your correspondents, garden in town, and thought he should have the best, notwithstanding mine. But no sooner were be good enough to explain this to an ignorant the gardens both well up, than the Dr. began to brother farmer? Will you also tell the differshow signs of suspicion that he should be beat. ence between live and dressed weight in oxen, About the first of July he came into my garden from six to seven feet in girth and upwards, stall and said, "I have come to inquire into the secret fed? Will you give us in your quotations, under of your power over the vegetable kingdom. The the head of extras, the highest price paid as well rapid growth of your garden is a great mystery to as the lowest? For we in the back ground want Your garden was plowed once, mine twice, to know what is going on, as well as the rest of and dragged well. Yours was run down and had the folks. no manure, mine was in better order, and besides, had plenty of manure. Mine also has had a little better attention than yours, and now the first of July, yours is certainly thirty if not fifty per cent. ahead of mine. Tell me what you have done to it." "Well, Doctor, come with me into my wood-house," said 1. "There, that tub, with the help of my good wife, contains all the secret there friends, EMILY F. and HENRY B. HANFORD, of is about it. I have been feeding my garden just Waukeshaw, Wisconsin, for seeds and scions of as you do your pigs." "Wel, now I see what the crab-apple.


SEEDS AND SCIONS.-We thank our young

Yours, and the friend to all farmers,
New London, N. H., Feb., 1855.

REMARKS.-Will some correspondent reply?

[graphic][subsumed][merged small]

MANNY'S IMPROVED MOWING AND The hay crop in New England is one of great REAPING MACHINES. importance; it comes, too, before the hoeing is

It is one of our principal objects to present to finished, while the duration of the period of hot the farmer such new machines and implements, and drying days, when hay makes rapidly and and improvements in old ones, as will best facil- well, is not of sufficient length to allow us to itate his operations, and enable him to transfer linger, or to neglect any modes by which the a large amount of labor from his own thews and work may be done quickly. sinews to the horse and the ox and the machine. A good Mowing Machine would be a blessing, The suggestions of a scientific mind will enable indeed, to the farmers of New England; one that him to accomplish in a day, through the agency would cut the grass and leave it in a suitable of animal power, and a few cogs and wheels and condition to dry readily, and that could be manknives, what the exertions of twenty-five able aged by a boy, or some one not sufficiently athbodied men would fail to complete. letic to handle the scythe..


For the New England Farmer. PRICES AND WEATHER IN IOWA.

We present these sketches of Manny's machines, now, in season, that the reader may have opportunity to learn of their ability to do his ESTEEMED FRIEND :-Having changed my place work, by inquiry, examination and early trial. of residence from the sterile hills of the Granite We have examined them with interest and care, State, and taken up an abode on a fertile spot in and, to our judgment, they commend themselves. this State, I thought it might not be uninterestWe have not tried, or seen them in operation. a moment, some of the dissimilarities of the two ing to the readers of the Farmer to contrast, for Numerous certificates are before us from gentle-sections of country, as have naturally come to men who have used them, and who attest to their my observation during a winter's residence here, eminent ability to perform the work required of particularly as relates to the weather, &c. The them. They are for sale by NOURSE & Co., 9 and Farmer and other sources have not failed to an13 Commercial Street, Boston, where circulars in New England, not only as to extreme cold and and minute descriptions may be obtained. The deep snows, but also from the want of employprice of the two horse mower, which cuts a ment for the working-classes of the community, swarth of 4 feet, is $100.00; that of the one and the high prices of provisions. horse, with 3 feet swarth, is $90.

nounce that it has been a remarkable hard winter

During the twelfth month of 1854, and until the middle of the first month of the current year, we had occasionally a cold day or two, and then POOR AND GOOD FARMING.-To plant without warm again. About the latter date, more steady manure, and sell the crop off the land, is the cold set in. On the 23d of the first month, the poorest of all farming; but to plant either with mercury fell to 8° below zero; and on the 26th manure or without, cultivate thoroughly, con- of the second month, it fell to 104° below. These sume the crop on the land, and to secure to it are the greatest extremes of cold that have octhe benefit of all the manure, is the beginning of curred here, as reported by Job Briggs, a neighgood farming. bor of mine, a highly respectable and careful sci

entific man, that may be fully relied on. The rier, who only knows that he has been accusintermediate weather was somewhat variable, tomed to make up the materials in a certain man from mild and thawy to the above given state of ner, without knowing any one of the principles the thermometer. There has not been on the which regulate the action of the materials he works ground, at any one time during the winter, more with. We thus find that nearly all of the wall than four inches of snow, until the 16th inst., constructed during the past season in this viciniwhen we had about eight inches, (our robin ty is simply made by turning over the lime and storm.) Previous to this the weather was warm, mixing it with the gravel; water is then thrown and farmers had commenced to sow their wheat. upon it and it is left to absorb moisture necessaThere is an unreasonable contrast in the price ry for its slaking; it is then turned over, once, of provisions there and here; simply because and in some cases twice with a shovel. It is then there is, as yet, no railroad from the Mississippi in a hot state deposited in the boxes, and left to river, and these hard times in the east, and all arrange itself as best it may. Such a mode of over the world, will tend directly to retard its proceeding leads directly to a waste of materials, construction. Corn here is worth twenty-five and failures are consequently frequent. cents; wheat, from sixty to seventy-five cents; A very important lesson is to be derived from pork from two to three cents per pound. these failures. They clearly demonstrate that Now I don't wish to dishearten any of the the greatest possible care must be taken in the good New England farmers, but only to encour-mixture of the ingredients; that the first condiage some of those, who depend on their every- tion necessary to obtain good concrete is, that the day earnings to feed perhaps a large family, to lime be brought to the state of a perfect hydrate think if they might not help form a part of the previous to its being mixed with the other mate respectable number of farmers already in this rials, and when deposited in the boxes, it should new farming State to the advantage of their be well beaten with a rammer to prevent the masons at least, many of whom, while the father is terials from separating.

hard at work to get off his daily allowance of The quantites of sand and gravel to be used, of shoes, (or his family must come short,) are per- course vary according to the quality of the lime haps worse than idle. and sand. The proportion found to yield a good

The city of Oskaloosa, only twelve years ago result is as follow:-33 parts of rich lime, 33 ceded from the wolves and Indians, has now parts of sand, and 66 parts of broken stone or 2500 inhabitants, and stores, &c., furnishing gravel. every thing for comfort and convenience.


Oskaloosa, Mahaska Co., Iowa, 3 Mo. 20, 1855.

was received.

For the New England Farmer.

At an early day, I will endeavor to add some remarks from observations and inquiries I have made in reference to this subject. Waltham, March, 1855.

W. H. N.

For the New England Farmer. GAS LIME.

MR. BROWN-Seeing an inquiry from two of your correspondents concerning gas lime, I will give my experience with it as a manure, though small; but then, you know, "every little helps."

MR. EDITOR:-A few days since, my attention was called to an article in your January number, Last spring I bought a barrel of it, for which I requesting information as to the manner of erect paid $1,00. Plaster sold at that time for $1,33, ing "gravel wall or concrete buildings," the cost, lime one month before using. I applied it to of which I bought a barrel, and mixed it with the &c. My engagements preventing a reply at the moment, an intimation of the inquiry was given not killed by it, though others make that comcorn with apparently good effect. My corn was to GEO. B. PARROTT, Esq., Civil Engineer of Boston, (a gentleman well qualified to advise on the plaint; but, in every case where the corn was subject,) from whom the following communication killed, fresh lime or ashes were mixed with. it, or as least so far as I know. My lime and plaster would had I bought all plaster. I think fresh cost me 1,17 per barrel, instead of $1,33, as it lime as cheap at $2,00 per cash as the gas lime at $1,00, though it would have to be applied with more caution, if applied in the hill when newly DRAR SIR:-At your request I herewith furnish this kind of lime, will they be so kind as let us slaked. If others have had any experience with you with a report upon the subject of building hear about it. with what is called the "gravel wall," or concrete. Properly managed it not only makes a very cheap, but at the same time a most durable wall. The use of this kind of wall is very anCORN COBS.-Corn cobs contain considerable cient, for it is found to have been employed by farinaceous matter, the same as the corn itself; the Romans. "The walls of the fortress of Cin- and it is said that in France a mill has been redad Rodrigo, in Spain, are also of concrete. The cently invented for separating it. Now that the marks of the boards which retained the semi-fluid farinaceous matter in cobs is nutritious, there is matter in their construction are everywhere visi- no doubt; but whether the great amount of hard, ble." woody, innutritious matter they contain may not Of course, the quality of the wall must depend in some cases injure the animal as much as the upon the nature of the materials to be employed. farina benefits, is more than we know. Probably In almost every building constructed in this this may depend on how the animal is fed othervicinity, we find different methods used in mak-wise. If fed on very concentrated food, the ing the concrete, and the construction of the woody matter, we should think, might be benefiworks is left, almost invariably, to some hod-car-cial rather than otherwise; but if fed on coarse

S. TENNEY. W. Portland, Andg. Co., Me., Feb., 1855.


dry food, it would seem as if to stuff him with modified his former belief, and he was now of
cob meal would only make bad worse.-The Farm- the opinion that the farm would be of great
er-Prof. Nash.
benefit to the farmers of the commonwealth,—
much greater than the appropriations which
have or are likely to be made to it by the State.
In his opinion, the State should take a deep in-
terest in the obtaining and diffusion of agricultu-
ral knowledge among the people, and he could
conceive of no reason why Massachusetts should
not be able to sustain her entire population, even
though it should hereafter reach five millions,
with the productions of her own soil alone.

Reported for the New England Farmer,

The twelfth and concluding meeting of the series was held on Tuesday evening.


The meeting was called to order by Mr. FLINT, Secretary of the Board of Agriculture, who made some interesting remarks appropriate to the closing meeting. He felt that the discussions during the meetings just closing had been of an unusually practical and useful character, and that they had personally benefited all who had listened to them; while the reports which had been published had been read and copied through out the length and breadth of the land. The subject for this evening's discussion, The Econo- very essential service to the people of the Commonwealth. It is only by means of such institutions that we can learn the economy of agriculture. State farms should be established in all the counties in the State, to be placed under the control of the county societies, making annual reports to the Secretary of the Agricultural Bureau. It might be stipulated that each county

Mr. PROCTOR, of Danvers, followed, at the call of the Governor, and urged the justness of the farmer's claims to aid from the State. He believed that the bounty extended by the State to the county agricultural societies, had been a that the State farm at Westboro' would be or great help to the agriculture of the State, and

my of Agriculture, was one which embraced all the practical details of farming, and not only those, but the broader question of the duty of the State promote the interests of agriculture. He concluded by announcing His Excellency Governor GARDNER as the Chairman for the evening.

The Governor, on taking the chair, expressed should raise a sum equal to that donated by the his interest in the cause of agriculture, and his State. He doubted whether the present system especial approval of the objects for which these of dispensing the bounty of the State by means The same meetings have been held. He did not doubt but of premiums, was a judicious one. that they had been of great advantage to those sums expended on experimental farms, whence who had attended them. Unquestionably, experi- valuable reports in regard to modes of cultivamental knowledge is the most valuable, but these tion, course of crops, application of manures, meetings, like the libraries of books which we the breeding and management of cattle, &c., prize so much, compress into a small compass the would be derived, would prove far more beneknowledge and experience of a great many intel- ficial than the ephemeral cattle shows now in ligent minds, for the benefit and instruction of vogue, which make no lasting impression. all. The Governor remarked that it was his Mr. WATERS, of Beverly, spoke briefly of the good fortune to be born upon a farm, and he had importance of experiments in agriculture, and always cherished a love for agricultural pur- took occasion to allude to the great attention suits. Indeed, that very morning, and early too, paid to raising onions in Essex county. he had left his home in the city to visit his farm, Mr. FISKE, of Framingham, referred to the and he hoped to have the pleasure in a few remark often made to him by farmers, "Only months of eating some green peas raised from give me a plenty of manure, and I don't care seed which he had that very morning planted any thing about your Boston Cultivator, your with his own hand. He had eaten fruit of his New England Farmer, or your Ploughman. If I own production every month in the year. Re- could only get manure, I could get crops fast ferring to the economy of agriculture, he re- enough." Many farmers who talk thus, could marked that a few days ago he had the pleasure double or treble their manures if they would only of visiting the State Farm at Westboro', and of make the most of their resources-bogs, sinks, forming there the acquaintance of many mem- urine, ashes, &c. He had raised forty to fifty bers of the Board of Agriculture. He had pre- bushels of corn to the acre, with a manure made viously read a good deal in regard to the farm, up of meadow mud, sifted fine, ashes and urine but had formed the opinion that the experiment from horse and cow, putting a handful on each of a State farm was rather visionary, and would hill after planting the corn, which was put into prove only a waste of money. What he saw, the ground without manuring. The economy of and the explanations given him in regard to the manure is the great point in farming. The wash experiments carried on by the Board, however, of one sink will raise half an acre of corn.

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