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Mr. PROCTOR, of Danvers, remarked that a the farmers to give up their stand-still notions, farmer in his county cleared $400 from an acre and try the various methods of cultivation, we of onions the last season, and that was only a should soon arrive at the economy of agriculture, sample of what is done in Essex county. The and, by making it more profitable, our young great secret of their success lies in the prepara- men would be retained upon the farm. tion and adaptation of manures, and in keeping On motion of Mr. Hall, the thanks of the the soil free from weeds. By attention to se- meeting were presented to Joseph Bird, Esq., of curing the best plants for seed, the size and Watertown, for bis interesting lecture, last week, quality has been greatly improved, and $2 and on an improved fire system. $3 a pound is paid for seed coming from Essex The meeting then adjourned sine die. county. Mr. FRENCH, of Braintree, illustrated the great
For the New England Farmer. want of information upon the various matters
SUPERPHOSPHATE OF LIME-THE connected with farming—as location of build
BISON. ings, the preservation and application of ma
Mr. EDITOR :-Will you be so good as to give nures, the feeding of cattle, and the selection of
us some information in regard to the Superphos stock-and argued that, from the complicated phate of Lime, an article of which we hear much, nature of these questions, private individuals and know but little. What does it cost ? (a.) were not competent to elucidate them. The How should it be applied to corn and potató matter should be undertaken by the State, through crops ? What sort of packages is it put up in? the agency of experimental farms. While speak- wish to try it, as we have utterly failed with ing of stock, the speaker remarked that an Eng- guano, which, mixed with an equal quantity of lish gentleman had long advocated "box-feeding plaster, we have applied, as a top-dressing, to in fattening stock, and his views, it is believed, portions of our wheat, oat and grass fields, and will triumph in England. He did not exactly able, at any time, to perceive any difference be
planted under the hills of corn, without being understand what was meant by “bos-feeding,” tween the parts so treated and the rest of the but believed that it consisted in enclosing the fields. We do not know of a single instance in animal in a stall or pen, and keeping it there on which it has been applied, in this vicinity, in a dry floor until fattened. The English butchers which the cost of the article and the labor of apinvariably offer an advance for such beef, without plying it was not a total loss.
Can you tell whether any attempt has ever knowing how it is raised. The speaker ques- been made to domesticate the Bison or American tioned the utility of littering the floor for cattle, Buffalo? Ought that “Native American” race having discarded the practice the past year, with- to be allowed to become extinct? Is there no out noticing any detriment to the cattle in conse- ascertained way of perpetuating it profitably? (c.)
READERS. quence. He also related the case of a Maryland
Rutland, Vt. farmer, who, in planting his hot, sandy soil with
REMARKS.-(a.) $45,00 a ton. Manure the land corn, put his manure on the top of the hill, be- liberally, and apply a gill of the superphosphate lieving that it was the true way, in which he was to the hill; this will give the young plants a sustained by a farmer in the Connecticut valley. vigorous start before the roots spread themselves It was a new idea, and he intended to try it on a to receive the benefit of the manure. small scale, and would recommend others to
(6.) It is put up in bags of about 150 pounds
each, and probably weighs about 60 pounds to Mr. SHELDON, of Wilmington, followed, and the bushel. Superphosphate of lime is manugave it as his opinion that where litter could be factured as follows: When burned bones are bad cheap, bedding cattle should be kept up. digested with sulphuric acid diluted with three He thought it made a material difference with times its bulk of water, gypsum (sulphate of oxen. It is economy to supply cows with water lime) is produced, and falls to the bottom of the about milk warm in winter ; they will give ten solution, while the phosphoric acid, and a porper cent. more milk.
tion of the lime remain in the sour liquid above Mr. Dodge, of Sutton, forcibly argued the it. When this liquid is boiled down or evaporaduty of the State to furnish pattern farms, for the ted to dryness, it leaves a white powder, which benefit of the farmers of the Commonwealth. is known by the name of acid or superphosphate
Mr. Hall, of Bradford, illustrated the benefits of lime. The sulphuric acid is made by burning derived from study, and a perusal of the agricul- the common yellow sulphur in large leaden tural newspapers, by those who were wise enough chambers. One pound of sulphur produces about to make use of them.
three pounds of the strongest sulphuric acid. It Mr. BUCKMINSTER, of the Ploughman, remarked consists of sulphur and oxygen only—combined that there were but two ways of doing a thing, with a little water. Sulphuric acid is another the right and the wrong—and if we could induce name for oil of vitriol.
(c.) The bison, or buffalo, has been domestica
HE NEVER TOLD A LIE.
With curly hair and pleasant eye,
And never, never told a lie.
And when he trotted off to school,
The children all about would cry, MR. EDITOR :- I have often read in your paper
There goes the curly-headed boy, the importance of planting evergreens for orna
The boy who never tells a lie. ment and shade, and I know of nothing more And every body loved him so, beautiful in winter, when the fields and hills seem
Because he always told the truth, bound in ice and snow, than the drooping spruce, That every day, as he grew up, the lofty pine and graceful hemlock. Their ever
'Twas said, "There goes the honest youth!” deep, rich green, lends cheerfulness to the dreary And when the people that stood near, winter, and makes a home, be it ever so humble,
Would turn to ask the reason why, look pleasant and comfortable. I have seen rules The answer would be always this in yours and in other papers, in regard to trans
Because he never tells a lie. planting them, and I venture to say that if any of your readers have followed them, that not one tree in ten has survived the scorching sun of mid
For the New England Farmer. summer. (a.)
ABOUT TURKEYS. A writer in a late number of the Country Gen
MR. EDITOR :- I was quite glad to see your retleman gives these rules, which I will give for the benefit of your readers, for I think they are good
marks two or three weeks since on raising turkeys
-and am more than half inclined to give you a as far as they go. First, do not get trees that are too large. Second, be sure and get trees that
bit of my experience in that business, with a few have been exposed to the sun. Third, in taking
observations. Several years ago, I purchased two up, do not mangle the roots. Fourth, do not turkeys thinking I would try my luck," as the prune too much. Fifth, be sure not to let the saying is, and see what I could do with them. roots dry before they are placed in the ground.
Well, the first year they hatched out about thirTo which I would add, as the great secret of suc- fed on dough and cheese-curd. ' I soon found that
ty-two young I shut them up in the barn, and cess, do not transplant them in the fall or early this did not agree with them, as they began to in the spring, but when they are in a growing state, and have made one inch growth; with grow sick and dic off. On pleasant days I let these rules strictly observed, fail is impossible.
them run out in the warmest part of the day, but I attribute the ill-success of so many in trans- they did not improve much. I then made a large
and planting the evergreens, particularly the hem
roomy coop, and kept them in a while, but fock, more from want 'of knowledge as to the they did not seem to thrive then ; and after proper time of planting, than to all other causes, and losing a good many, I concluded to let them
"bothering and fussing" a good deal with them, Salem, 1855.
go and take their chance, and I did. They soon REMARKS.—Hundreds, thousands of evergreen three more in the course of the season.
began to mend and to grow finely. I lost two or
In the trees have been planted by rules we have given, fall I had about twenty good fat turkeys for the and have flourished finely—they are rules com- market, which averaged me nearly a
dollar apiece. mon to all who understand the matter. In one in- I have kept two over every year since ; I stance several hundred evergreens were set by the let them choose their nests where they please, and same person, by our rules, and not one in a hun-bring their young according to their own fashion, dred died. One of the rules you give, is “not not even feeding them. I think they succeed
giving myself but very little trouble about them to prune too much.” We should consider the case much better to be let alone; I have usually had very rare where a young evergreen would need about twenty turkeys every fall. About à fortany pruning. We hope more attention will be night before I want to kill them, I shut them up paid to transplanting trees which add so much to and keep corn, oats, lime-water, &c., by them,
and let them help themselves. Of course they the beauty of our homesteads.
come out “fat and sleek." I have them weigh
from six to eighteen pounds apiece. They averFor the New England Farmer. age me about one dollar (ach. "Now I cannot tell PROFITABLE CULTURE. you just how much profit I make, but I think I An industrious laborer, who cultivates with can raise twenty dollars' worth of turkeys cheaphis own hands his own lands, has just informed er than I can that amount of pork. The only exme that he sold 125 barrels of onions, at $4,25 pense to me is in feeding to fatten, and in keepper barrel, delivered at his own cellar. These ing the breeders over; they will take care of
themselves, as soon as warm weather comes, till onions grew on about two-thirds of an acre of
cold weather comes again. It is natural for them ground.
to roam about, and they can generally find some
..$531,25 Deduct cost of culture, &c.
thing to suit their taste in the numerous bugs,
worms, &c., that infest every nook and corner of Nett profit.......
: $400,00 our farms; and for two or three years past, they Pretty well for a small concern.
have revelled in grasshoppers. There is nothing March 23, 1855.
on which they thrive so well. When they have
C. A. 8.
Amount of sale.
J. W. P.
J. T. W.
been out grasshoppering awhile, they will not THE WAY WEEDS MULTIPLY. touch corn if thrown to them. I think it worth
The Gardener's Chronicle enters into a calculaa good deal to a farm when grasshoppers are tion to show the rates at which weeds multiply: thick, to have a flock of turkeys to thin them out. I think it would pay to keep them, even if
“The common groundsel ripens about 52 seed : we did not get their good fat haunches” to eat. heads or 2080 seeds. The dandelion ripens about
in each head of flowers; and produces about 40 Many times have I seen a flock of turkeys march 135 seeds in a head, of which it produces about over a field thick with grasshoppers, with almost 2740 seeds. The sow-thistle ripens about 280 the regularity of soldiers in file, and then back seeds in each head, and produces about 38, thus again—not in the same track, but beside the first -thus culling the field with the regularity of a
yielding 11,040 seeds per plant. The annual It is curious and interesting to observe spurges form about 180 seed-vessels, each CODtheir operations. Isn't it a sight that will set an seeds per plant. These are, as we have said, very
taining three seeds, and therefore produce 540 epicure's stomach into peculiar gastronomic
low averages. twitterations, to see a flock of large, fat and sleek
Now according to this calculationturkyes perched upon the wall, or strutting round making observations,-ever an anon' making the
1 Groundsel, 2,0807 air vocal with toot-toot-toot-gobble-gobble-gob
16,400 plants. Yours,
1 Sow-thistle, 11,040 Marlhoro', N. H., March 20, 1855.
1 Spurge, 540) which will cover just about three acres and a half
of land, at three feet apart. To hoe land costs, For the New England Farmer.
we will say, about 68* per acre, so that allowing HOME-MADE GUANO.
four such weeds to produce their seed may involve
an expense of a guinea. In other words, a man Mr. EDITOR :-On page 253 of the monthly throws away 58. 3d. as often as he neglects to Farmer, for 1854, may be found an inquiry from bend his back to pull up a young weed, before it me, and your answer, concerning the mode of begins to fulfil the first law of nature. We know preparing and using the manure of that much that some well-fed folks object to all inflection or neglected portion of farm stock, viz., the hens. deflection of the vertebral column-they are genI saved and used a small quantity, applying it to erally fond of hard words—but then they also obcorn, potatoes, peas and vines, with satisfactory ject to its being considered in their wages, which results.
is not exactly fair. It was prepared with muck, dug the autumn Let us look at the foregoing data in another previous, half and half, and put in direct contact point of view. Every dandelion left to flourish with the seed, vines excepted. On corn I found unchecked may plant an acre of ground 4 feet it, applied at the rate of a large handful to a apart; every sow-thistle may do the same two feet hill, to be two-thirds equal to a shovel full of apart; every groundsel five feet'apart, allowing yard manure. For potatoes I think it good, for waste. Supposing a garden to consist of two though not near so valuable as for corn. It gave acres, 16 dandelions, or four sow-thistles, or 21 mine an early and vigorous start, but the drought groundsels, or 80 spurges, will cover it with a affected them more, on account of their being crop a foot apart. Taking this calculation in more forward than the other crops, they all being their hand, we recommend everybody afflicted late planted. For peas I consider it a valuable with weeds, or with a gardener whose vertebral
It gave them an early and vigorous column will not bend, as aforesaid, to count the start, and is, in my opinion, manure enough for dandelions, groundsels, sow-thistles and spurges them, applied at the rate of a bushel to a double upon the first square rod of ground they can row of ten rods long: On vines I consider it measure off. useful, but it ought to be well covered with earth Seriously, this forgetfulness of the consequences before dropping the sceds. I did not cover mine of allowing weeds to seed is a fault of the first at first, and they came up very poorly, I then magnitude; the more inexcusable, because no planted over again, mixing the soil and manure skill is required to remedy it; nothing whatever, intimately, and they came up well.
except industry and foresight is demanded. Thus you have the results of one year's trial with this available source of home-made guano.
* The shilling spoken of is about 25 cents. More experiments may confirm or change the above opinions. I do not claim any thing reli- DownFaLL OF A COMPOSITE HOUSE.-Last fall & able for them, further than that it is a valuable Mr. Cozzens, of Brookline, commenced a composmanure, and ought to be improved by all who ite house of cobble-stones and mortar, nearly keep fowls, even in small numbers.
finishing it. He postponed further work upon The coming season I intend to mix as before, it, to allow time for the walls to become hard, and add one bushel of ashes (dry) just before and was intending to go to work this morning to using, and cover well with loam. The manure finish it for occupancy. Last evening, as two ought to be thoroughly pulverized before mixing gentlemen were examining the walls, and admiring with the ashes. The muck ought to be strown the elegance of the structure, and its cheapness under the roosts, a little at a time, and as often and durability, the walls suddenly crumbled, and as once a week. A quantity of plaster would the whole building came down so rapidly, that not be lost if strown under the roosts weekly. they escaped with difficulty from being buried in If others have tried the “home-made guano," the ruins. It appears that the recent warm shall we not hear from them ? S. TENNEY. weather had driven the frost from the walls, and West Poland, Me., March, 1855.
that being the only cohesive power in the com
HOW TO DESTROY CATERPILLARS.
position, down they came, in a manner that has
CARROTS AND WATERMELONS. somewhat cooled the ardor of persons afflicted What is the best time to sow carrot seed, and with the “Cobble-Stone Fever.”—Herald, 9th. the best kind to sow? (a.)
I should like to know how the ground should EXTRACTS AND REPLIES.
be prepared so as to yield the greatest amount at the least expense. (6.)
I wish to know how to raise watermelons by MR. EDITOR :—Take strong soap suds—that in any way to secure a good crop without fail. (c.) which clothes have been washed will answer
I wish to inquire if any
your subscribers provided it is strong—and a pole long enough to have succeeded in raising pears from scions set on reach the tops of the trees, and tie a bag of wool- the mountain ash or thorn stocks. If so how len rags on the end of it, then dip the rage in long-lived were they? (d.) the suds, and hold directly over where the young
A FINE HOG.
OBSERVER ON THE Faru. worm has just made its appearance and begun to
Oakham, March 19, 1855. spin its web; as soon as the suds touches them, REMARKS.-(a.) Sow carrot seed as early in April they will die instantly. This remedy is equally effectual for currant and gooseberry bushes and as the ground is warm and mellow. They will do other shrubbery infested with these pests.
well sown in May if the seed comes up promptly. Middletoun, Vt., 1855. J. H. ROBERTS. The orange carrot is generally cultivated ; the
white carrot brings heavy crops, but does not
seem to be a favorite yet. Then there is the MR. EDITOR.- Being a reader of your excellent long red and the Altringham. · The latter we paper, and noticing statements of your corres- have raised, but found no qualities to recommend pondents
relative to large cattle and large hogs, it more than are found in the orange carrot. I send you the age and weight of a hog which we slaughtered last week. Age 21 months 22 days; (6.) To secure a good crop of roots of any kind, weight of round hog after hanging eight and for the soil should be deep and fine. Sixteen inches ty hours, 754 lbs. ; rough fat, 35 lbs. ; estimat- deep, will be found very favorable. Then maning the shrinkage at 11 įbs. for the time of hang- ure it well, and tend thoroughly, and you will ing, (it being very cold) would make the whole weight 800, being a gain of 1 7-33 lbs. a day. If produce a crop in the cheapest manner. any one beats this, we will try again. Breed, (c.) Watermelons love a high and dry soil ; half-blood Suffolk. S. & R. FARNSWORTH. we have known them to grow luxuriantly on a Lyme, N. H., March 7, 1855.
sand-bed where weeds of all sorts had refused to
vegetate. Manure with old compost in the hill. MR. EDITOR : I send you a specimen of apples
The product can be wonderfully increased by that I have raised six years. I cut the scions placing a shovel-full of good loam over the places from a seedling tree on the farm of Mr. Joseph P. where the vine branches and pressing it downHayward, in Sterling. He says he opened a bar- new roots will start out and impart great vigor rel of this kind of apples on the first of June, and to the whole. they were as fresh and fair as they were when they were put up, and there was not more than
(d.) Pear trees will grow on the mountain-ash one peck of defective ones in the barrel.
or thorn, but we think it better to engraft on I find the trees to be very prolific bearers. The the quince for the earliest supply, adding annually fruit is in eating from October, and it has been a tree or two on its own roots. submitted to many of the best judges of fruit, and they pronounce it one of the best kind of apples that has been offered to the public. I have given it the name of Washington Royal.
MR. BROWN :—Will you be kind enough to
EPIIRAIN ROBBINS. publish in the next number of the N. E. Farmer, Leominster, March 19, 1855.
the qualities advantages and difference between REMARKS.—We have just eaten one of the ap- of cultivation, and the quantity of seed to an
rye grass and lucerne; their uses, and best mode ples alluded to above, and pronounce it most ex- acre.
S. H. COLLINS. cellent. They not only taste well, but are "good Locust Lawn, New Albany, Ind. ly to behold.” Above medium size, Alattish REMARKA.-Lucerne is an artificial grass, stems round; yellowish-green, with numerous small erect or somewhat reclining, and about two feet gray dots, and a clear red in the sun. Calyx in high. The leaves are oblong, inclining to wedgea broad basin, stem slender, and half an inch shaped, more or less acute, sharply serrated tolong. It is a valuable variety. See advertise wards the end, clothed with close, silky hair on ment.
both sides. The flowers are in clusters, many,
and bluish-purple. It is best adapted to a good, What is the weight of the crop of osiers the dry, warm soil, and will not flourish well on first, second and third year from planting? I am heavy wet soils. It is a deep-rooted plant, and about planting a few acres and wish for all the information possible before I am fairly in the sea
requires a deep soil. It should be sown just as son for it. Will some one please reply who has soon as the ground can be made ready, and ought the means of knowing? G. F. NUTTING. to be without a crop of grain, in drills, 12 to 16
WASHINGTON ROYAL APPLE.
RYE GRASS AND LUCERNE.
inches apart, and with from 10 to 16 pounds of How often we have been told in agricultural seed per acre. By careful weeding and hoeing, papers, that the seed should be spread at least the crop may be cut three or four times annually, left within three or four inches of another. We
four inches in the hills, that no stalks should be for a period of eight or ten years—the first cutting have been told, and I partly believe it, that the occurring in April. A gentleman in Maine tried plants choke and crowd each other and make a it several years since, and says he sowed it the more stunted growth than they otherwise would. last week in May; the last week in July it was
The wind is much more likely to blow it down, 18 inches high on an average, and much of it found to result
from this "closeness of the stalks
and when it is harvested, extra labor will be had blossomed. Hogs and milch cows ate it vo- in the hills.' raciously. In four weeks from the time it was I infer from the planter above referred to, that cut a second time,--and on the first of November it is nearly akin to one patented by Charles Dana, it had grown to nearly the same height as before, Esq., West Lebanon, N. H., and which is now and was cut a third time—the crop being heavier being sold through this State by interested
agents. than either of the preceding. A piece of common If we can have a corn-planter that will give us red clover (very flourishing) immediately adjoin- the proper space between the plants and yet hate ing the same, did not yield nearly half as much, them spread, we may practice as close cultivain proportion, as the lucerne. It is undoubtedly tion” as possible, and yet save the injurious rea capital plant for soiling, and will prove profita- This is already gained in the horse-planter by
sults of "closeness.” ble on favorable soils. It is not so good for hay Woodford, of Haverhill, N. H., whose machine
green fodder, especially if allowed to blos- works with a facility and accuracy excelled by som, the stems becoming dry and hard. no machine yet invented for the purpose. The
of the rye-grass there are numerous varie-corn is carefully dropped in close furrows in the ties, but the perennial rye-grass (Lolium perenne) smooth, and all sods or loose stones removed by
centre of a space 15 inches wide, made perfectly is the only one not set down in an English list of the machine. On the seed, a quantity of ashes, the most useful species and varieties of the grasses. plaster, or any concentrated fertilizer is dropped, Buel set it down as a grass generally esteemed. and the whole thoroughly covered. It is said that it is one of those plants which im
By this method of planting 8 to 10 acres may poverish the soil to a high degree. It produces spread. The cultivator may be run as near the
be planted in a day, and yet the seed sufficiently an abundance of seed, and produces in its first plants as the operator may wish. year of growth a good supply of herbage, which I will add further, that I have an improvement is much liked by cattle. There is, however, on the above planter, by which the operator may much difference of opinion respecting the merits plant corn and beans alternately, and without and comparative value of rye-grass. One peck of mixing the two,
putting the ashes on the corn
and not on the beans, or the plaster on corn and rye-grass seed, with 14 pounds of clover, per acre, beans both. is generally considered sufficient for sowing pas- For the benefit of those who are in doubt about tures.
the operation of the various planters in the mar
ket, I write hoping to draw remarks from others MR. EDITOR :-I have one-half of an acre of concerning "closeness in the hills," and such ground that was broken up last fall; it consists ideas as may be connected therewith. G. F. N. of a sandy loam. I wish to cultivate upon it this season, Chenango potatoes, fodder corn, crookneck squashes and beans, und wish to know how In reply to inquiries concerning the Green fence to use iny manure that I get from one horse and mentioned in the Farmer of April, 1854, I can cow? Shall I plant in the hill, or otherwise ? only say that the proportion is about 16 oz. of Last year I planted a piece similar to this with blue vitriol to 44 or 5 gallons of water. The the same materials, and I did not get my seed time required, and the amount of vitriol ab back again; I had healthy vines, but nothing un- sorbed by the process, will depend upon the doderneath them.
gree of heat applied, and the kind of wood used Which corn is best for fodder?
for stakes. Green timber will kyanize much Yours with respect,
quicker, and should soak two weeks in the sumMalden, 1855.
mer heat, or in a hot bath two or three days.
The vitriol should be added to keep the liquor of A WORD ON CORN PLANTERS.
proper strength, and must be left to the operator In a late number of the Farmer I find pictured
to judge for himself by appearance. in the hands of an intelligent-looking man, one of notice this fence in abundance and perfection.
Any one passing through Windsor, Vt., will the patent hand corn-planters. He is evidently
G. F. N. making his first experiment, for I see a smile on his face, which, perhaps, may not appear at harvesting. One word about these planters. We
The Concord, a large, early, pleasant grape are not informed how near together the kernels has just been introduced in the vicinity of Boston, must be in order to drop into the space made for and promises to be an acquisition, especially them. But in the manufacturers' advertisement where the Catawba and Isabella ripen with diffiwe are informed that “The closeness of the stalks
culty.- Gardener's Companion. in the hill is necessary for close cultivation.”
HOW TO APPLY MANURE.
E. W. B.