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perceptible difference in the crop of grass where the guano was used, and where it was not. It is a beautifully wise and sublimely grand Mr. Sanborn said that he made the common provision of Providence, that the decomposition blunder last year of an over dose of guano on his and decay of all matter, both animal and vegetacorn. He applied five hundred pounds to an thus forming a continual transmigration of matble, is so closely connected with reproduction, acre in the hill, and burnt up his crop so that he ter, and verifying practically that great truth in lost half of it. This year, by no means discour-philosophy, that not a particle of matter can be aged, he repeated his experiment with corn. He lost, although it exists at different times in differplowed his land with a Michigan plow, sowed on ent forms. This transformation is going on con200 lbs. of Peruvian guano to the acre, plowed stantly before our eyes, in the growth and decay of vegetables, trees, &c.; as, for instance, the it again lightly, say six inches deep, put 100 lbs. plant that is growing luxuriantly in genial sumin the hill, and 200 lbs. more round the hills, be- mer, imbibing nutriment from decomposing mafore the second hoeing, and gathered ninety-eight terials, will itself, in return, mature, die, decay, bushels of shelled corn to the acre, as measured decompose, and its elements contribute to the by his neighbors, and received the first premium growth of successive vegetation in its vicinity. These truths involve principles no less imporof our County Society, for his crop. He has no tant or advantageous to the farmer than the mormeans of knowing how much the crop was in-alist and the philosopher, as it comprehends mancreased by the guano, but stated that he had no uring in all its variety; the only object of madoubt it added to it very much. nuring being to furnish nourishment to the growThe foregoing is, perhaps, as much guano as ing plant, and whatever undergoes decomposition, whether animal, vegetable, or mineral, does that. profitable for our readers, at one dose. There is Every farmer should be aware of the fact, that a good deal going on in the Granite State, in the carbonic acid gas is actually necessary to the way of agricultural investigations, and nowhere health and growth of vegetation, and that whatthan in Hampton Falls. Mr. Sanborn, ever furnishes this gas should be applied as mawhose statements are given above, is a reliable nure as far as practicable. With this view of man, who labors with his own hands, and whose manures, I make it an object, when preparing new ground for cultivation, not to draw off any object is to make his farming profitable. The tes- rotten or decayed wood that can be plowed in, timony of one such man who practices, is worth but rather to draw it on land where there is none, that of two mere professors of agriculture. As soon as the facts can be collected, I hope to lay before the public further experiments, both in the use of guano, and of super-phosphate of lime, and I pray you not to declare the polls closed on these subjects, till the vote of Rockingham County is received.


Exeter, N. H., Nov. 20, 1854.

H. F. F.

For the New England Farmer.


believing it to be as good manure as any other,
although its effects may not be seen immediately.
Every one who has cultivated a farm, must have
observed that grain,-Indian corn in particular
will grow much larger than usual near an old
fence or a rotten stump, or log, if there are any
in the field. Now, it is evident that it is not
owing to superior cultivation, that such is the
case; but, on the contrary, land is seldom plowed
as good close to a fence, or around a stump or a
log, as other places; and we are left to the con-
clusion that it is the nourishment they impart
that produces such effects; and when we have
arrived at such a conclusion, we cannot fail to see
how much better it would be to apply such things
as fallen leaves, rotten wood, and all other sub-
stances that emit carbonic acid gas during de-
richness in an uncultivated place.
cay, as manure, than to leave them to waste their

MR. EDITOR-I am surprised at the remarks of our friend, H. S. PERRIN, of Orfordville, N. H.,| in relation to fall plowing. It appears to me that no farmer, however inexperienced in cultivating the soil of New England, can fail to see that fall or autumn plowing is a benefit to the soil. In the VENTILATION OF STABLES.-We have sometimes first place, Mr. P. thinks that one-fifth of the manure applied is lost; this I conceive to be an the health and comfort of horses, the one with speculated as to which stable is most inimical to error in which many persons indulge, but I cannot for my life see how the fertilizing qualities of an inch between each plank in the floor, a hole the manure can escape by the simple process of in the door, a clapboard off one side and a broken window in the other with a leaky roof, or a turning under what remains upon the surface, after the crops are harvested. I find that lands small, tightly built one without any means of plowed in the fall is not so liable to drought as of each class in all sections of the country. But ventilation. Unfortunately there are too many those plowed in the spring. Fall plowing also serves to destroy those insects which deposit their the number is, we trust, yearly getting less. See eggs in the ground, and in the spring rise up to it, however, you who have had energy enough thousands and destroy the crops. If Mr. P. will to build a neat, good, substantial barn, that from take two acres of land, side by side, plow one in the fall and the other in the spring, equally man ure both, I think he will find the result to be in favor of fall plowing.

Quincy, Nov. 20, 1854.

A. K. P. W.


lack of judicious ventilation your horses are not of good air and the constant exhalation of noxas much injured in eyes and lungs from the lack ious vapors, as they would be in other respects in the tumble-down barn of your neighbor SHIFTLESS.-Rural New Yorker.

For the New England Farmer.

I am glad to know that any of our farmers can give a favorable account of the use of guano. So far as I have witnessed its use the present

MR. BROWN-I have perused with much in-season, except where it was applied to grass land terest your paper of this date, (Dec. 2, 1854,) in the early part of the season, but little benefit and particularly the talk of brother F. about has accrued from it. As at present advised, I guano. This is just the talk for farmers. Plain should prefer ashes at ninepence a bushel, to facts brought forward in this familiar manner, guano at $50 per ton, for the growing of grass; will be read and remembered, when a formal and I should prefer ten cords of good stable maessay will be passed without notice. I was par-nure to a ton of guano for the growing of carticularly struck by the fine crop of corn grown rots, turnips or onions. I cannot learn that our by farmer Sanborn, of Hampton Falls-98 bush-growers of onions have experienced any benefit els of corn, actually shelled aud measured, as the whatever from the application of guano to their product of one acre, is what does not often hap- onion fields. My late worthy friend, Dr. N., pen on the farms of New England. I have heard thought, two years ago, that it improved his of larger crops, Plymouth measure; but when in- crop; but it will be remembered that he applied quired into, there is found some exceptions about ashes to the same land-therefore he could not the measure. I have seen many fine crops of be certain which medicine wrought the cure. I corn, but never one that yielded better than this would not discourage the use of guano, but I am Hampton crop. How much of this is to be cred- by no means satisfied that it will be found worth ited to the three times plowing the field, how much using. to the manure spread upon the land, and how much to the guano, it may not be easy to distinguish.

Danvers, Dec. 2, 1854.


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Medial; flattish-conical; pale yellow, mostly covered with red, with bright stripes in the sun; stem medial length, slender, in a rather broad, deep cavity, always covered with russet, often extending on the base; calyx small, closed, in a shallow basin; flesh yellowish white, fine texture, rather tender, remarkably crisp, juicy, of a mild, sprightly, aromatic flavor. Nov. and Dec. We find this as great and stout a grower, in the nursery, as the Baldwin. Great bearer. The original tree is still flourishing on the farm

of Gen. Leonard Hurlbut, Winchester, Ct. It bore 40 bushels one year, and 20 the next. One of the finest of the season, for the dessert and kitchen.


For the New England Farmer. A MAGNIFICENT PAINTING. Many of your readers are doubtless aware that many years ago Congress selected an artist to MAMMOTH OXEN.-There is now on exhibition da at Washington. William H. Powell, was the paint a picture for the vacant panel in the rotunnear the Fitchburg Depot, Boston, a pair of almost unanimous choice. After five years of Oxen said to weigh ninety hundred pounds! One labor, the picture is completed. The subject of of them girts twelve feet and one inch, and is the painting is, " De Soto discovering the Missiseighteen feet in length, from the tip of the nose sippi." A few words of history will render the description more intelligible. De Soto was Govto the end of the tail, and is six feet and four ernor of Cuba. In April, 1539, he set out in inches high! They were raised by Mr. WILLIAM company with several hundred men, on an exploPADDOCK, of Hoosick, Renssellaer county, New ration through Florida to the Mississippi River. York, and worked and fattened by Mr. JOHN He had been an officer under Pizarro in Peru, and LEE, of Washington county, same State. They perhaps expected to find gold among the Indians. "The picture represents the discovery as taking are bright and active, and well worth looking at, place at the last of the Chickasaw Bluffs below and the ninepence which it costs for the oppor- Natchez. De Soto, after months of laborious tunity to do so. travel, has just arrived on the banks of the mighty

river, which is here spread out in all its beauty countenance and the sparkling eye, the mind of and grandeur, and his delight at the discovery of the discoverer carried forward to the realization the long-sought-for object, is well delineated in of that future greatness in population and civilihis features and attitude by the artist. His army zation which is now no longer a matter of imaginconsisted of three hundred mounted men, and a ation. The contemplative, serious delight of the considerable amount of infantry. They were well chief is well contrasted by the waving of hats and equipped, as all Spanish armies at that period the laughing shouts of delight of his followers." were. De Soto's imagination had been inflamed Mr. Powell receives from Government $10,000, by the descriptions of the river which he had for this splendid picture, and so arduous has been heard from the savages of the forest whom he had the work that this sum has proved inadequate. encountered; and he pressed on by means of In- He is permitted to exhibit the painting for his dian guides, overcoming many obstacles that personal benefit for a limited season.


would have deterred a less daring spirtt. The forests were to be hewn down for his cannon and cavalry, and the Indians had to be fought at every step. Besides, he was in a foreign country, a vast wilderness, of what extent he knew not, and, as he had already ascertained, surrounded by many dangers.


MR. EDITOR-I saw an article in your paper for the building of houses with lime and gravel. I wish you would just give me through your pa

The picture may be divided into four groups. The principals group represents De Soto, mounted per the manner in which they do it, cost, &c., as on a magnificent white horse at the head of his will confer a favor on nigh as you can ascertain. If you will do so, you A SUBSCRIBER. suite of officers, servants aud standard-bearers, Warwick, 1854. and followed by his cavalry, which grow indistinct in the shades of the forest in the distance. The principal feature in this group, of course, is the commander-in-chief, Proudly erect upon his noble steed, the white plumes of his office as Gov


ernor of Cuba shading his brow; blazing with Take good dried beef, grate it fine and press the the splendid armor of a Spanish noble of the six- cavity of the nose full of it, allowing it to remain teenth century; the yellow banneret of Spain, until it comes away of itself. It may be a little and the two headed eagle of Austria waving their oppressive, but is a certain remedy. This is the rich folds over his head, he seems conscious of the experience of Dr. J. N. KNAPP, of Dummerston, dignity of his great mission, which is to take Vt., who has been in the successful practice of possession of this inland sea and fertile country of blood in several instances where the patient medicine, since 1814. He has stopped the flow in the name of European civilization. The second group in advance of De Soto, and has been reduced to a helpless condition, and in immediately on the bank of the river is a group and was determined to be left to die. Direct two cases where the patient has become delirious of native Indians, into whose camp he has just arrived, The third group is formed of some mis- force was used, and the patient recovered. sionaries and soldiers belonging to the army, Randolph, Vt. GEO. F. NUTTING. who are planting a cross as a memento to mark the spot, while the fourth group is composed of a company of men who are preparing to fire a can- the Farmer for years, and I wish now to make some inquiries through its columns. I make


MR. EDITOR-I have been a constant reader of

non in commemoration of the event.

The group of savages is composed of the chief milk for the Worcester market. I wish to inand his two tall sons, who are coming forward to quire what is the best and cheapest feed for cows offer to the white man, the first they had ever that give milk, and what will make the most seen, the pipe of peace. Tho old chief stands milk for the same money, and also how to feed nearly bent double between his two sons, and them? (a.) holds out the pipe with an expression in his coun- Is it beneficial to sow plaster at this season of tenance of mingled fear and astonishment. One the year on winter rye and on pastures? (b.) of the sons looks at the gay plumage, singular Worcester, Nov. 6, 1854. WORCESTER. costumes and numerous appliances of war of the REMARKS.-(a.) The questions under this head new comers with evident admiration; while the other has drawn himself proudly up, with an ex- can only be answered in a general way without pression of disdain and daring in his countenance long and exact experiments. The "best and which clearly proves what would be his solution cheapest" food for milch cows which we have evof the difficulty, if he had the power. In front er found, was good corn fodder, clover and herd'sof the chief several naked squaws are seen kneel

ing offering presents of game and corn to their grass hay, and half a bushel, or three pecks of conquerers, hoping thus to conciliate their favor. roots,—say, beets, parsnips, carrots, flat turnips

Whilst the Indians are presenting their peace and ruta bagas,-per day, for each cow, fed to offerings, and endeavoring to gain the attention and them in the morning soon after they were milked. good will of their visitors, De Soto deigns not to Under this treatment this gave more milk than cast a glance at the group in front of him, but under any other, and we found it the cheapest. with his eyes directed over their heads to the grandeur of the scene that is spread out before Good corn fodder will produce milk abundanthim, to the majestic river, dotted with islands, ly. and to the far sweep of country that extends beyond, one can imagine he sees in the glowing ter.

(b.) The autumn is a good time to sow plas

W. D. B.

REMARKS.-Will some correspondent who possesses the information reply to the above?

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He'll screw and twist, and wrench and turn,
Though honest in his dealing;

And while he often takes the steel,
He never takes to stealing.

His stock is seldom less than par,
And often takes a rise ;
No matter what his virtues are,
He's much to do with vise.
His temper it is always good,
Though hard things form his lot;
He's often in a "melting mood,"

And strikes while the iron's hot.
He sometimes sways an iron rod,
Although a foe to tyranny;
His figures are not those of speech,
Though oft he uses irony.

And ere his great work is complete,
And he shall close his books,

Our swords he'll into plowshares beat,
Our spears to pruning-hooks.

Rural New-Yorker.



We copy from the Maine Farmer, of October 9, 1854, a paper published under the editorial care of Dr. E. Holmes, at Augusta, the following correspondence, which, if we do not mistake, will be read with interest by many a farmer. We make no pretensions ourselves to a knowledge of the growing of turnips, or the peculiar qualities of salt hay so much of which springs spontaneously, without culture, all along our shores; but when the elements of these products are incorporated in the form of a sirloin of beef, with the streaks of fat and lean properly intermingled, (or to use the expressive phrase of Mr. Sprague, "well marbled") we yield to no one, of our inches, in the ability to do it justice. When we see names like those approving this experiment, gentlemen whose opinions are confirmed by the experiments of many years, we think we are safe in following their lead, and in endeavoring to lead others in like paths. There is more real utility, in one such experiment, well established, than in all the fancy speculations ever put forth, without confirmation by experiment.


MR. EDITOR-I forward for publication in your paper, a copy of a letter that I used in speaking to the farmers of York county, on the 5th inst., at Biddeford. It contains facts, in my opinion, worthy to be remembered. It is supported by the names of Webster and Sprague-as well entitled to credit in such matters as any I know.— Let any one pass from Boston to the Kennebec, and take a glance at the salt marshes by the way, Farming in California is becoming a business and he will see abundant occasion to seek a valuof some consequence. We see by the California able use for salt hay, and for the growing of turFarmer-quite a smart paper for the new State- nips, in these days, when the potato has so genethat a great Cattle Show was to come off the rally failed, though I am happy to say that our 4th of October and following days. The State potatoes the present season are much better than awards the Agricultural Society five thousand we had any reason to expect. Eight hundred dollars annually for years, to be given as pre- bushels of turnips to the acre, can be raised as miums. The premiums are decidedly worth get- easily as two hundred bushels of potatoes, or as ting. Among others, for the best farm, $200; 50 bushels of corn, so far as my observation has second best, $175. The premium for the best extended. I was much pleased with the fine workflower garden, ($40) is a new idea this way. ing oxen that I saw at Biddeford; while such anThere is offered a prize of fifteen dollars for the imals can be reared on such farms, there can be best twenty-five ears of seed corn; best fifty little necessity of introducing animals from abroad, pounds of butter, fifty dollars; best quart of cran- at three times the cost for which they can be reared. berries, ten dollars; best evergreen wreath, twenty J. W. PROCTOR. dollars. For the best six pumpkins, (probably Danvers, Mass., Oct. 7, 1854. proposed by a New Englander,) ten dollars. HON. J. W. PROCTOR,

Premiums are offered with great liberality for farm vehicles, (why not here?) This is a good Dear Sir :-In answer to your inquiries relative. one: For the best cart horse, to be shown in to my experience of the value of turnips and saltcart, twenty dollars. hay, I can only say that notwithstanding I have The most important "live stock" premium raised from one to two thousand bushels of turproposed was one of one hundred dollars for the nips, beets and carrots, and fed them to my catfinest baby under one year old." Just at the tle, horses and hogs for several years past, I have last moment, the executive committee thought it no data to estimate the real value, but from a sinwouldn't hardly do and withdrew it. Their pru-gle experiment I made at the suggestion of the dence will save unnecessary crying. late and lamented Daniel Webster. Concord, 1854. Having purchased a number of young cattle from a drove from Maine, and finding a heifer not The Tippecanoe Farmer is the name of a in calf, and a steer of ordinary quality, I thought new agricultural paper published at Lafayette, I would try what turnips and salt-hay would do Indiana. It is well printed, filled with instructive for them. They were both two years old; the heifmatter, and will undoubtedly do good service in er was thrifty and in fair condition for winter the cause. Edited by A. J. WEAVER and JOHN LOVERING. Fifty cents a year.

W. D. B.

ly built, a poor feeder, and such as most of our stock; the steer a mean animal, thin of flesh, badfarmers in the vicinity would have thought more

likely to die than live, on such feed as I was about to confine him to. They were put into the stall the latter part of November, and fed on ruta baga turnips and salt hay. The heifer consumed nearly one bushel per day, the steer not much more than one half that quantity. At the end of four months I sold the heifer to the butcher. She opened well, but with not a large quantity of fat on the kidney, or of rough tallow, but the side was thick and well marbled, or mixed with fat and lean. The meat was juicy and well flavored, and much admired by all who saw or tasted it. Being fearful the turnips or salt hay might give an unpleasant flavor to the meat, I gave her, for four or five days previous to her being slaughtered, English hay and a little Indian meal. With this exception she had not a mouthful of food of any kind but turnips and salt-hay. Water was offered them occasionally, but they drank but little. The steer was slaughtered shortly after; he was very decent beef, but no way comparing to the heifer. I was much pleased with the result Some very intelligent farmers will not believe that turnips possess any nutritive quality, and ridicule the idea that an ounce of fat can be made from them. And the opinion is equally strong against the fattening of hay from our salt marshes. This experiment does not show much profit, but it proves a fact of importance, especially to farmers, in the use of salt-hay; and they can raise turnips| by their own labor, and thus fatten their cattle excellent agricultural publications, indulged himintended for the shambles, avoiding the payment self during the past summer in some rambles, of money for corn or other expensive feed.


J. AMBROSE WRIGHT, ESQ., Editor of the Prairie Farmer, published at Chicago, and one of our

Yours with respect,
Duxbury, Mass., Sept. 30, 1854.

and has given graphic sketches of some of the men
and things which he saw. We only regret that
his intention of visiting Boston was interrupted,
and we lost, what we should have gladly claimed,
a share of his time.



Wilmington, Vt., Nov. 11, 1854.


Stop, mortal! here thy brother lies,
The poet of the poor;

His books were rivers, woods and skies,
The meadow and the moor;

His teachers were the torn heart's wail,
The tyrant and the slave,

The street, the factory, the jail,
The palace-and the grave!
Sin met thy brother everywhere!
And is thy brother blamed ?
From passion, danger, doubt and care,
He no exemption claim'd.

The meanest thing, earth's feeblest worm,
He fear'd to scorn or hate;

But, honoring in a peasant's form
The equal of the great.

He bless'd the steward, whose wealth makes
The poor man's little more;

Yet loath'd the haughty wretch that takes
From plunder'd labor's store,

A hand to do, a head to plan,

A heart to feel and dare

Tell man's worst foes, here lies the man
Who drew them as they are.

For the New England Farmer.

Among other persons whom he mentions as engaged in the work of agricultural progress, is the gentleman whose name stands at the head of

CHEAP AND EXCELLENT CANDLES. MR. HOLBROOK :-The following receipt I copied from a newspaper, some twelve months since. I this article. He says: have tried it twice, and find it all that it is cracked up to be. I have no doubt that it would "I have already mentioned that I met Luther have been worth more than $20 to me if I had Tucker at Albany. Mr. Tucker is I believe the known it twenty years ago. Most farmers have oldest living publisher of Agricultural papers in the United States. Certain it is, that no man in this country, if anywhere else, has given to the world so many issues of this kind, of such uniform

a surplus of stale fat and dirty grease, which can be made into good candles at a trifling expense.

I kept both tallow and lard candles through| the last summer, the lard candles standing the and enduring value. His old Genesee Farmer, heat best, and burning quite as well, and giving published at Rochester, and of which he put as good a light as the tallow ones. I have never forth, if I recollect right, some dozen volumes, seen it in the New England Farmer; perhaps it was a paper of mark in its day, and has been the has been published there, notwithstanding. real parent of the whole Northern brood of similar name and purposes. Notwithstanding the great

I submit the following directions for making reputation of Judge Buel's Cultivator, that paper good candles from lard: For 12 lbs. of lard, take rose at once in value upon Mr. Tucker's connec1 lb. of saltpetre and 1 lb. of alum; mix them tion with it; and to this day it has never had and pulverize them; dissolve the saltpetre and any rival, which one can from month to month alum with a gill of boiling water; pour the com- turn over, and then put away to be bound up in pound into the lard before it is quite all melted; his Library, with so uniform satisfaction. Mr. stir the whole until it boils; skim off what rises; T. made his editorial beginning with a political let it simmer until the water is all boiled out, or paper, having been educated a printer. From till it ceases to throw off steam; pour off the lard this he published the Genesce Farmer; then the as soon as it is done, and clean the boiler while it Albany Cultivator-still continued in connection is hot. If the candles are to be run, you may with the Country Gentleman, which latter at this commence immediately; if to be dipped, let the time is his real paper-the Cultivator being made lard cool first to a cake, and then treat it as you up from its pages from month to month. In adwould tallow. Respectfully yours,

dition to these, The Horticulturist, edited by Mr. Downing, passed through seven volumes in his hands. It is as a publisher, as much, if not more,


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