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DEVOTED TO AGRIOULTURE AND ITS KINDRED ARTS AND SCIENCES.

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CALENDAR FOR JUNE. a little neglect now causes not only a lighter "These gardens, vales, and plains, and hills,

crop, but the partial loss of the preparation of Which beauty gilds and music fills, Were once but deserts. Culture's hand

the soil and the application of valuable fertilHas scattered verdure o'er the land,

izers—so it is a double loss.
And smiles and fragrance rule serene,
Where barren wild usurped the scene."

The head must now help the hands, and decide
UNE, the first of the where the forces shall move first, and how each
Summer months,

particular work shall be done, so that there shall presents, in this cli

be no losses by delay, or misapplication of labor mate, most of the by doing the work twice over. beautiful foliage,

Now the thoughtful and observing farmer will and many of the at- put to the test some of the theories which occupied tractive flowers of

his winter evenings' attention, and enable himthe year. How eve

self either to confirm their truthfulness or expose

them as fallacies. He will watch the effect of ry space seems filled up! How bloom- deep plowing, of fine pulverization, of high maing and brilliant

nuring, of frequent stirrings of the soil, and the all vegetable life effect of drainage upon plants. appears! What a The most important farm work of the month of polish, elegance June, is that of cultivating the crops which have and grace, in the been put in, so that they shall attain the greatest grass and flowers of possible vigor and perfection.

the field, in the Hosing, then, is the key to these results ; stop young corn plants, the grain, and the the hoe and you stop the profits. Nature, kind light green of the new oak leaves, or as she is, will no more carry on the plant to perthe glossy ones of the stately walnut. fection, after you have started it, without your care Everywhere about our feet flocks of and attention, than she will drive the printingwild-flowers

press, or the factory wheel, after they have been “Do paint the meadow with delight.” constructed by the mechanic. If there were no Now we get the grand jubilate of the birds—they weeds, and the earth alone were to sustain the are all here in their new dresses, and ask no fee plants, the hoe might rust in idleness; but so to attend their grand choruses. The happiness long as weeds will invade, and the leaves of is a mutual one, for it is as much pleasure for plants spread themselves to the sun and air for a them to sing as for us to hear; so we will plant considerable portion of their food, the hoe and the them trees, invite them by kindness and the erec- cultivator cannot be dispensed with. tion of suitable habitations for such as enjoy a A close, compact soil, will neither imbibe the close proximity to our dwellings, and share lib-generous dews, nor admit the air and warmth beerally with them the fruits of our care; and low. It must be light, porous, and its surface they shall pay us in their own way, by their frequently changed; then it becomes active, absongs and the destruction of some of the insects sorbing the dews and catching the fertilizing that annoy us.

streamg which are ever flowing over it from above. It must be a busy month. Crops neglected in Hoe, then, constantly and thoroughly, if you will June can make but a poor return at harvest time ; reap the full benefits of your earlier labors.

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We cannot stop now to explain the principles ceive a little corn, beans, or extra feed of some which make it necessary, but they are principles kind, if the weather is damp and cold. They indispensable to successful culture.

should also have access to salt, and be looked afThe Garden.-Few persons who have not ter to see that they are not molested by dogs, and been in the habit of cultivating and gathering are not rambling beyond their own boundary. the products of the garden, are aware how CHERRIES-PLUMS.If you have choice stonemuch may be obtained from one well-managed fruits, and especially on young trees, thin off towards supplying the table, and furnishing a something off the superabundance, and the relarge amount of seasonable, nutritious and whole- mainder will more than repay the trouble in the some food for the family. The vegetables and size and quality which it will attain. fruits which may be obtained are numerous, and PRUNING.–From the 20th of June to the 10th when the management of the garden is reduced to of July pruning may be done if the time can be a system, so that a spot is designated for each spared. particular plant, it will be found easy to get it INITIAL LETTER.-The

young
folks
may

look at into order in the spring. Constant attention will our illuminated letter; it may suggest to them be necessary to see that the cultivated plants oc- some long-neglected brook, pleasantly meandering cupy the whole space, and are not left to struggle through a retired meadow, where the speckled with weeds and other plants not desired. A few trout watch for prey from under an ancient root, general maxims may be observed with profit. and from whence,-if they are skilled in the pis

“Grow nothing carelessly; whatever is worth catory art,—they may draw a most delicious fry growing at all, is worth growing well. for breakfast! If they love “virtue and angling,"

Plants when exposed to the action of light, they can undoubtedly spare an afternoon for this transmit moisture copiously through their leaves ; pleasant and rational recreation. transplanted seedlings, therefore, and cuttings, should be shaded from the sun until their roots

WASHING WINDOWS. are strong enough to supply moisture as rapidly A correspondent of the American Agriculturas it is thrown off.

ist gives the following improved mode of washLeaves absorb and give out moisture, and in

ing windows, which, although not altogether new hale and exhale air ; they are, consequently, the

to us, may be valuable to many of our readers : most important organs of a plant, and if they are destroyed or injured, the whole plant suffers.

I have a great aversion to scouring knives, and

never touch brick-dust if I can help it; but if Light is necessary to flowers, that they may their brightness depends on me, I prefer to rub acquire their proper hues; therefore, when kept them three times a day rather than once, for it is in rooms, their places should be as near to the less labor, and they last longer. window as possible."

The nicest article for washing windows is Lettuce and radishes may be sown each week

deer-skin, as no particles come off to adhere to the

glass and make it look as if washed with feathin the month, which will yield a constant supply There is no need of any thing larger than a for many weeks. Cabbages may be transplanted hand-basin for washing windows. The great towards the close of the month for autumn and splashing some people make in the exercise of winter use. Celery plants may be set in the their art is entirely useless, and is, moreover, deltrench, but if the sun is hot, should be protected down in great quantities over the glass, it dis

cterious. When the water is permitted to run by boards or something else, until they have solves the putty and soon loosens the panes

from fairly taken root. Watering with water which their setting, and also stains the glass. Two has stood in the sun through the day will forward pieces of wash-leather and a bowl of suds are all them considerably.

that are necessary. Wipe the glass first with the

wet cloth or leather, and after it has become BUCKWHEAT.--Prepare lands for buckwheat. dry, with the clean cloth, and it will look clear, This plant will yield a tolerable crop on some of and far more so than if ringed in a dozen pails of our lighter, gravelly soils, and now that flour is water. $12 to $13 a barrel, with a prospect that it may

NEW POSTAGE LAW. continue at a high price, it will be well to improve every opportunity for a good supply of this

Letters sent to the post office and not paid, favorite grain.

will be sent to the dead letter office at WashingSHEEP AND SHEARING.—There has never been a

ton, and not to the persons to whom they are di

rected. greater demand for fine wool or fine mutton, than at this time; both are bringing prices highly fa

All persons writing us on business purely vorable to the producer, and they become, there

their own, must enclose a stamp for the reply. fore, articles of interest to those favorably situa

Corn.-Soak your seed-corn in saltpetre. It ted for their production. After shearing, sheep destroys the worm, is not relished by crows or by should be carefully sheltered from storms, and re- squirrels, and yields more abundantly.

ers.

For the New England Farmer. that year inclusive, of bulls and bull calves enNATIVE AND IMPROVED CATTLE.

tered for premiums at the different shows, the

blood of which was given by competitors, there FRIEND BROWN :-At the time of first writing, were 126 of improved to 24 of native breed. I do through the Farmer, to “Essex," about breeds of not find the records from 1839 to 1842. From cattle, I intended to examine the books of our 1842 to 1854, both inclusive, (and in this time a County Agricultural Society, for the yield of the statement of breed was required,) there were 308 various premium cows, and to institute a com- entries of bulls and bull calves, 272 of which parison of yield in reference to breeds. But I

were certified to be, in whole or in part, of foreign can make no comparison which would be satis- blood, improved—36 only being entered as native. factory to any one, on account of the great differ- From 1842 to 1847, both inclusive, there were ence in manner and amount of feed. Failing in exhibited 37 native cows, against 34 of mixed or their attempt, I laid down my pen. But the pe- improved breeds ; while from 1848 to 1854, there culiar reply of my friend “Esses” to my former were 108 of improved breeds against 39 called communication, led to another search of our natives. records, the result of which I will give you. In the class of heifers and heifer calves, in the

“Essex” says that if I had charged him with first period, there were 89 natives against 153 of partiality instead of prejudice, he would have improved breed. In the last, there were 130 na- · "owned up;" for “I must confess," he says, tives against 317 improved. Now, from 1843 to "other things being equal," I do like "our own 1854, both inclusive, there were in the classes or better than foreign breeds.” My friend wont bulls and bull calves, cows, heifers and heifer take it amiss, I know, when I tell him that my calves, 1115 entries, 784 of which were classed as inclination to laugh, at this point, was irresist- improved. In 1854, out of 33 bulls and bull ible. Ha ! ha!Other things being equal !" Why, calves, there were but 2 entered as natives ; out that is just the point in dispute ! Other things of 39 cows, 2 only were entered as natives ; and being equal.' Why should either of us care I will give "Essex” one of these two if he does about the mere accident of birth-place, other not pronounce her a grade Durham, and high things being equal?—that is, all cows costing an gradē at that. I entered her as I bought her, equal sum, giving an equal amount of milk, from and, out of 51 heifers and heifer calves, only 7 which, with an equal amount of labor, an equa. were claimed by their owners as natives. amount of butter or cheese, of equal quality, If it is fair to presume that these exhibitions could be manufactured—the cows keeping in offer a fair pro rata exhibit of our stock, then equal order, upon an equal amount and quality of Essex must admit that in the best county of the food. Well, for the life of me, I can't see why, State nine-tenths of the stock are not natives ? other things being equal,”' there can be room for If we assume that the best stock of the county a great difference.

is exhibited at these Shows, then in the judgment "Essex” accuses me of being “sensitive” to of the community the best of that exhibited has the use of the term "native,” when applied to been and is now in whole or in part of foreign animals, and indirectly charges me with an at- blood, and so, properly, called "improved.' tempt to “mystify the matter," under "an affec- Because from 1843 1853, both inclusive, the tation of learning not to be commended.” I disposition of premiums has been as follows: have no desire to mystify the matter in any de

Heifers and gree; and, after the perusal of this article by

Heifer Calves. “Essex," I will leave to his cooler judgment to

Impr'd. Native. Impr'd. Native. Impr'd. Native. determine whether “secresy and double-shuffle" into 1843...4..... mystery,” and “an affectation of learning' is 1853.. justly chargeable to me when asking the meaning of the term “native," as applied to our stock, From 1812 to 1847, both inclusive, there were nine-tenths of which, he says, are native, and entered of nothing different from natives."

Heifers and Calves. In 1819, the Worcester Agricultural Society Native. Imprid.

Impr'd.

Impr'd. held their first cattle show, at which was exhib

37........31........89........153........ ited the imported Teeswater bull “Denton.” If while from 1848 to 1854, both inclusive, there nine-tenths of the stock on the best farms of the were entered of best county of the Commonwealth could show his

Heifers and Calves. blood now, I would undertake to decide before-Native. Impr'd.

Impr'd. Native. Impr'd.

76.......142....... hand where the State Society's premiums would

.470.................164 go next year. "Admiral,” another imported or 457 native of all classes, against 1067 of imbull, graced our shows in 1825, 26, 27 and 28. proved breed. In 1836, a full blood Ayrshire bull was sent into One thing no Worcester county farmer will the county by the Massachusetts Society. In deny, that, beginning with Denton in 1819, our 1842 another animal, of the same blood, was pre- stock, whether for the dairy, the shambles or the sented to the society by Hon. John P. Cushing. yoke, has been very much improved. This imAnd in 1848, the renewed munificence of the State provement must have been caused either by greatSociety put us in possession of two bulls, one an er care of the stock, as originally among us, or Ayrshire, the other a North Devon. In addition from the intermixture of foreign blood. to these animals, there have been many others If from greater care of our original stock, why from the herds of different individuals in this as an almost universal thing, are our premiums State, Connecticut and New York.

bestowed upon animals the farthest removed from Up to the year 1828, the breed of the animal it? was not generally entered on record. Still, tol If, in a county favored with the presence of

Bulls and Bull

Calues.

Cows.

8......24......19.......80......50 .....5...............1.......3........5.......6

..7... 1.......3.......0.......12.......0 ..8..............all..... ........13.......1

1851.

Cows.

Native.

Bulls and Calves. Native. ...29........

.......104

Cows,

Bulls and Calves.

Native.

219........

W. S. L.

many of the best animals of foreign blood brought or leaves, and through the summer occasionally into the State from 1819 to the present day, Es- throw upon this the contents of the tubs on sex can properly say there exists a native breed, by which I inean one indigenous to the county, i wasliing days. A. J. Downing, late editor of the do not understand the force of language. I nowe Horticulturist, says: “I have seen the Isabella stop to inquire of my friend Essex what consti- grape produce 3,000 fine clusters of well-ripened tutes a cow of native breed? at the hazard of be- fruit in a season, by the liberal use of soap-suds ing charged with an affectation of learningin from the weekly wash.” so doing. Yours,

The effect of soap-suds on other plants is some

times surprising. A cypress vine which had reMANURE YOUR FRUIT TREES IN

mained stationary for a fortnight, when about EARLY SPRING.

two inches high, immediately cominenced growAlmost every mail brings us inquiries relative ing after a good watering with soap-suds, and to the manuring of fruit trees. Fertilizers should grew about six inches the first five days. be applied to fruit trees in early spring; for the With a little care this may all be well done by sap first formed is that which contains at least the

any one who has never attempted it before. Uninorganic pabulum which has been rendered soluhle during a long winter, and, therefore, occu

der this treatment in the course of three or four pies the first quantity of water taken from the years you will be amply repaid by a most beautisoil by the tree in the spring; and if the soil be ful crop of luscious grapes, and a vine greatly ordeficient of the necessary ingredients, they should namental to the grounds and dwelling. be added, and our various articles on fruits and

Pruning.–The grape vine bleeds readily. Nerfruits trees will give the necessary manure required. The great mass of water passing through

er prune at all, until the vine has grown one or trees during the summer, acts but to dilute the two years, for it needs the aid of the small portions of soluble materials already resident with- branches in order to push forward large and vigin the tree. It is true that new portions are ous roots. Late in October or in November is a being continually taken up from the soil, but certainly in a much more diluted state. Ashes and proper time-never when the sap is in motion in soluble phosphates are found useful for most

the spring. As the fruit grows on new wood kinds of trees, while the disturbance of the soil every year, in pruning it is necessary to cut back insures the admission of atmosphere. Manures the branches to within two or three eyes of the containing the carbonate of ammonia, such as main stem. The cultivator will find plain direcguano, should not be applied in spring, as they tions in Cole's Fruit Book, which costs but fifty can only safely be used for fruit trees in the fall, thus permitting the soluble and more virulent cents, and it will enable him to see the whole portions to become divided over a large area be- operation illustrated by engravings. fore spring growth commences. This is not the Never pinch off the leaves to aid the ripening case, however, with the improved super-phos- of the fruit, as they are placed there for the very phate of lime and some other manures, in which the ammonia exists as sulphate, and not as car

purpose you desire to accomplish. bonate of ammonia. Lime may be applied in

Plant a grape vine, and before long some of moderate doses, fairly sub-divideši hy soil, around you will be thankful to him who gave you the apple trees and such others as may need this fer-hint. tilizer.— Working Farmer.

HOEING IN DRY WEATHER.
PLANT A GRAPE VINE.

Experience has fully established the fact at Every person who has the control of a square boeing in dry weather, but the reason why, or

corn, and other crops, are essentially benefited .. rod of ground whereon plants may grow, can the manner how it is done, is not so generally unscarcely do better than to set a grape vine of the derstood. That moisture is formed by stirring Concord, Isabella or Diana varieties. The first the dry particles of earth and changing their relacost is trifling, and the after-care of them, more

tive positions, is generally admitted.

Water is composed of oxygen and nitrogen. of a pleasure than a task. The grape is not only These substances are also contained in different palatable and nutritious for those who are well, proportions, in the earth and atmosphere, and but is exceedingly grateful to the sick, giving are, to some extent, formed by the action of differtone to the digestivo organs, and healthy action ent particles of earthy matter upon each other, to the whole alimentary canal.

when brought into contact, as done by hoeing:

Water acts as a solvent of other substances, and Before setting the root, throw out the earth, to holds them in solution so that they can be taken the depth of two or three feet and fill up ten inch- up by the roots, and made to nourish the growes with coarse manure of any sort, old bones, oys- ing plant. This is the reason why it is best to ter shells, &c., and then throw in rich loam ; in- sow or plant seeds as soon as possible after the to this rake a few quarts of house ashes, then fill land has been plowed or harrowed. The different up with loam and composted manure, and the lations and produce a chemical action, during

particles of matter coming together, form new resoil is ready for the root.

which beat is evolved, and oxygen and hydrogen After the plant is set scatter on strawy manure, are generated, and caused to unite, and form

water; which with other substances act upon twice a week on the muck, and thus prevent firethe seeds and produces germination ; and gives to fanging, the admixture of decomposed swamp the new-born plant a vigorous start into existence. muck, and other carbonaceous matters capable of After the soil has remained quiet for some time, absorbing ammonia liberated during the fermenthese substances having exhausted their energy, tation. The slight use of dilute sulphuric acid by nutralizing the powers of each other, the plant or of plaster, or other sulphates capable of changhaving absorbed all the elements of nutrition with ing the carbons te of ammonia to sulphate of amin reach of its roots, its growth becomes retarded, monia, will also do away with its volatile charand can only be restored by renewing the chemi-acter. cal action. This can be done by applying some The facility of adding the missing constituents compost manure or by hoeing or stirring the earth, of the soil to the general compost heap in soluso as to bring different particles into contact with tion is very great, many of which, particularly each other and forming new combinations, and those of an alkaline chăracter, will assist in the consequently, thus producing a further supply of decomposition of the manure by softening the nutritious matter. Corn, that is hoed every two woody fibre, liberating the inorganic constituents, or three weeks, will come to maturity sooner, pro- and rendering part soluble which otherwise would duce more, and be better filled on the cob, than for a time remain comparatively inert.— Workit will when treated in the usual way. We would ing Farmer. recommend to our farmers, to select two or three rows in the field and hoe it regularly once in two

For the New England Farmer. weeks, and in the fall inform us of the results of

SPRING---LOCUST TREES. their experiment.-Anon.

Mr. Brown :- Winter lingered so long with us

in this quarter, cramping the atmosphere with LONG AND SHORT MANURES.

cold and frost, that the early Spring made but An excellent article on this subject, quoted slight impressions, and it almost seemed as if "the from the Germantown Telegraph, will be found trembling year” would remain "unconfirmed ;"' on page 67 of the present number, but some of the arguments that should be understood, are not

but at length a decided change is taking place, there given. Those who have long manures on

and hand in the fall, :und have lands intended for use

_"urly Winter passes off, in the following spring which may be plowed in

Far to the north, and calls his ruffian blasts." the fall, and which soils contain a sufficient For about a week past, we have been favored amount of clay and carbonaceous matter to retain with frequent alternations of warm sunshine, and ammonia, may fertilize with long manures, deeply soft south winds with rain, infusing mother plowed under; for the decomposition of these earth with a sudden impulse, changing her asmanures will be sufficiently slow to insure the absorption and retention of all their ammonia by pects as by magic, the snow rapidly disappears, the supernatant portions of the soil, and their the brooks roar, the birds sing in varied melodies, slow decay will assist in ærating by giving free and admission of atmosphere, while the spring plow

“From the noist meadow to the withered hill, ing will elevate and mix the manures throughout Led by the breeze, the vivid verdure runs." the soil. We do not advocate the use of long manures

How rapid and striking the transition from in spring, or at any time in sandy or very loose Winter to exhilarating Spring! My friend, how soils, unless those soils are black by the presence rich, varied and important are the impressions of carbon to receive and retain all the volatile we may derive from thoughtful observation of gases which may result from the decomposition the Seasons. Beset as our life here is, with cares of the manure, but for soils that are plastic and and influences tending at times to drag down our clayey, requiring disintegration from the action of winter frosts, we would fearlessly recommend spirits and blunt our finer sensibilities, how fitridging and black furrowing, and the covering up ting that we should often sequester our minds in these ridges of long manures; for certainly for a little season from thu anxieties and cager the same argument which may be used for the pursuits of earth, elevating them to the contemadmixture of inert materials of a carbonaceous character in the compost heap, apply with equal plation of an ever-present Deity in His works, fairness to such soils as are capable of retaining

and reading the instructions they communicate. ammonia, being fertilized with long or undecom- Especially in the delightful season of Spring may posed manures.

the mind be ennobled and refined by an attentive For hoe crops, and many others requiring soil study of those works. This too is eminently the in find tilth, the decomposed manure should then be used in preference to the long, which, from

season to enjoy the productions of the great masmechanical causes, would interfere too seriously ters in poetry, and appreciate some of their most with the action of tools intended to disturb the beautiful and sublime sentiments. Greatly may soil, causing the undue disturbance of roots, we cultivate and refine our tastes and sensibilities breaking off their fibres, etc. But the treatment and quicken and enlarge our powers of observaof manures to render them short, should he such tion and reflection, by an occasional communion in the compost heap, as not to permit the loss of ammonia, and all the facts in relation to such with these grand authors. No matter what our treatment we have before given, such as the ar- situation or calling in life, we should undoubtedrangement of a pump, return of the drainagelly rise to our high privileges as rational beings,

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