« ՆախորդըՇարունակել »
upon the soil.
and find time to exalt that immortal element taken from the land—the crop yearly increasing within us to contemplations above and beyond in amount and improving in quality. The trees the mere practical affairs of life. Strolling out have grown finely, and many of them would now of a fine morning in Spring, the mind all opened make the best of fencing-stuff. The land, which and awake to the impressions from Nature, and was not worth $10 per acre twenty years ago, perhaps recalling some noble sentiment uttered could not now be bought for six times that sum. by a master spirit when contemplating similar In addition to the value of the trees now standscenes, how much may what we then see and feel ing on it, the land furnishes excellent pasturage, serve to strengthen us anew for the battle of life, -the white clover predominating largely in the and to rise superior to any depressing or wither-sward. The trees have greatly improved the soil ing influences that may beset us in our pathway. by their annual deposit of leaves, which, lying Can any sensitive man fail of being quickened still where they fall, coat the surface and keep it and improved by such an experience?
mellow and soft, and the sward open, so that the “When heaven and earth, as if contending, vie grasses do not become bound at the root, but To raise his being and screne his soul,
afford a tender bite of pasturage, much relished Can he forbear to join the general smile Of Nature ? Can fierce passions vex his breast,
by the cattle—inclining them to remain much in While every gale is peace, and every grove
the grove, preferring the locality before any Is melody ?"
other portion of the pastures. The borers have Reflections like the foregoing in part occupied occasionally destroyed a tree, but new sprouts my mind while walking out one of the beautiful have in such case invariably sprung up from the mornings of the present week. But my particu- roots. lar purpose in taking that walk was to comply This grove is well worth looking at, and fully with an invitation from Mr. Solyman Cune, of confirms the statements I have heretofore made this town, to observe his plantation of yellow lo- in the Farmer, relative to the improvement of cust trees, and the improvement of a very poor poor land by planting it with the locust tree. piece of land by the plantation ; and the design This, in my judgment, is one of the cheapest which prompted me to take up my pen at this and best of modes for improving rough stony time was to speak of these trees, and their effect lands of a thin soil, or old pastures which refuse
to give a bite of grass, and are too steep or far This grove of locusts embraces about two acres from home to be accessible with the plow and of a rough, stony ridge of land, naturally of a manure cart. There are numerous acres of wornlight, thin soil, which had long ago been worn out pasture lands in New England which may out by a previous owner, with successive crops of unquestionably be improved by planting them rye, so that when the land came into Mr. Cune's with the yellow locust. hands it would not bear grass, and was of no In passing over Mr. Cune's farm, I noticed value for production. Mr. Cune had read that several good apple orchards have been started, the locust tree would improve such land. In the which bear evident marks of the owner's skill spring season, about twenty years ago, he bought and taste as an orchardist, and which at no dishalf a pound of the seed of the yellow locust, at tant day will add materially to the income of the a seed-store in Boston. As soon as the seed ar- farm, and to its money value. Mr. Cune is conrived at the farm he poured boiling water upon siderably engaged in the nursery business, and it, scalding it for a minute or two, then added has an excellent stock of young trees of approved enough cold water to reduce the temperature to varieties of the apple and pear. Persons in this about blood heat, and let the seed soak over region desirous of commencing young orchards, night. It was then sown in drills in the gar- would do well to look at his nurseries before proden, as one would sow beet seed, and it came up curing trees at a greater distance. well. The little trees or sprouts were allowed to
F. HOLBROOK. stand in the garden till the following Spring,
Brattleboro', April 18, 1855. when they were transplanted to the knoll where they now are. The transplanting was done by How much MANURE DO WE USE ON AN ACREstriking furrows with the plow, about twenty an acre of land contains 43,560 square feet, 4,feet apart, then placing the little trees in these
840 square yards, or 160 square rods.
By those furrows, from five to eight feet apart, and cover- sufficient to manure an acre; 3024 lbs. would
who have used guano, it is said 300 pounds is ing the roots with a hoe. The land was then give just one ounce avordupois to the square fenced from cattle, the fence remaining for about yard. One cubid yard would give a trifle over ten years, when it was removed, and the land one cubic inch to the square foot. A cubic yard has since been pastured.
of highly concentrated manure, like night soil, During the last half of the period that the acre very well. A cubic yard of long manure
would, if evenly and properly spread, manure an grove was fenced, an annual crop of hay was will weigh about 1,400 lbs. ; a cubic foot not far
from 50 lbs. A cord contains 128 cubic feet; a 6. Hogs, half Suffolk ; nens, a mixture of the cord and a quarter would give about a cubic foot best you can find. to the square rod. If liquid manure be used, it
7. Do not mix these substances. would take 170 bbls. to give one gill to a square foot upon an acre, which would be equal to
8. There are plows in Boston suitable for all about 50 pipes or large hogsheads. It would be sorts of land. quite useful if farmers would be a little more
For the New England Farmer. specific as to the amount of manure applied.Rural New-Yorker.
PLUM TREES---TAP ROOT---POTATOES.
Mr. Brown :-I have now been in this counFor the New England Farmer. try, (from England,) two years. I have purGUANO AND OTHER THINGS.
chased your paper every week, and do still, and
if every farmer in the United States does not get Mr. Brown :-I wish to make a few inquiries it, they ought to, as it is full of information. I through the Farmer.
have travelled through Europe and part of Asia, 1. If the same worth of ashes is applied to the and am always glad if I can do good to any counground as that of guano, will it have as good an try I pass through. I see in your Saturday's paeffect?
per, headed “Sucker Plum Trees,” Mr. Smith has 2. If the same worth of plaster is applied, will answered that fully and satisfactorily as regards it do as much good as guano ?
suckers, for you must never expect fruit, at least 3. If the same worth of slaked lime is applied good fruit, from below the graft, but there are as of guano, will it have the same effect? cases where even grafted trees blossom and not
4. Which are the three best kinds of potatoes bear fruit, and in this case, ninety times out of planted in New England ?
a hundred, the tree has a tap-root, and if so, do 5. Which is the earliest kind of corn? Let not expect much fruit, but dig down and see if me know where the potatoes and corn can be got, there is a tap root; if so saw it off, and saw it and prices ?
close to the ball of the tree ; but no tree if prop6. What breed of hogs and hens is most pro- erly planted can have a tap root. In France, Belductive and profitable ?
gium and England they place a slate or flat stone, 7. If the ashes, plaster and lime are mixed in and plant the tree upon it; by this means, the equal parts, will they have as good an effect as roots branch out, and you can have no tap root. guano or superphosphate of lime ?
You must never expect to raise fruit from suck8. Is there any improved plow for use on ers. When Mr. Cobbett left Long Island, (he rough, stony and steep land, for sale in Boston ? was a great agriculturist) he did all he could in I have seen and bought some fourteen plows of England to raise or produce that beautiful apple, different patterns, but as yet have got none equal (I think you call it the Newtown Pippin ;) he to the old style. Why do not some of our scien- took grafts with him and grafted thein on Paratific farmers and mechanics make improved tools dise stocks, viz., stocks raised in England from for rough, stony land, as well as for the smooth the pippins of apples. Some of them he let grow Alats?
three years, and wrote back to Long Island for By answering the above inquiries you will more grafts. When he got them, he cut off those oblige many New Yorkers.
S. W. RENALDS. which had grown three years, and grafted again Petersburg, Rens. Co., N. Y., 1855.
with his newly imported ones from Long Island.
They grew and fruited, and were good apples, REMARKS.–1. We believe the same money val. but not to be compared to what he had in Long ue of ashes on an acre of land, would be of more Island, and be very truly said it was American service than an equal cost of guano: 300 pounds in England, equal either to you, France or Bel
air and land. We cannot produce apples or pears of guano would cost $9; at a shilling a bushel,
gium. nine dollars would bring fifty-four bushels of I will now say something about potatoes, ashes.
which Cobbett railed so much against ; for the 2. It depends so much on the condition of the last eight years, the farmers have adopted a sysland, that any reply we could make would shed tem, (and I am proud to say that I was the orig
inator of it) which is within every poor man's no light upon the subject.
grasp ; viz., when the potato is kept for seed, 3. On some soils, as a rich loam where a crop throw it into ground plaster ; in England we of wheat was to be taken, we should greatly pre- use fallen lime, or hydrated lime in powder : the fer the lime. On a dryish, sardy loam, we should cut side takes up the lime, and prevents its exprefer the guano.
hausting itself in the earth ; it prevents wire4. The white Chenango has been the favorite in see that small potatoes are sold for seed ; they
worms, snails, or other vermin attacking it. I Boston market for several years—but the disease may do well, but I prefer a good sized potato set, has affected it so seriously for several seasons, that is a potato of good size, cut in two or three, that our people introduced various other kinds. pieces, and leave two eyes or sprouts; but even in
the small potato set, I should recommend a small Among the other sorts, the Peach-blow, Carter, portion chipped off and thrown into plaster or Davis Seedling and State of Maine stand high. lime. If you wish to prevent disease, always
5. The earliest corn is the Jefferson, and is sold plant your potato with the cut side up; try it on on the ear at $2 a hundred ; the potatoes at a small scale. if you like, but you will plant the from $2 to $3 a bushel, and sold at the seed whole field next season cut side up.
An English FARMER. stores in Boston.
Fall River, April 24. 1855.
For the New England Farmer. I raised five hundred bushels of them. One half THE DAWN OF MAY.
acre broke up as late as the 10th of June, on
which I put three and a half bushels seed, 0, the sky is blue, and the sward is green,
"small potatoes,' yielded over one hundred bushAnd the soft winds wake from the balmy west!
els, and I think there would have been near The leaves unfold, in their gilded sheen,
double had it not been for the drought. One And the bird in the tree-top builds its nest ! The truant Zephyr light plumes his wings
piece on light dry land did about half as well; Once more, and quits him his perfumed bed
another piece on moistish new land did better
; Soft calls on the sleeping flowers to wake,
than either of the above ; on this last piece one And sportive roams, e'er cach dew-clad head ! end where the drought did not effect them, four
teen hills filled a bushel, without dressing, except The Blue Bells nod them within the wood,
plaster. The Snow Drop peeps from its milky bell,
I would advise those who plant them to choose The Motley Thora bends her hood,
a moist situation ; and not to hurry about plantWhilst beauteous wild flowers line the dell! The Wild Briar Rose its fragrance breathes,
ing till the ground is suitably dry, then plow The Violet opes her cup of blue,
deep, and plow in the dressing, if barn manure is The timid Primrose lifts its leaves,
applied. Plant no deeper than corn, and seed And King Cups wake, all bathed in dew!
light. From flower to flower the wild bee roams,
My method. has been, for the last eight or ten Then, buried within the cowslip's cup,
years, in the cultivation of potatoes, to hoe soon He murmurs his low and music tones,
after they are up, stirring all the ground to kill Till she folds the wanton intruder up!
the weeds, and then when they are large enough The spring bird, wakening, soars on high,
hoe again, making
small oval hill, say as large Gushing aloft its melting lay,
as a half bushel, if the ground is dry ; broader Whilst painted clouds flit o'er the sky,
and flatter, if moist, narrower and higher. All ushering in the dawn of May !
I have for this • length of time used for seed Like a laughing nymph, she springs to light,
small potatoes, with the exception of a hushel or And tripping along, in her world of flowers,
two large ones for experiment sake, and am satBrushes the dew in the morning bright,
isfied the small ones do as well as large, if I am And weaves a joy o'er each heart of ours !
careful to seed light, say about six bushels to the With frolic hands, the Daisy meek
I cut all my potatoes for planting, those as From the lap of green she playful throws,
large as an egg or larger in four, and those Whilst the loveliest flowers spring round her feet, smaller in three and two pieces, putting two And fragrance bursts from the wild-wood rose !
pieces in the hill. I never furrow for planting ; 0, then glad is the heart, as through leafing trees,
I used to, and got them too deep: My crop The soft winds roam them in music play ;
usually averages about two hundred bushels per Whilst the sick come forth for the healing breeze, acre, sometimes more, hardly ever less. And rejoice in the birth of the beauteous May!
W, A. TOBIES. And glad is the heart of the joyous child,
Mechanic Falls, April 23, 1855.
The question is occasionally asked our agents And loveliness lingers where'er we tread !
whether the editor and the writers for the FarOn the mountain-top or in lone wood glens,
mer are practical men? They do well. Theory A spirit of Beauty o'er all is spread ! Then warmed be our hearts to that kindly Power
and practice are quite different things—in agriThat scatters bright roses o'er life rough way
cultural operations they ought to go together. Who unfolds the cup of the snow-drop's flower,
One may form a plausible theory, and find, when And mantles the earth with the gems of May !
he brings it to a practical test, that it will not answer
his expectations. Aware of this, the Proprietor has For the New England Farmer.
secured a corps of writers who are all, we beABOUT THE STATE OF MAINE POTA- lieve, practical operators upon the soil--gentleTOES.
men who not only direct others, but labor with MR. EDITOR :—The potato called the State of their own hands. The Proprietor himself, the Maine, is a seedling raised first by D. Bearce, of Hebron, Me.,-known in this State, as the Editors, and we think nearly every contributor, “Bearce Potato.” They are raised to some ex- ladies and all, are owners, occupiers, and tillers tent in Hebron, Minot and Poland ; and called, of the soil,—and persons who at the same time by the inhabitants of the above places, the best study and endeavor to penetrate the arcana of of anything called Potato. Seeing them adver- the great art. They are not wedded to old custised for seed by M. Tombs & Co. in your valuable paper, I thought I would make the above toms and usages because they were observed by statements, together with what I know of them the fathers, and have the sanction of age,—but as to quality &o.
heartily embrace the new and useful, and keep the And first, we think they are the best for the world moving and prospering, and transferring to table of any kind we ever raised, and second, sell the elements and animals an immensity of toil herethe highest in market. planted two bushels on green sward without tofore imposed upon human limbs. What we dressing ; harvested fifty-eight bushels very nice preach, we have mainly practiced, and feel confipotatoes, which was two years ago. Last season Ident of its truth.
The above cut represents the Messenger Black stock to make him worthy of the highest honors Hawk in harness; he was raised in Orange county, as a stock horsc; his colts, which are well known State of Vermont; his dam was sired by Bush in this vicinity tu very many good judges, are Messenger, State of Maine ; his sire was Black considered to be unsurpassed by any other stock Hawk, making an extremely good cross, and horse in New England ; one hundred dollars giving in this case the size of bone and muscle often, and in some instances as high as two hunincident to the Messenger breed, which are large dred, have been offered for his colts four months horses, and still giving all the activity, style and old. As to the extent of his speed it is not known, beauty of movement which Black Hawk displays. but he is warranted to trot one mile in three and The Messenger Black Hawk was three years old a half minutes on Cambridge Park, or fourteen last August; he stands more than sixteen hands miles in one hour. high; his color is jet black ; his weight ten bun- These two horses, to say the least, will rank dred and fifty pounds ; his symmetrical propor- among the highest class of stock horses, and will tions and beauty of form, his light and airy be kept for that purpose for all who wish to raise movement, cannot be surpassed in the world; he fine horses. bids fair, thus far, to make one of the fastest Keeping will be furnished and due care taken trotting stallions in the country. He will be of all the mares left or sent to the proprietor. kept the coming season at the stable of D. T.
D. T. SARGENT. SARGENT, in Boxboro', Mass.
Also, will be kept at the same stable, the well Monn's PracticAL LAND DRAINER.—This is known Bay State Horse ; he was raised in Mid- another of Saxton & Co.'s excellent agricultural dlesex county, Mass., and will be five years old publications, containing, 1. The physical laws on next June ; his pedigree is Black Hawk and Mor- which the drainage of lands depends. 2. The gan; his color is a very dark mahogany bay ; principles and system of drainage. 3. Examinahis weight eleven hundred pounds ; his colts are tion of land preliminary to drainage. 4. The Jet quite young, but enough has been seen of his different systems employed—deep drainage erplained, its use in cutting off springs, surface part of those who should hold the first rank in 80drainage explained, together with practical di- ciety-land cultivators. It does not follow be
cause a man is a farmer that he should be a fool, rections, levelling, form and depth of drains, or even a laborious drudge. None hut a fool filling up the cuttings after the drains are con- need be that. There is just as much room for structed, stoppage, syphon drains, and every thing leisure, study and improvement on the farm as in that relates to the subject. A capital work—one the store, office, or mechanic's shop. that ought to be studied by every farmer. The
If we could only contrive to elevate the charwork is illustrated by diagrams of all the forms acter and standing of all who cultivate American
soil, we should have not only a more numerous, of drains, and the tools necessary to work with. but a more happy class of farmers. The difficul
ty now is, they are ashamed of their calling, and A FEW FACTS FOR FARMERS.
do not try to improve their condition ; and there
fore, sink down into drudges, working like cartAnd it may be as well for a few other classes to horses for their daily allowance of fodder. learn the same facts ; and first, the great fact that of all trades and occupations, the farmer's is the
This is the cause of scarcity of farm labor, and only one that never suffers by, hard times,” without producing a correspondiug profit to the
that scarcity produees the present high prices, scommercial distress,” “great fall of stocks,” or cultivator. Why? Because he has to pay an any other of the thousand and one terms that tell extra price to induce labor to flow into that chanof ruin to many of the denizens of the city.
nel. He is in a constant struggle to keep up apIt is a great fact that the farmers, as a class, are now the only class that is prosperous, while pearances, and rival his speculating neighbor, all other classes are groaning under the evils of
who is flourishing upon borrowed capital," and depression in business, and want of employment His children are bound to be "young ladies and
generally does break whether he ought to or not. of those who labor to live, and are dependent gentlemen”--that is, idle and useless incumbranupon daily toil for daily bread. At this very moment, while the laborers of the instead of loving and clinging to it forever,
ces upon the farm and to despise their home, city are suffering for food, the farmer is realizing the highest prices he has received for many years sad history of many of those who are suffering
Traced directly home to that cause can be the for every description of farm produce. Think of famine in the city at this moment. whole droves of bullocks selling for over $100 each. What a price for beef! It is 11 to 114
There is another cause another great fact for cents for every pound of meat in the four quarn the first principles of their business as Hottentots.
our farmers—the most of them are as ignorant of ters, and the present week it is even higher than that.
Thye dig and delve in the same path that their Sheep, that will dress less than 56 pounds, have antiquated grandfather trod in the previous censold in droves at $5 and $6 per head.
tury, without ever thinking whether it is right or Then, we pay five or six cents a pound for flour, wrong and we butter our bread at 28 to 34 cents per sists in plowing the surface of land only two
Beside our own native ignorance that still perpound. Potatoes that indispensable necessary of an American table are still dearer than bread or
inches deep, so that it is drowned at one season meat for human food.
and burnt to dust at another, we are constantly In short, it is a fact that every product of importing ship-loads of people more ignorant · American soil is selling at a price more remuner
still than ourselves. With this native and imating to the laborer than any other laborious em
ported ignorance, with only about one-half the ployment, and yet the earth lies untilled.
hands that should be employed upon the farm, Thousands and tens of thousands of acres of workers and idlers, and make large annual prof
we are trying to grow food enough to feed the rich soil, uffered for sale at a trifling price, are its to invest in "stock” other than farm-stock. lying as idle as they were a thousand years ago. Why is it so? Why do not these laborers raise farm should be the best stock in the world. That
With the present high prices, stock in a good their own bread and meat? Why do not farm- it is not, the fault is in the farmers themselves. ers stick to their trade, and why do not others There is certainly “a screw loose” in some of the fall into that occupation ? We think we can answer.
machinery of society that needs a little tightenThe first grand reason is because there is a
ing. most abominably foolish opinion prevailing that
If it be a fact that the price of cattle which is any other employment is more respectable than now
prevailing throughout the United States is that of a farmer. This false impression is quite
in consequence of an insufficient number in the as much owing to those engaged in the business country, it is a fact which ought to make every
farmer in America blush for shame. as to those who are not. Children are taught from early ages, by mistaken parents, to look for
Out upon the man that cries out upon the hard some other means of livelihood than the dirty times and want of money, when he might have business of their fathers.
fifty bullocks for sale at $100 a head, yet has not There is a continual longing to escape from the one ; perhaps has to buy his own meat. prison-house of the farm.
We close with a repetition of this one fact, The natural consequence is, that all other oc- that there is no employment in the world more cupations are full, and all in them, in their turn, honorable, more respectable, or more honestly are taught to look with contempt upon the farm- and certainly remunerative, than that of cultivaer and his occupation.
tion of the soil. The business only needs improveThe great evil is a want of pride of caste on the ment.-N. Y. Tribune.