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For the New England Farmer. other. While residing in Massachusetts in 1831, WORMS IN CORN-STALKS.
my peach trees were not injured by the extreme
cold in the least, but bore an abundant crop the This worm is a great pest to the farmer, and, following year.' A few years later, I lost most of although the complaints of its ravages are not so
my peach trees, especially the smaller ones, hy a long and loud as those made against the cut-worm, degree of cold much less intense. In the former yet it is none the less destructive to the interests of the corn-grower. As no article in any of the intense for a long time; in the latter case, th
case, the cold increased gradually, and continued agricultural journals relating to its history has change was sudden, and came on in a few hours, met my eye, and finding but few people con- after a month of spring-like weather, during versant with its habits, you will pardon me for which the buds of the trees had swollen, and the giving the results of my own observation.
bark had become loosened from the wood. My Its color, when matured to full size, which is orchard was situated in a warm valley: I lost from one inch and one-cigkth to one inch and several young apple trees at the same time, and one-quarter in length, is a bright red and slate from the same cause. Peach trees in colder situcolor, interspersed with white. It deposits its ations were not killed. I have, since that time, eggs both on the corn and on the dry stover, and given considerable attention to the subject, and it is probable that but few kernels of corn ger- have noticed that trees are injured much more by minate but what have one or more of these enter the state in which the buds and bark are, when its germ. It is seldom that the stalk is wholly the cold takes place, than by the mere degree or destroyed, but it will have a yellow, sickly ap- intensity of the cold. Trees may be destroyed in pearance for a long time after its appearance New Jersey, when they are not injured in Massaabove ground, until it shows the tassel, the top chusetts, though the cold is much more intense, of which is generally covered by the worm's in the latter place at the same time. chips, besides the last or top leaves being per
ORLEANS. forated with numerous small holes. Some fields
Brownington, Vt., March 26, 1855. are injured in the above manner more than fifty per cent. The remedy for this devastator is very simple,
THE PHILOSOPHY OF RAIN. being merely to plant the corn near the surface of the ground, and be sure and not hill up any To understand the philosophy of this beautiful at the first hoeing. I have never seen corn and often sublime phenomenon, so often witnessed dropped in the bottom of the furrow, or covered since the creation of the world, and so essential very deep, but what was more or less affected by to the very existence of plants and animals, a few its operations ; and, by the way, I have never facts derived from observation and a long train seen any thing that would stop the ravages of the of experiments must be remembered : cut-worm so effectually, as to pull the dirt en- 1. Were the atmosphere everywhere at all tirely away from its roots, as the worm cannot times of a uniform temperature, we should never or will not work much above ground.
have rain, or hail, or snow. The water absorbed Any one who has made much observation on by it in evaporation from the sea and the earth's this subject, will remember that worms always surface, would descend in an imperceptible vapor, work the most destructively just after the corn or cease to be absorbed by the air when it was has been hoed. When corn has been favorably once fully saturated. started, it grows faster than the worm gains 2. The absorbing power of the atmosphere, and strength, and will throw it out previous to the consequently its capacity to retain humidity, is appearance of the tassel, the worm being then proportionally greater in warm than cold air. about one-half or three-fourths of an inch long. 3. The air near the surface of the earth is I have counted, in once crussing a field at this warmer than it is in the region of the clouds. stage of the corn's growth, as many as thirty or The higher we ascend from the earth the colder forty just coming into daylight. Perhaps Dr. do we find the atmosphere. Hence the perpetual Harris can favor us with some light on this sub- snow on very high mountains in the hottest ject.
CORN-GROWER. climate. Hanson, Feb. 7, 1855.
Now, when, from continued evaporation, the air is highly saturated with vapor, though it be
invisible and the sky cloudless, if its temperature
is suddenly reduced by cold currents descending PEACH CROP AND COLD. from above, or rushing from a higher to a lower MR. EDITOR :- In the Farmer for March 24th is latitude, or, by the motion of saturated air, to a an article under the title, “The Peach Crop,
"cooler latitude, its capacity to retain moisture is stating some facts with regard to the loss of the diminished, clouds are formed, and the result is peach crop in Connecticut, a few years ago, in rain. Air condenses as it cools, and, like a different localities, and under very different 'de- sponge filled with water and compressed, pours grees of cold; the writer concludes with two in- out the water which its diminished capacity quiries :-"Who will inform the public where cannot hold. How singular, yet how simple, the
What but Omniscience the exact frost line of the peach is?" Another philosophy of rain !
could have devised such an adinirable arrangequestion for the curious is, “At what temperature the peach tree is killed by the frost ?”
ment for watering the earth.-N. Y. Observer. Permit me to say, that there is no "exact frost line of the peach. Peach trees, and other trees, The name tulip is derived from the Turkmay be killed by a degree of cold at one time, ish, and the flower is so called fronı its fancied which would not in the least injure them at an- resemblance to a turban.
For the New England Farmer.
o We find the following beautiful poem making the rounds vestment, and there can be no hazard in their inof the newspapers, without any author's name attached to it. vesting the funds of societies—especially when If we knew the name, we would gladly pay it the tribute which the condition of the grant is, that the amount 80 finished lines merit.-Er.
granted shall be doubled by the society receiving FLOWERS.
the grant. We have not time to pursue the de0! they look upward in every place
velopment, but hope it will be taken up and Through this beautiful world of ours,
practically illustrated by those interested therein. And dear as a smile on an old friend's face,
April 12, 1855.
For the New England Farmer.
GOING TO THE CITY.
Billy Gray, in Boston, John Jacob Astor, in
New York, and Stephen Gerard, in Philadelphia, When earth was by angels trod,
are but specimens of what poor boys have become And leaves and flowers in every spot
in all our large cities,—and what others have Burst forth at the call of God ;
done, "Why, with patience, may not 1 ?” When spirits singing their hymns at even,
Such reasoning influences the minds of multiWandered by wood and glade,
tudes of young men. They know, to be sure, And the Lord looked down from the highest heaven,
that but one of many hundred thousands become And blessed what He had made.
thus rich and distinguished ; yet each feels that That blessing remaineth upon them still,
there is a chance—a possibiliiy—that he may be Though often the storm-cloud lowers,
that one ; and this is enough to encourage hope, And frequent tempests may soil and chill
and to keep dissatisfaction with home constantly The gayest of earth's fair flowers. When Sin and Death, with their sister Grief,
gnawing at his heart. Now, so far as mere
chances are concerned, there are probably several Made a home in the hearts of men, The blessing of God on each tender leaf,
hundred that your lifeless body will be fished out Preserved their beauty then.
of the docks before you have been in the city a
week, to one that you will ever become a Billy The lily is lovely as when it slept
Gray. Yet there is a chance! So there is a
chance of becoming a Washington, a Buonaparte, In Eden from brake to brake;
a Cæsar, hy enlisting and turning soldier; and They were left as a proof of the loveliness
there is a chance of drawing the highest prize in Of Adam and Eve's first home;
a lottery by buying a single ticket. They are here as types of the joys that bless
But my object at the present time is simply to The just in the world to come.
ask for the re-publication of a paragraph that I noticed in the Police reports of the Evening
Traveller of Monday, last week. Such stateFor the New England Farmer.
ments are so common that they are seldom copied EXPERIMENTAL FARMS. by the weekly papers. The news editor of the Messrs. EDITORS :-It strikes me that the no- weekly Farmer, who allows nothing new and tion of "experimental farms, under the super- rare to escape his scissors, made no note of this intendence of county societies,” advanced by sev- report. I ask, therefore, that my country friends eral gentlemen at the closing discussion of the will give it a particularly careful reading, not Legislative Agricultural Society, is worthy of that it is anything rare or wonderful, but bemore distinct development. It is admitted on all cause such statements by our police are so comsides that practical experiments are the only sure mon, that thousands who may read it here, guides to knowledge in agriculture. Who are would probably never have seen it at all, had it so competent to direct these experiments as those not appeared to me worthy of preservation. It chosen by the people to manage these societies ? is as follows :Suppose a farm to be under their care, their first
"For some time past, workmen from the couneffort would be to determine what crops could be try have flocked into the city in search of emgrown thereon to best advantage. Will it be ployment. In many cases they are totally destisaid that no farm can be managed, under such tute of funds, and when nigbt arrives are guidance, so as to sustain itself and make both obliged to take refuge in the different Stationends meet? We will not for a moment indulge houses. Last night there was no less than Forthis idea. We do not believe the associated wis- ty-five applications for the lodgings at the differdom of a number of men is so inferior to that of ent Station-houses, many of whom were of this an individual. We know of many farms, under class.. ::. A man was found by the sixth Staindividual direction, that yield a handsome in- tion Police sound asleep near the Old Colony come, quite equal to the best of the stocks in the Railroad Freight Depot, South Boston. He was market.
taken to the Police Station, and said he had We think the legislature, when they required walked in from East Randolph in search of work, the funds of societies to be invested in dividend. He had not a cent of money with him, and paying stocks, thereby indirectly slurred the busi- seemed very thankful when supplied with food.” ness of farming. The probability is, this clause
If these forty-five individuals had been fortūwas inserted in the act by soine one who knew no nate enough to secure good situations and great other way of getting money except by loaning wages, instead of lodgings in the Police-stations, upon interest. Now, if farining is worthy to be all their friends and acquaintances would have pursued as an occupation, then the lands culti- been informed of the fact without my assistance. vated are good and sufficient security for the in
A CITY MECHANIC. Boston, April 21, 1855.
PHYSICAL MORALITY. any apology for not removing them, must be the The word of God, in specific language or in im- prompting of a spirit of laziness. To attempt to plied direction, commands a life of temperance in prescribe a form of plow or other implement, adaptfood and beverage, a striet restraint upon the lied to the cultivation of such land full of stones, centious appetites, regular industry and labor, would be a labor in vain. Better begin in the cleanliness of person and apparel, and observance of right way, and then labor will be amply reward
ed. frequent days of rest. The general moral sense of
There can be no doubt that a portion of mankind has given to most of these rules an inde
stones is beneficial to some crops ; and that cerpendent sanction. Now, although the result of tain elements are added to the soil, by the dissosuch physical morality is not the sole object of its lution and decay of stones, that improve it ; but injunction in Scripture, nor are all the consequen- balance the inconvenience of having them in the
still, I do not think this improvement enough, to ces clearly foreseen, where the unaided moral sense enjoins it ; yet the sure tendency of such observ- way of the use of the best-constructed implements ances is to bring the entire body to that state ---such as the Michigan sod-and-subsoil plowwhere all its parts of blood and bone and muscle, the horse-hoe—and the best improved seed-planters
AN OLD ONE. of sensitive nerve and organic functions, are fitted in their separate and mutual action to give the
Danvers, April 10, 1855. frame its highest powers of strength and endurance, and fitness for all the peculiar purposes of
For the New England Farmer. existence : and in the mere physical consciousness of this healthful existence, there is a physical
THE TAP ROOT. happiness. It is not merely the absence of pain and uneasiness, but a positive feeling of buoyancy Hopkins' account of his experiments of removing
MR. EDITOR :- I notice in your last No., Mr. and exhilaration. And just in proportion as those the "tap roots” of his seedling pears. His trees laws are not observed, there is a corresponding were ruined. He says truly, “I had cut off the loss of their physical rewards, and a gradual main source of the supply of moisture from the sinking into positive suffering and disease. Even ground.” You direct him how to thus mutilate as we walk the streets we meet with illustrations his trees without destroying life at once. of each extreme. Here behold a patriarch, whose stock of vigor threescore and ten years. seem ballast” and to provide it with an unfailing
Nature provides the "tap root” to give it hardly to have impaired. His erect form, his firm
source of moisture. It is said some trees will step, his elastic limbs, his undimned senses, are send down this root 60 feet or more in search of so many certificates of good conduct; or rather, water.
What a provision to provide against so many jewels and orders of nobility with which nature has honored him for his fidelity to her lateral roots we remove this most important part
drought! and yet for the purpose of producing laws. His fair complexion shows that his blood of the tree, as if Providence did not know how has never been corrupted ; his pure breath, that he has never yielded his digestive apparatus for a in health-the poor tree, not having power to
many lateral roots were needed to keep the tree vinter's cesspool ; his exact language and keen send down another stap root," sends out numapprehension, that his brain has never been berless lateral ones to seek moisture near the surdrugged or stupified by the poisons of the distil- facs, and in a time of drought it is crippled, and ler or tobacconist. Enjoying his powers to the its fruit is imperfect. (a.) highest, he has preserved the power of enjoying By the loss of sight, the senses of hearing, feelthem. Dispite the moral of the school-boy's story, ing, &c., are quickened to a most miraculous exhe has eaten his cake and still kept it. As he
tent, but what should we think of him who drains the cup of life, there are no lees at the should put out his children's eyes to quicken bottom. His organs will reach the goal of existence their senses ? together. Painlessly as a candle burns down in
Don't let those interested in the sale of trees its socket, so will he expire ; and a little imagin- deceive us in this vital matter. ation would convert him into another Enoch, Our children will wonder at our stupidity, transplanted from earth to a better world with, while chopping down our prematurely uld orout the sting of death.-Mercein's Natural Good- chards, and in their places raise trees as Providence ness.
made them “tap roots” and all.
REMARKS. — (a.) It may be that a tree set just come to hand, I find a correspondent inquir- with all its original roots would flourish better ing in what manner sóstony ground” can be most than one deprived of a portion of them ; yet, we advantageously tilled. My answer would be, do not feel certain that such would be the case. first remove all the loose surplus stones within one foot of the surface, and then proceed in the cul- It would be gratifying to see what progress our tivation as though they had never been there. correspondent would make in taking up and Will it be said, that it will be too much labor to transplanting a hundred apple trees which had do this? And, if the surface stones are once been growing three or four years in the seed bed taken away, others will soon work up to take where they were planted ! Not only the shades of their places? Such has not been my experience. I know of as fine fields for tillage, that were once
night, but the chills of Autumn, we think, would covered with a superabundance of such stones, as overtake him before the work could be accomany other fields ; and I cannot but think, that plished. Nature is generally a correct and clever old codger, we admit, but to deny that we have prepares the sward ground for immediate cultimade considerable improvement upon her ways yation, and so breaks the furrow as to make it in several things, would entitle a man to the oc
difficult to trace it. No grass here can grow be
tween the furrows, and as pulverization is the cupation of one of those pleasant little rooms in only object, why will it not work well on old our asylums, where men and women of very ar- ground? Old plows, like the diseased furnident imaginations are found to congregate. ture” in the play of the Poodles, are abundant
Why do we meddle with the young seedling at on every good farm. Good farmers keep up with all? why not plant it in the orchard, as nature
the improvements; hence, the old plows accu
mulate, and have a certain value for firewood and presents it? why bud, or graft, or prune, and old iron. I would say to your friend, there is thus prevent the ways of nature? Man has be- nothing better than "eagle” and “double eagle.” come altogether too presumptuous! He ought to
I. P. be contented to eat crab apples and choke pears,
Brooklyn, L. I., April 6, 1855. and be thankful for them, instead of "seeking out many inventions” to turn the course of na
For the New England Farmer. ture to his will. We have been taught, that to
THE FLOWER GARDEN. prune the roots of a tree is sometimes as beneficial as to prune the top: it is not so often done,l. The following article I send to you, thinking because it is more inconvenient.
it may induce others to do as I have done, and in Our orchards are all artificial; the young szed. have long taken the New England Farmer and it
so doing they will receive their reward. We ling is lifted from its seed-bed, a portion of the bas always been a most welcome guest in our tap root taken off, and then set in favorable posi- house. tions where numerous lateral roots find free range
In the autumn of 18— I met with a very seand rich feeding grounds, and a rapid growth is vere domestic affliction. A long, dreary winter induced. Under this treatment the tree may be that occupation affords relief to one in affliction,
passed, spring came, and knowing as I'well did easily—and safely--taken up and re-set, and such I resolved to spend my leisure moments in attrees have not been more liable to suffer from tempting to cultivate a few flowers. I applied to drought, or to be blown over, than the ornamen- my husband, who offered me a nice, rich and tal or forest trees in their neighborhood. And highly cultivated little spot in our excellent vege
table garden. I took a few bottles of maple sy80 the peach, the plum, apricot, cherry, and
rup and an old farm-horse, and drove to the house nearly all other fruits, are improved by some sort of an elderly couple about two miles distant, of cultivation. Madame Nature is a comely and who, I had previously observed, cultivated lowgenerous dame, but those good qualities do not ers. I told the gentleman I was desirous of getentitle her to run altogether riot in her own old man was evidently pleased to see me manifest
ting some plants to place in my own garden ; the ways; in a great many things she must be held ing a taste for flowers, and gave me as he could in leading strings; sometimes we must touch a spare. I think he only had a few varieties of tap root, at others a topmost branch, make an pinks, some of the common roses, and a flowering original stock send up sap to be elaborated by almond, which was his treasure ; he succeeded in leaves of our own choice, or perfect fruit of a with him, as he refused money, I returned home
getting a little root for me. Leaving the syrup different species from itself. We thank our Con- delighted with my prizes. Everything I placed necticut friend for his text, and hope the infer- in my little bed grew and throve finely. The culences drawn from it will be agreeable to him. tivation of that little spot was to me a source of
real comfort. In the autumn following, a lady
sent me four tulip bulbs. I felt rich. I will just For the New England Farmer. say my garden operations commenced between PLOWS.
twelve and fifteen years ago. I had over two
thousand tulips in blossom last summer, and with MR. EDITOR :-Your correspondent, “A Tiller safety can say I have given away over a bushel of of Hard and Stony Soil," asks a question in tulip bulbs. I have now twenty-seven varieties, regard to “plows,” which practice can only besides all the bulbous roots that can be cultivatdemonstrate. I can inform your correspondented in our Northern clime. I have over twenty that I have seen the "Michigan", plow work in varieties of roses, comprising many choice ones, sward stony land. It kept its place as well as and an almost endless variety of the flowers, both any other plow. Have never seen it in old perennials and annuals, cultivated in our garground. I consider it the only plow for sward dens. land. Pulverization is all that is wanted or ex- The pleasure I have derived from the tending pected of the plow. It is the most important im- of my garden has amply_repaid me for all the laplement in husbandry: Farming begins and ends bor bestowed upon it. Indeed the labor has been with it. A poor old plow, poor plowing, and but a pleasure. My husband sometimes tells me hence poor crops. Too much of this kind of about encroaching upon his grounds, but I find farming
no difficulty in that respect. A handsome slice furrow, by the common plow, I know many object to a flower-garden, or even will do for agricultural shows and premiums as to a border of dowers, on the ground of too much exhibitions of skill ; but the double eagle plow" labor and expense. I will now state as nearly as possible, the amount of time and money expended A HINT FROM SHAKSPEARE. upon my garden.
Old Father Shakspeare knew every thing-at I never bought but two plants for it, namely, a trumpet honeysuckle, and a pink moss-rose, ob- any rate, whatever most of us think of now, was taining my shrubs and plants,
by exchanging my thought of and beautifully expressed by him beown for those I had not, many being given to me fore. He says, “There is a tide in the affairs at the outset; but I have had abundant opportu- of men, which, taken at the flood, leads on to fornity to repay all such favors.
Now for the labor bestowed thereon. We have lune.” If it is not food tide now with the farmany shade trees about our house. I suffer the mer, we know not when it will be. leaves that fall in autumn, to remain on the Wheat is bringing $3 per bushel ; rye $1,50; ground through the winter, as they afford some corn $1,20; oats 75 to 80 cents ; butter from protection to the roots. I have a man rake them 25 to 50 cents a pound; beef steaks 20 cents a off carefully in the spring—it can be done in a few hours. My borders, containing bulbous roots, pound, and in proportion in quantity ; lard 10 require no care in the spring, as I prepare them to 15 cents ; hay $25,00 ; straw $16,00 a ton, with my garden-rake in the autumn with my and potatoes $1,25 a bushel. own hands. I then take two-thirds of the care Now is the time for farmers to take this tide at of my borders through the summer, having the the flood by getting in just as large a breadth of help of a man, perhaps an hour in a day while the weeds are growing rapidly; after that time I all sorts of crops, as they can manure and tend usually do all myself, and to me it is a most well—no more, not a rod, if so, there will be a pleasant pastime. I am a farmer's wife, and not loss instead of a gain. Plow deep, manure without an abundance of in-door employment, highly, stir the surface often and tend well in but my garden is my relaxation from labor; money would not tempt me to part with it. From every particular. the earliest crocuses and snow-drops to the latest
Money and labor are neither of them, at preautumnal flower, it is one continual pleasure. It sent, very high. Command, then, just as much is a very great advantage to children, too, giving of both as you can consistently, and with Hearthem a taste in early life for the beautiful in na- en's blessing on your crops, you may reap a ture. No one can deny that our hearts are made better by communion with the works of God.
golden harvest to pay off mortgages, erect new I will ald, that since I commenced gardening
buildings, or engage in other improvements on there has sprung up about our dwelling, trees the farm. bearing most delicious plums, cherries and
This tide does not flow for us every year ; let vines laden with the juicy grape, strawberries and us use it while it lasts ! raspberries, too, have each their proper place in some favorable spot. I would not willingly exchange my home for what it was before we culti- GRAFTING LARGE LIMBS. vated fruits and flowers, and I believe any person We prefer, in grafting old orchards, to graft that owns even a small amount of land, without the young branches, or suckers, as some call being the poorer for it, can afford a little spot for them, which spring out of the limb. Wm. Cone, ornamental gardening.
of Troy, Michigan, in a communication to the North Hartland, Vt., April 6, 1855.
Michigan Farmer, on the subject of grafting and
orcharding, recommends grafting the large limbs. REMARKS.—In conducting the Farmer, it has He says, "when grafting old trees, cut the limbs been a leading object to present such articles in very close to the body, say from four to six inchevery sheet as should please and instruct women benefit of it, You can never get a fine top from
Get your top down, you will soon see the and young persons, as well as matter for the
grafts set six or eight feet from the bodies. If grave deliberation of the farmer himself. The
you have to cut six inches through there, there effort has been crowned with success, as the let- is no danger if you set scions enough and keep it ter from a lady and others wbich have been pub- covered with wax. lished, and numerous ones not intended for publi- limbs square across, (but make several splits on
In setting into large stocks, don't split your cation, will show. The whole subject of cultivat- the outside centering inward like the spokes to ing the soil is one of an intensely interesting a wheel.-ED.) Be careful to set in scions character. It has a most attractive and instruc- enough to heal the outside as soon as may be, tive literature, embracing the poetic as well as and you can then cut out what you don't need." didactic, allowing full scope for the imagination, ed among us, but presume where the tree is vig
We have never seen Mr. Cone's method adoptand embraces something of nearly all the arts and
orous and thrifty it would work well. There is sciences in its widest range. The commendation one thing we have learned by experience in graftfrom women and young persons which we con- ing old trees, whether you graft at the ends of stantly receive are among the surest tokens that limbs six or eight feet from the body,or cut off to
within six or eight inches of the body, you must our journal is appreciated and is useful.
look out to have leaves enough either on the
grafts or suckers during the summer to elaborate F A firm of produce dealers in New York have sap wood enough to cover or sheath that limb imported from France within a day or two, one thou- over by the second year at least. We have seen sand dozen of hens' eggs for domestic consumption. grafts put into the extremity of an old limb, say