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four or five feet from the body. All the suckers possible. It is difficult to make scions live when were then carefully cut off, and kept off through the limb has been exposed to the scorching rays the season.

The graft grows well during the of the sun. I lost three trees by employing a first summer, for the layer of sap wood, (albur- man to graft, who cut off all the branches, under num,) made the season previous, conveys an the mistaken impression that the sap would be abundance of sap to it. Its leaves elaborate this forced into the scions. Instead of this, congessap into new sap wood and send it down to form tion of the sap took place, and fermentation and a new layer or sheath for the limb, through death was the result. which the next year's sap may come up, but In regard to the time of pruning I have done does not forni enough of it. The graft starts most of it in the montlis of February and March, again next spring perhaps vigorously, for the old when I could walk in among the trees on the sap wood still conveys sap to it, but by fall it snow-drifts, which are usually high enough bere begins to falter, and during the next season it for that purpose. The waxing I have put off till dies. This has been the case with some old limbs the latter part of April or May. I prefer to trim in our own orchard, that had been grafted and on the northern side of the tree first, and leave 80 managed, and on cutting off the limbs and the southern brancbes for a shade as long as posstripping the bark off, we found that the suc- sible. There is nothing so tempting as a desire to cessive layers of new sap wood, (alburnum,) did trim out a tree when first grafted. not cover or sheath over the limb, and hence, In cutting off large branches, which sometimes probably, the death of the whole.

is necessary, be careful to have the lower side, at least, cut close to the tree as possible. It will

heal all the better and quicker. Have a plenty For the New England Farmer.

of grafting was made quite soft and always on PRUNING AND GRAFTING FRUIT

hand, and when the weather is warm, be sure

and cover every wound on the tree, however small TREES.

it may be. Here is where many an orchard is MR. EDITOR :-As there is the widest diversity ruined by allowing the sap to flow down the bark of opinion on the subject of pruning, I beg leave, and kill the tree. It would do you good to see after some pretty severe experience, to state, that two of my trees healing up which were split I do not think it of so much consequence when it down several years ago. A very little attention is done, as how it is done.

at the right time every year is all that is necessaThat the growth of young trees will be checked ry on this point. Wax over all the old grafts for the season, if they be pruned in the month of and wounds in the spring, that have not healed June, no one who who has had any experience, up, and occasionally visit the scions of the preswill deny. I am not speaking particularly of ent year, and press up the way to the wound the apple tree. Aside from this, I can perceive where it cracks open. "If shoots spring up near no marked difference in the effects, provided they a large wound, do not be in a hurry about cutbe subsequently treated as they should. The man ting them off. If they be in the way of the sciwho will go into an orchard with his axe and ons, head them in. I am not sure, but am insaw, and use them freely without any further clined to think, that the borer will die if his hole care will dearly pay the penalty.

be stopped up with grafting-wax. I shoulder all I purchased an old orchard seven years ago, of my scions in cleft grafting, knowing that they fit seventy trees of pretty large size, but which had to the stock much better. For a splitting knife, never been

grafted and had been much neglected, a common shoe-knife ground out in the middle is for want of pruning, or had been barbarously best. Do not throw away a tree because it is mangled with an axe, or badly injured by the hollow-hearted. Put in the Baldwin, and it may borer. A few trees had been grafted two yenrs live and be productive as long as you may need previous, but had received no subsequent atten- it. If a scion barely lives the first year, better tion. Under these unpromising circumstances, I regraft. commenced grafting and pruning, and think 1 As the result of my experience, many of my can sum up my experience and opinion in a few trees which I did not consider worth grafting, words, and with some degree of confidence.

are now provided with handsome tops, and begin. I found that I could graft with best success in ning to hear abundantly, and the whole orchard March, and the early part of April, provided I will not sufier in comparison with ony one in this could find a day sufficiently warm to cause the vicinity. I bury up around them waste ley,bones, wax to adhere to the wood, which will not take leached ashes, liquid excrements, chip and coarso place, if it is cold or wet. Special pains should manure, taking care to keep the ground mellow, be taken to press the wax close up to the wood and free from grass and weeds around the trunk. and around the scion ; wax is much better made It is now rare to find a borer in the trees, or a of hog's lard or linseed oil than of tallow, as the worm in the apples. latter is more apt to crack and peel off. I use it

One word about the black knot in plum trees. softer than most grafters. If a tree is inclined I have never seen it in this vicinity. How is it to decay, graft in some vigorous wood, such as in the mountainous regions of Vermont and New the Baldwin. Do not graft the Roxbury Russet and Rhode Island Greening into very tall trees.

Hampshire ?

N, T. T. In an old tree, if a large limb be unsuitable for

Bethel, Me., April 20, 1855. grafting, let a shoot spring up perpendicularly REMARKS.-The reader will observe that it is and wait a few years, till it be ready to graft. dead winter” when “N. T. T.” trims his trees. Prune as little as possible the first year of grafting; very sparingly the second, and then in such We think it would be much better done in Octoa way as to have the limbs shaded as much as ber.

for the guano.


On Guanoed. On Mucked.

1857. Oats and straw..

1860. Corn and straw...

...30. ...30. ....25. ...30.


.....35 ....40



On Guanoed. On Mucked.

1862. Oats and straw...


.35. .....35.. .........30.



..40 .........40



pounds of Peruvian guano, costing on the ground Fifteen' acres of wood and timber land will $9,00. The other has been dressed with four loads furnish a farmer his ordinary timber and wood for of manure, composted with ten loads of muck, two fires. Ten cords of wood will szffice for any of plaster ; the lime and plaster put with the

five bushels of oyster-shell lime, and two bushels man to keep two fires the year round provided he

muck in the fall, and the manure added in the has tight rooms and good stoves. We have kept two fires since the first of November in two large spring. The cost of the latter dressing has been rooms, and have not yet burnt three cords or a trifle more than that of the former ; but, as the

labor has been done at times when our teams wood, and we can assure you that we like a good could not well be employed otherwise, we could comfortable fire. The farmer should commence on one side of his lot, and cut the wood clean as

about its readily furnish the compost as pay cash he goes. In this manner the


shoots come up alike as they receive the sun alike. Now say there are thirty cords of wood to an acre, if he 1856. Corn and straw, worth. . $50..

..$40 cuts ten cords of wood a year, it will take him

1858. Clover, hay and feed. three years to cut off the wood of a single acreand it will take him forty-five years to cut the wood off from his lot of fifteen acres. At the end


$205 of forty-five years, he may go back to the first

JAMES & JAMESON. acre he cut, and cut thirty cords to the acre.

Jamesville, Oct. 20, 1860. On our ordinary up land, wood will grow to thirty cords to the acre in thirty years,

ANOTHER REPORT. Thirty-four years since, we recollect of assisting in clearing fourteen acres of wood-land, and Since 1860 we have cultivated the same acres getting the same into winter rye. After the crop mentioned in our report of that year, dressing of winter rye was taken, it was pastured for a each acre, in 1861, with ten loads of barn mayear or two, and then suffered to grow up. The nure composted with ten of muck, in 1862 the growth was white oak, red oak, yellow oak, chest- same, in 1865 with 30 loads, half manure and nut and maple. Seven years since that same rye half muck, no dressing the intervening years. field was cut over, and there was not a single acre of it but produced thirty cords to the acre ! And this in twenty-seven years !

1861. Corn and stover, worth...... $40.. ..$70

1863. Clover hay and seed.. ANSWER TO QUERY LAST WEEK. 1865. Corn and stover......

Prof. Nash, editor of The Farmer,” published at Amherst, will please accept our thanks for his kind and prompt reply to questions propounded to him in our last paper. His opinions

Add former results.

200 ..165

260 205



Difference $100, and the guanoed land not yet

JAMES & JAMESON. are much as we expected to find them, and are fully restored.

Jamesville, Oct. 20, 1865. worthy of careful consideration. Amherst, April 25, 1855.


Professor Simonds, Veterinary Inspector to the compelled to a hasty, and, to myself, unsatisfac- Royal Agricultural Society, observes, in relation tory answer to your question ; and, as I shall not to the action of salt on the animal economy, that issue another number under a month, I have no it is exceedingly beneficial in moderate quantiobjection to your publishing, if you choose, the ties, but prejudicial in large ones. He thɔught following, as an illustration of an idea, (perhaps horses might take with advantage from an ounce it is but an idea,) which I entertain ;-that land and a half to two ounces of salt, daily; but that is long benefited by the addition of heavy com- an excess of it would render animals weak, debilposts, while it must soon feel the exhausting ef- itated, and unfit for exertion. Similar facts were fect of crops grown by homeopathic doses of any applicable also to oxen, which accumulated flesh thing. Three hundred pounds to an acre is less faster by the judicious use of salt, than without than three ounces to a ton of soil. If you take it. He cited Arthur Young and Sir John Sinoff crop after crop, and put on only three ounces clair, to show that salt had a tendency to prevent to the ton of soil, where will be the soluble sili- the rot in sheep. Prof. S. added, as his own ca, the potash, the soda, the lime, the magnesia, opinion, that salt, by its action on the liver, and the chlorine? all of which are removed in the the supply of soda it yielded to the bile, led to a crops; all are essential to the growth of plants; greater amount of nutriment being derived from and next to none are returned in three ounces of the food. The substance, he said, was also well Yours truly,

J. A. Nash.

known as a vermifuge, destroying many kinds of

worms in the intestines of animals, and conferring A REPORT.

a healthy tone of action which prevented their The past five years, we have cultivated two ad- re-occurrence. Several members of the R. A. jacent aeres, similar in quality, an ordinary loam, Society, as Col. Challoner and Mr. Fisher Hobbs, as follows :—1856 to corn, 1857 to oats, 1858 to stated that their experience led them to agree clover, 1859 to clover again, and 1860 to corn. with Professor Simonds in regard to the value of

One acre has been dressed each year with 300 salt for animals.


In reference to the mode of giving it, the prac- best fertilizer known. It is applicable to, tice of placing large lumps of rock salt in fields and will bring every crop we cultivate. Other, or yards, where it was always accessible to the and concentrated fertilizers, are used, because we stock, was mentioned with approbation. This practice is now adopted by many farmers in this cannot obtain enough of the former. Phosphate country, and, after several years' trial, is pre- of lime and super-phosphate of lime, are bones ferred to the former mode of giving salt periodi- dissolved by an acid; guano is the excrements of cally. When animals are only allowed to have birds, and perhaps the bodies of seals, sea lions, case that they eat too much at once; but, by matters of cities. salt once or twice a week, it is sometimes the &c. ; poudrette is manufactured from the waste having it constantly in their reach, they eat in such quantities as their systems require, and it

(6.) Old hay or straw, saturated in the barnassists digestion and promotes health and thrift.- yard, will be excellent. Albany Cultivator.

(c.) Baldwin, Hunt and Roxbury Russet,

Hubbardston and Northern Spy; on the plain, For the New England Farmer.

with deep plowing, constant cultivation and FERTILIZERS AND FLOWERS. moderate manuring—but manure the crop well DEAR MR. FARMER :-You talk about a great

that you take off. many things; some are good things and some very pretty things, and no doubt some very use- THE SLEEP OF PLANTS. ful things. But some of us know nothings, away up here in Vermont, don't know much about The way in which sleep is shown in the vegethem, especially by experience. Now we should table kingdom, is infinitely more variable than like to be enlightened, and presume you can do among animals. Man throws himself prostrate ; it. In the first plan, then, about the fertilizers, some kinds of monkeys lie on their sides ; the , you have a great many large sounding names

camel places its head between its forelegs; and that wont enrich anybody's farm, such as pou

birds roost with their heads beneath the wing. Bedrette, superphosphate, muriate, &c., but we yond these are few remarkable differences. But don't care for the name if we can understand the in plants there is no end to the curious and beauthing. We wish to know what the difference tiful diversity which rewards the seeker in nais between those big names and real stone lime ture's mysteries. Some plants droop their leaves slaked and pulverized. Whether those dear at night, the flat part becoming flacid and penbought and far fetched” fertilizers are really so dulous. Others, of the kind called “compound,” much better than those within our reach. (a.)

as clover and vetches, close their leaflets together For planting potatoes on green sward of a in pairs, and occasionally the whole leaf drops at sandy loam, what is the best manure and what the same time. The three leaflets of clovers quantity to the acre where sorrel will grow in bring their faces to the outside, and so form a abundance without any. (6.) What kind of trees little triangular pyamid, whose apex is the point for a good orchard, and where would you set of union between the leaflets and their stalls. them; on the hill where they would be most ex- Lupines, which have leaves resembling a sevenposed to the bleak winds, or on a level spot where fingered hand without a palm, fold together they would be as much out of the wind as possi- like a lady's half closed parasol. Chickweed ble, if you could have your choice. (c.) Now raises its leaves so as to embrace the stem; and for the pretty rose bushes and charming flowers some species of lotus, besides many of its eleyou tell of, how I should like some of them, if I gant family, the Leguminosa, bring them towas able. Can you not send me two varieties of gether in such a way as to protect the young the climbing rose and a few choice flower seeds flower buds and immature seed vessels from the for a two dollar bill and warrant them to live chilly air of night. These are only a few out of and grow well? We have hard winters here, five the many cases which could be instanced of months good sleighing, and Jack Frost pinches change of position in leaves, whilst in flowers hard, early and late. I know you are a good-na- there seems to be no limit to variation. The tured sort of a man, you publish so many funny greater part shut the petals at night, the stalks things. But I like this off-hand, easy, natural declining one side ; but there are some which way of doing business, much better than the roll their petals back, and curl them up like straight rules.

miniature volutes. The sleep of such plants is Very respectfully, MRs. S. P.

probably unaccompanied by any external change. South Derry, vt., April 19, 1855.

The same may be said of Campanalas, and other

bell-shaped flowers of Cruciferæ, it should have REMARK8.-(a.) Another letter from a lady. been observed, are remarkably careless of repose. Really, we are highly honored, and as the sub- Their sleep never appears sound or even constant, ject is a delightful one to handle, we go to work and in the morning always look dozy and un

for many successive nights, they seem restless, with a decided relish. Now for the fertilizers. comfortable. When flowers are overblown, or “Are they, really, so much better than those the plant if an annual is near its decay, the phewithin our reach ?” No, madam, not a whit, pomena of sleep are very considerably diminished. —not so good as those within your reach, if you the growing powers of the plant

are in full ener

In fact, they are only seen in perfection when can reach enough of them. Good barn manure

gy. Deciduous trees—that is, such as cast their composted with rich loam, or old meadow muck leaves in autumn-are in a sort of trance in the with other matter incident to the farm, is the winter months. Flowers, too, lose their sensi



C. II. B.

any time.

bilities altogether, when the period of fertiliza- point. If so, will you confer a favor on many of tion is passed, as may readily be seen by inspect- your readers by noticing it in your paper. ing a field of daisies early in the morning, before Gilford, N. H., 1855.

W. B. WEEKS. the dew is off the grass. The overblown one will be found wide open ; those in the younger stages all crimson tipped and sound asleep.

MR. Brown :- I wish to inquire what is the

best time for scraping and washing apple trees, EXTRACTS AND REPLIES.

and what is the best wash ? (a.)

I have quite a large number of trees of good

quality, but they do not bear very well. If I trim I have a few questions to ask, and hope in do- this spring, what is the best time for that? (6.) ing so the readers of your paper and others may I have a swamp that has been drained pretty have the benefit of the replies.

well, but still is rather soft to plow; it has a 1. Do we of New England fully appreciate our great quantity of hardback ; I want to know how carse land? (a.)

to get rid of them, and the cheapest and best 2. Is it probable we suffer much loss by not way. (c.) Yours truly, from a subscriber, getting two crops on such land instead of only Monson, March, 1855. one? (5.)

REMARKS.-(a.) Scrape and wash old apple 3. Would not the English method of treach plowing, instead of our practice, assist us more

trees whenever it is convenient. Dig for some than any other method ? (c.)

eight or ten feet about them, manure liberally, 4. If trench plowing on our naturally good and work it under. Keep the weeds down, and soils or carse lands, will increase their produc- the soil light. Under this treatment the trees tive powers, do not we suffer much in experi- will soon yield their fruit. menting with manure ? (d.) NORFOLK COUNTY SUBSCRIBER.

(6.) Do not prune in March, April or May, April 19, 1855.

but omit it until the last of June, or October. REMARKS.—(a.) The word "carse” above is Quite small shoots or suckers may be taken off at Scottish, and means low, wet land. This description of land in New England has not been consid

(c.) Drain the swamp still more

—then plow ered as of much value until within some twenty

or bog, and get in a crop of potatoes; manure years. A few persons had experimented upon it, well, and lay to grass after the potatoes, and you and became convinced of its great productive ca- will have no cause to complain of the results. pacity, as many as fifty years ago; but the public mind was incredulous, and is still so to a sur

Can prising degree, after having seen what some of our

inform me where I can obtain the white


blackberry; and also the retail price. most repulsive bogs have done.

Weston, April, 1855. G. G. CHENEY. (6.) Two crops of grass are quite often taken

REMARKS.—Of J. S. NEEDHAM, the originator, from our reclaimed meadows, and where they are assisted by annual top-dressings, they will yiela 4, monthly Farmer, page 418, for an illustra

Danvers, Mass. Don't know the price. See Vol. from two to three tons a year for many years in

tion. succession.

(c.) Trench plowing in England is much like what we term subsoil plowing here. Their plows Planteros Cane, made by a farmer in this vicinity

MR. EDITOR :-Permit me to describe the Corn are called “trench plows,” and as is the case the past week. It weighs four pounds; the cornwith ours, are of various sizes and construction. holder is at the upper end, and holds two quarts. It is, undoubtedly, a great deficiency in our mode It is worked by a motion of the thumb on the top of farming that we do not plow deep enough, or of a lever which opens a trench half an inch wide, make the soil, after it is plowed, suficiently fine. near two inches long, and the same deep, into

which the same motion drops four or five kernels, (d.) A greater depth of fine, porous soil than that can be heard falling in a tin tube, and seen we usually find in our fields, would certainly before the soil falls to cover; a piece of corn or make less manure necessary.

other obstruction can at once be detected in the seed gauge. Cost near $2,50.

Grafton, April 23, 1855. In December last we had a heavy wind with snow which did much damage in the wood-lots in this section, especially among the pines and hem- In the season of 1852, on the 26th May, I sowed locks. I have quite a large number of hemlocks two bushels of wheat on two acres of land, and down which I thought I should let alone till peeling had 394 bushels. time. Sone among us say that in order for them In 1853, I sowed 144 rods of land with wheat, to peel well or at all, they must be trimmed and the 28th day of May, and had 234 bushels. cut from the root, before the sap starts in the In 1854, I sowed 4 bushels of wheat the first spring. Now if this be true, it seems worth while week in June, and harvested the last week in for it to be known generally. Have you or any August; hired it threshed with the machine, and of your correspondents had any experience on this cleaned it, and measured 644 bushels.




N. S.



en lise.

A. W.



L. P.

The land was a moist loam, with a small quan- layer of the manure was laid upon the floor and tity of clay; it nad been planted the year previ- water sprinkled over it; then another layer and ous with corn in each season, and manured with more water thrown on,and so on until the pile was green barn-yard manure. Wheat, the Black Sea completed, in a conical form, and a pailful of kind.

LEWIS Hall. water applied. Next day on examining the pile, Dover, Vt., April, 1855.

the manure still appeared dry. The process was repeated again and again, until the manure ap

peared to be sufficiently moistened. The quantiI wish to inquire through your paper which ty of water was much greater than I had supare the best varieties of currants and gooseberries posed would be sufficiont. The manure was used for me to set, not so much for profit as for kitch- as in the preceding year. The corn came up well,

Our land is right for most any kind of and I perceived no ill effects from the "burning fruit

that will grow in New England. Wish also quality of the manure. you would refer me, to some nursery where I can

Stephenson, N. Y. obtain a supply, and if you can, something of the

For the New England Farmer. expense. Willimantic, Ct., 1855.

PRUNING REMARKS.- Among the red currants, the large

MR. Editor : It is not without some feeling red Dutch are very fine; the cherry currant

of delicacy that I enter upon the subject above

mentioned, when we have before us the opinions grows large and beautiful, but it is intolerably from such high authority as the lamented Downacid. The New White Dutch is a superior varie-ing and Cole, with a host of others we might ty-not so acid as the red Dutch, and quite name. But as the best writers disagree in some large. They may be found at most nurseries. minor, if not some important points, and as my

experience for the last twenty years has been con

siderable in the cultivation of almost every varieMR. EDITOR :-Can you tell me anything about with no desire to refute any man's theory, but to

ty of northern fruits, I venture on the premises, poudrette ? I have very little manure, and some lay before the reader a few plain, practical hints Iand to put it on. Will the poudrette answer, and facts drawn from my own experience and obwith guano and ashes, plaster and superphos- servation. phate, in place of other manures ?

Perhaps there is no department in

horticulture in which there is manifested so great REMARKS.—Poudrette is composed of the night a diversity of opinion as in the time for pruning. soil, sewerage and offal of the cities, and a genu- That there is a right and a wrong time to do this, ine article is a first-rate fertilizer. Its use would all will admit; and although one may succeed not preclude that of either of the other articles he is unable to calculate his loss by the deviation.

tolerably well in pruning at an improper time, you have mentioned.

Before a man commences to prune, he should

consider well for what purpose, or what end is to be answered by the process. If a young ap

ple orchard is to be pruned, the objects sbould be EXPERIMENT WITH HEN MANURE. to take off such limbs as cross others, form a pro

Mr. Editor :- An objection made against the per head, and add to the vigor of the remaining use of guano is that it “burns the corn” and

branches, prevents its coming up. Perhaps the following

Now at what time is this to be done? Is it a facts in relation to a kindred manure, may throw short time before or after the sap begins to flow some light upon the action of guano, and suggest in the spring, with the certainty that it will ooze the cause and the preventive of the injurious ef- out at every wound, until past midsummer ind fects complained of.

cause vermin, filth and rot? Is it at midsus: “, Some years since, I manured several rows of when every leaf is a laboratory filled with the corn with the droppings of the hen-roost. The proper material, and every moment supplying manure was placed in the hill, in pretty liberal the requisites for wood and fruit? The only reaquantities, and covered two inches deep with son given for the waste of so much vital nourishcarth, on which corn was planted in the usual ment is because the wound will commence healmanner. A considerable portion of the corn ing quickly ; but I would ask, is this of much failed to come up. The surface of the hill ap

importance, if the wounds can be so dressed as to peared dry and of a much lighter color than the exclude the possibility of rotting or leaking ? surrounding soil, and the seed had undergone no

Does it not look more in accordance with nasensible change, appearing as dry and hard as

ture's laws to wait until the leaf and sap, having when shelled from the ear. Continuing the ex- done their work in the branches, have descended amination, the manure was found to be much to nourish the roots, leaving the top in a perfectaugmented in bulk and completely saturated with ly dormant state, to proceed with the work of moisture.

pruning the branches, leaving the wound to the This then I supposed to be the cause of the drying and hardening influences of the sun and mischief. The manure had absorbed so much of wind, until near spring, when a coating of gumthe moisture from the superincumbent earth, shelac dissolved in alcohol, applied with a brush, that the moisture remaining was insufficient to will prevent all bad consequences, and the healeffect the germination of the seed.

ing process will commence in time and proceed Next year, profiting by experience, I saturated without interruption, until the wound is nunthe manure with water before it was used. A bered among the things that were.

East Bridgewater.


For the New England Farmer.

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