« ՆախորդըՇարունակել »
LABOR AND LUXURY.
uneducated labor,- -as the civilized white produNo question at present more interests thinking ces more ten-fold, by his own labor, than did the men among us, than that of the high prices of savage Indian, on the same soil—the actual proprovisions, and especially, of our own farm product of the labor of the whole society may be inducts. We have already adverted to it, in former creased by this devotion of time to education. articles, and suggested some of the causes which So, if one or more members of the association give may have tended to produce the present extraor- their whole time to the invention and construction dinary state of affairs, such as the diversion of la- of improved implements in husbandry, and the bor from the farm, by the raising of armies en- like, the annual surplus still remains. · gaged in the war in Europe, and the emigration But now, we will suppose that some of our soto California and Australia. But beyond such ciety with their families leave their happy valley, causes, and deeper in the constitution of society and visit foreign cities, and imbibe a taste for disitself, may be found another and more important, play and luxury, and undertake to copy, at because more permanent agent in bringing about home, the style of living they have seen abroad. this startling condition of things; for we may One procures a carriage and horses, and persuades well so denominate a crisis like the present, where one of his neighbors to take care of his stable, the necessaries of lite have in a few months in- and drive him and his family round the country creased two-fold in their prices, and that, too, in for pleasure, while another builds an elegant a country where millions of acres of fertile land house and devotes his whole time to ornamenting are offered for sale, at one dollar and a quarter his grounds, and induces a couple of his neighian acre.
bors to assist him in his schemes, while a third It is plain that the labor which should be ap- establishes a small theatre or opera, and entices a plied to the soil, is in some way wasted, or be part of the young people of the society to turn stowed in a wrong direction, for we all know actors, and the whole community to give a porthat the well directed labor of a small part of our tion of their time to witnessing their performanpopulation, upon the land, would produce a large ces. surplus of all the common articles of food. The young ladies, we may suppose, having now
Ar extravagani style of living, a taste for what some idea of fashion and dress, instead of taking part are properly called luxuries, and a withdrawal of in the labors incident to farm life, such as makLabor, which belongs to the soil, to produce these ing the butter and cheese, and taking care of the luxuries—these may, we think, be regarded as house, devote all their time at home to working prominent among the causes of what may be collars and undersleeves and embroidering their termed the permanent and gradual increase of skirts. Beside all this, each of our ten families, prices. Let us give a simple illustration of which formerly supported itself, and had a large the working of these principles in society, and of surplus, sends abroad and imports two or three our meaning in the foregoing remarks. Suppose servants, no matter of what color or nation, ten men, with their families, should establish whose business it is not to work on the land, but themselves upon adjoining farms, on good soil, to assist them to dress, to cook for them, and apart from the rest of the world, and with their wait at their tables, to run to the door when the wives and children, devote all their labor to the bell rings, and the like. most judicious production of cattle, grain and the A few of the society are still seen at work diliother common products which directly or indi- gently on the land as formerly, but it is a disly support life. It is evident that at the end of couraging task for them, while others are so gay a few years, this little society would be burdened and thoughtless, and apparently so happy, with with a surplus of such provisions, useless, so far their servants and horses, and fino houses, and as their own consumption is concerned. Again, stylish clothes, and it is hard tə keep their hearts suppose that, finding they required less than the in their business, and they begin to pine for whole of their crops and animals, for their own change in their mode of life. support, they exchange with other societies a
Now look at our little community, and see an part of their surplus, for better clothing and fur- illustration of our leading idea. At the end of niture and implements than they had before the year it appears that there are several families used ; so far as better clothing and furniture and who have raised no crops. There is abundance of inpiements give them increased power to produce good land lying idle close by. The few who have the necessaries of life, they would not lessen the labored on in the old way, have enough for themannual surplus of their farms. They begin to selves, and but little more. Instead of looking give more attention to education, and the time of forward and providing a large surplus, when the children, and of some of the female adults, is they saw the rest of the society wasting their time taken from manual labor to be spent in a school. and substance, they have sympathized with the Still, as educated labor is more productive than general feeling of contempt for their own calling,
BY HENRY F. FRENCH.
and have planted and reaped but little. But all
For the New England Farmer. must eat, and prices go up higher and still high- THOUGHTS UPON SOIL ANALYSIS AND er, and every body inquires why is it so, and
SPECIFIC MANURES. looks abroad over the whole earth for an answer,
Our illustration is finished. It might readily All plants, as well as animals, are composed of be carried more into detail, but it seem to us so certain elements, known to chemists, which eleplain, that a wayfaring man, though almost a ments were created in the beginning' and have fool, may read it. The remedy is two-fold, and continued to exist, in various forms, to the pres. will be eventually wrought out. The more sim- ent time. ple style of life which our republican institutions That atom, which is now part of a dew-drop, require, will become more respected, as it is, has been also, perhaps, part of the life-blood of indeed, respectable. Our farmers will become man, and part of the sap of the vine. It may a more influential class in society, and will claim have helped to moisten Pharaoh's lips with their true position. Enlightened labor will, with wine, and possibly rolled down in a tear, on the aid of steam and animal power, become more and cheek of the penitent Magdalen. That atom, like more productive, and our crops, produced at less every other, has existed from the creation, and cost, may be sold at lower prices.
will continue to exist till time shall be no In the meantime let us again urge on our own more.” The chemist can separate, and weigh circle of readers, to make liberal arrangements and measure the elements which constitute the for large crops the present season, in as much as, plant. He can tell us of what it is composed, whatever we regard as the causes of the present and their just proportions. This he calls Ancrisis, their effects are likely to endure far beyond ALYSIS. the next harvest time.
Then he examines the soil on which we would
produce such a plant. It is manifest that the CULTIVATION OF MILLET. plant cannot grow, unless somewhere it finds Eds. RURAL :-In your paper of April 7th I the elements which compose it. The earth, the have read an article, under the head of Cultiva. air, the water, must furnish every atom which tion of Millet,” which, without an explanation, makes a part of the plant. The chemist thinks he might lead some of your readers to embark in the knows what comes mainly from the air, and from cultivation of a crop in which they may be dis- the rains and dews of Heaven. Although there appointed. There are the three species of Panicum cultivated as millet, besides two or three are differences of opinion on this point, we will species of the Sorghum under the same common assume that, substantially, this is known, and
that the only remaining labor is, to ascertain Two of those cies, Panicum Germanicum and what the soil can furnish towards forming the Panicum Italicum, have round heads, much resembling what the farmers know as pigeon grass.
plant, and to supply to the soil in the form of I have cultivated these two varieties in Western manures, what the soil does not already contain. New York, but did not find them profitable. For example, phosphate of lime makes a part "The common or German millet grows with a stalk of every grain of wheat. We assume that the four or five feet high, as large as a wheat straw air and water will not furnish enough of this and coarser as feed for stock. The Panicum miliaceum grows about three feet high, with a
substance for a crop of wheat. We examine the broad leaf at each joint, the stalk terminating in soil, by a chemical analysis, and find no phosa panicle, somewhat like a loose panicle of Poland phate of lime, and nothing of which this comoats. There are two varieties of this species, one pound can be made. Now, says the chemist, we having brown and the other yellow buds. This must supply to the soil, what is wanting-phosspecies is found to be more profitable for cultivation than the two first named. From the small phate of lime, in some form. This illustrates the size of the stalk and the great proportion of doctrine of soil analysis and special manures. leaves, cattle and horses seem more fond of the This theory is perfect, and I have no doubt is straw of this species than they are of best timothy practically useful, to a considerable extent. Of hay.
what practical utility it is, and how far special An acquaintance of mine, summer before last, raised one acre, from which he harvested and manuring, based upon analysis, does actually threshed thirty bushels of seed, and the straw he prove successful, are questions about which the considered equal to three tons of timothy hay. great minds of this, and of other lands, are not I conversed with a farmer the past week, who yet agreed. raised it the last summer, wlo said “his crop was considerably injured by the drought, yet he
When we return to the land, in form of our considered it the most profitable crop he raised common manures, the same elements substantialupon his farm, as both his cattle and horses were ly that were taken from it, in other words, when more fond of it than they were of his best hay." we consume our crops with our animals, and From the above, you perceive that the profit of haul out from our barns and stables the product, the cultivation of this crop depends upon the species cultivated.--Rural New-Yorker.
we are pretty certain, both by theory, and by
experience, that we supply the elements necessa- space as in water. These atoms, if they really ry for the new crop. If, instead of this, how- exist, are so small that they cannot be seen by ever, we were to return to the land the hay it- the most powerful magnifying glass. self, and the corn and the potatoes in their un We have a familiar illustration of the different changed forms, and spread them on the surface, forms assumed by the same substance, when we or plow them in, we should expect no such bene- slowly cool a solution of saltpetre made in hot ficial results. And why should we not? The water, which will take the shape of crystals, manifest reason seems to be that the hay and whereas if suddenly cooled, it will assume no the corn and the potatoes, though possessing all such forms. By what mysterious power Nature the required elements for a new crop, are not in thus compels these particles to arrange themthe form in which the plants can appropriate selves in a fixed order, and to assume these reguthem readily. It is not enough, then, that we lar and beautiful shapes, the chemist does not apply to the soil merely the elements of which pretend to understand. the required crops are composed. There must be
Professor Mapes, in the April number of the reference always to the form in which these ele- Working Farmer, has well illustrated this subments exist.
ject in its application to fertilizers. Although, We readily see the absurdity of literally fol- perhaps, the strongest rdvocate of soil analysis, lowing out these theories, although we often and specific manures among us, he shows us the avail ourselves of them, to great advantage.-- danger of relying on the chemist alone, for an esWe see our cows, sometimes, chewing bones. timate of the value of manures. We say, the poor animal needs phosphate of
“The chemist tells us by analysis, that blood lime, she has been milked a long time, and milk is composed of certain materials and water. All contains lime, and so we give her some bone these materials exist in rocks, and may dust, which contains the phosphate of lime, and ted from them. she eats it, and is cured of her determination to Now let us suppose ten square yards of soil to choke herself. So far, theory and experience another ten square yards of soil to be fertilized
be fertilized by 10 lbs. of bullock's blood, and seem to run together. But your heifer does not by the constituents which analysis shows to exgrow well. You know what a heifer is composed ist in 10 lbs. of blood, and that these constituents of, and according to the theory of supplying the shall not only undergo the greatest degree of mevery elements essential to the growth, suppose
chanical division by grinding, but they shall abyou offer her a quarter of beef! She ought to solutely be placed in solution and applied to the eat it, and thrive upon it, but she knows better. sub-division, the ten yards fertilized by the blood
soil, still, notwithstanding this great mechanical The beef has all the elements, or many of them, will yield double the amount of crop of that ferin it which she requires, but not in the right tilized by the same constituents taken from the form.
rocks. These illustrations, absurd as they may, at
As another instance. Should we fertilize one first, seem, point to an important truth, and they viously heated to redness, so as to drive off the
piece of land with the bones of an animal, premake suggestions to which the chemist can give gelatine, fatty matter, etc., and leave phosphate no satisfactory answer.
of lime only, dissolving it before its application Chemical analysis may give us the elements of in sulphuric acid, and should fertilize another plants and of soils, but it fails often to give us
similar piece of land with the same amount of information whether or not these elements exist location at Dover, N. J., or Crown Point, Lake
phosphate of lime taken from the rock ag at the in a form to be readily taken up in the growth Champlain, and dissolve this also in sulphuric of the crop. A diamond and a piece of pure acid, we should find that the portion fertilized by charcoal of the same weight, give by chemical the dissolved bones would yield a crop much analysis, precisely the same results. There is larger than that arising from the use of dissolved known to chemists a class of substances called
phosphate from the rock. Isomeric, (from the Greek, meaning, literally, by its entering into animal and vegetable organ
This gives rise to the question. Does matter equal parts,) denoting bodies composed of the isms, undergo any changes which are important same elements in the same proportions, but of for after progression, but which changes are not different appearance and properties. The theory
discoverable by chemical test or microscopic inmost commonly received as to this matter is this. vestigation ? All experiments seem to prove that Every substance is composed of small particles, so far as analysis is capable of discovering con
isomeric compounds, although chemically alike, which lie in contact with each other, and are ditions, really do differ in their adaptability for called atoms. Between these atoms are inter- appropriation in organic life, and thus the ingrestices or pores. In light bodies, the atoms are
dients found in the blood or bone of an animal, not so close to each other, and are not so well and becoming blood or bone, may have occupied
between the time of its leaving the original rock fitted together, as in heavy bodies. In steam, for place in vegetable or animal life a thousand instance, the atoms occupy 1700 times as much times, at each of which assimilation, growth, and
decay, it may have been more fully suited for its and in the hollow trunks of trees, hours before a present advanced purposes, and thus the phos- storm set in. phate of lime and other constituents of blood The sagacity thus displayed, if we may call it may differ in their applicability for re-appropria- such, seems to put the higher reason of man to tion, from the same materials in a less advanced shame. In vain do our most expert savans enstate. We all know that when a plant or ani- deavor to predict the character of an approachmal decays, or is consumed in any way, that its ing season, or even to foretell, a few days in adultimates
back either to the soil or the at- vance, the condition of the weather. The woodmosphere, and are re-united in some new organ- cock that unerringly fixes its nest in the spot ic form ; no one particle is ever put out of exis- best suited for the coming summer, or the snail tence—and may not this be the cause why many whose tubercles begin to grow ten days before manures are to be found so much more effective the rain they are preparing to receive, appear, than others of similar composition ?
at first sight, to surpass the more developed men. All know that the ultimates contained in a But the inferiority of those lower orders of anigreen crop, when applied to the soil from origi- mals is in the quantity of their endowments, nal sources, will produce no such result as is rather than in the equality ; they have a single consequent upon the plowing under of a green faculty developed to an extraordinary degree, crop.
while man bas, as it were, faculties almost infiWe all know that night-soil, urine of animals, nite. In thus adaptizing each organization to stable manure, etc., produce effects in vegetable its special position, the wisdom of the Creator is growth not to be arrived at by the use of the forcibly exhibited.-Philadelphia Ledger May 9. some constituents direct from the rocks." The article from which the above extract is
For the New England Farmer. made is entitled, “Advancement of ultimates by THE BLUE BIRDS----CURE FOR BLACK their use in organic Nature.” I have placed in
KNOT. italics the leading thought suggested. Whether it be founded in truth or not, it certainly is in
Messrs. EDITORS :—The blue bird returned to
us this year on the 23d of March, eleven days genious, and plausible. If the atoms or particles later than the date of their return last year. of matter, which have once formed a part of a The robins were first scen on the 13th day of plant or animal, are thereby changed in form, so March, making their return some seventeen days as to be more readily taken again into vegetable later than last year. Now, as the season was growth, it may be further interesting to inquire, I wonder if the little travellers did not wake a
quite as forward and mild as that of Jast spring, by what processes, in the laboratory or out, these mistake in their almanac, or if, like man, they peculiar forms may be destroyed or preserved. have not degenerated from their ancestors of pa
The idea that they are thus changed, and that triarchal times, who knew “their appointed neither ehemistry nor any other science can de- time." By the way, Mr. Editor, did you ever tect the change, gives new support to the old see or hear of a white hair bird?” You proba
bly know the little fellow, a species of sparrow, fashioned notion, that experience is better than sometimes called chipping bird, who loves to come theory.
round the house and make himself at home.
Well, not long since we saw one in a flock, perANIMALS FORETELLING THE fectly white, its little feathery coat pure as snow. WEATHER.
Another fact I have been treasuring some time INSTINCT AND REASON.
to send to you, though, if I mistake not, the It is said that the woodcock in New-Jersey is remedy named has been proposed before, but in
this it has stood the test of trial. A friend of building its nest, this year, in open and moist places ; and old huntsmen predict in consequence two years since, and about to cut down a plum
ours was at work in his garden one day, about that the summer will be a dry one. a time when science, or what was called such, tree which was half covered with these black laughed at signs of this description, as no better knuts, so common and so troublesome to the fruitthan "old women's tales ;” but though many of grower. He had some spirits of turpentine near, them are still unreliable, a larger observation of
and he suddenly bethought himself to make an nature has taught that animals have an instinct, lle cut the knots with a sharp knife down to the
experiment with this tree before destroying it. which not unfrequently becomes prophetic, as in this example. At last year's meeting of the wood, and made a thorough application of the American Association for the advancement of turpentine. Months passed, the tree lived, did Science, a curious paper was rend on this sub- well, and the black knot was destroyed. Since ject, by Mr. N. B. Thomas, of Cincinnati, who
then be has been very successful with this remhad, for several years, studied the habits of ani- edy, and so bave others who have followed his mals in reference to the indications which they
example. Yours truly, A. E. PORTER. might afford respecting the weather. He showed that birds, if the season was to be a windy or Profits Of ORCHARDS.--A distinguished agriwet one, build their nests in sheltered places ; culturist, who has 1000 apple trees, and intends but, if it was to be dry, in localities moru ex- to set out as many more, says that if apples will posed; that certain kinds of snails always came sell at 25 cents per bushel, thưy are lis most out, and crept up the limbs of trees several days profitable crop ; and if they will not sell, they before rain ; and that locusts, wasps, and other are the cheapest food he can raise for all kinds of insects were invariably to be found under leaves, animals.
11. F. F.