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THE OAKES PRIZE COW.
day. The butter made from her was of a superior
quality. So much has been written and said about this
This cow received the prize of the State Society celebrated animal, that it has been thought de- at the Brighton Show, in 1816. She was pursirable to state what is known of her origin and chased of Mr. Oakes by Hon. Josiah Quincy, who history.
afterwards sold her to Colonel Samuel Jaques, of She was purchased by Mr. Caleb Oakes, of Dan-Ten Hills Farm, Charlestown. The cut which is Fers, in the year 1813, then five years old, having here presented, is pronounced by these gentlemen been originally bought by Mr. B. Goodridge, of to be an accurate and admirable likeness of this Danvers, at the age of two years, from the drove remarkable animal. It is well known that she of a Mr. Copp, drover, from Randolph, Vt. never produced offspring equal to herself for She was recommended to Mr. Copp as being one milking qualities. The effect upon her constiof a breed celebrated for its milking qualities. tution, by surfeiting and over-feeding, for the She was of a dark-red color, rather under size, purpose of increasing her milk, in all probability, and described by Mr. Goodridge as high and materially affected the character of her progeny; broad behind, having a straight back, large belly, none of which are known to have been raised till small neck and head, fine horns, bright eye, and after the year 1816.- Agriculture of Massackuin all respects symmetrical and handsome." While setts, for 1854. in possession of Mr. Goodridge she had her first call, which, at the age of four weeks, made first
For the New England Farmer. rate veal, weighing over twenty pounds the quarter. Mr. Oakes made from her the first year,
NEW BUDDING KNIFE. and without over-feeding, no less than one hun MESSRS. EDITORS :-Having seen the decided dred and eighty pounds of butter. In the next advantage of using a thin-bladed knife for splityear (1814) he gave her ten or twelve bushels of ting the stock in grafting, I am desirous of inmeal, and made three hundred pounds of butter. forming my brother amateurs that they can find In 1815 he gave her from thirty to thirty-five at KINGMAN & Hasau's, 128 Washington Street, bushels of meal, and made over four hundred Boston ,one of the best instruments (in my estipounds of butter. In 1816 she calved on the 5th mation,) which has ever been got up for cleft of April, and the calf, being very fine and fat, grafting was killed on the 8th of May; after which, she The hint for making it was derived from Prof. had good pasturage all the season, and was al- I. P. Kirtland, who has had much experience lowed one bushel of meal a week, together with in grafting cherries. all her skimmed milk. In June of that year, Mr. Its main value is for small stocks, which are Oakes weighed her milk, and found that she gave rather cut than split by this process. ten quarts at night, weighing twenty-six and a Dedham, April 16, 1855. EBEN WIGHT. half pounds, and seven quarts in the morning, weighing eighteen pounds; in all, forty-four and REMARKS.-We have looked at the knife men a half pounds a day.
tioned, and should think it a decided improve The quantity of butter made in the year 1816 was as follows:
ment on any we have before seen.
17 pounds. May 15........
Quick WORK.-It was once the fashion to wear coate, the material for which had not long before
been on the back of the sheep. For rapidity of ..181
work in this way, I know nothing that can com
pete with the achievement of Coxeter, of GreenJuly 3.
ham Mills, near Newbury. He had a couple of South Down sheep shorn at his factory, at five o'clock in the morning; the wool thus produced
was put through the usual processes ; and, by a August 7..
quarter past six in the evening, it resulted in a complete damson-colored coat, which was worn
at an evening party by Sir John Throckmorton. September 4....
A wager for a thousand guineas was won by this
Before the calf was killed.....
141 " .....16
28.. June 5..
6 12. 4 19....... 1 26.
16 10.. 6 17 1 21. (6 31
17 18 18 17 16
feat, with three-quarters of an hour to spare. October 2.......
The sheep were roasted whole, and devoured at a splendid banquet. In one day they afforded comfort to both the inward and the outward man.Habits and Men.
164 « 15..
.......15 ..........................16 29.
....16 November 7...
..................16 ......................... 18 23..
.........................10 December 10....
BUTTER.—Though butter may be considered as one of the most common of all ordinary things, yet the ancients 'were nearly, if not entirely, ig. norant of its existence. The older translators of
Hebrew seemed to think that they had met with As late as the 28th of December, she gave it in Scripture, but most modern biblical crities eight quarts of milk per day. While in the pos- agree that what was formerly interpreted butter, session of Mr. Oakes she had four calves, and signified milk or cream, or, more properly, sour suckled each of them over four weeks, besides thick milk. The word referred to plainly alludes furnishing to the family one quart of milk per to a liquid, as it appears that the substance
meant was used for washing the feet, and that it those agricultural papers which are sent by way of was imbibed, and had an intoxicating influence. exchange to the office of the Board of AgriculIt is well known that mares’ milk, when sour, ture. has a similar effect. Those acquainted with the authorized version of the Bible would infer, on reading the 30th chapter of Proverbs, that butter
LUMBERING.-A correspondent at Holderness
informs us that Messrs. Fisk and Norcross are was prepared by shaking or beating ; the original, however, signifies pressing or squeezing, evidently million feet of lumber. They are now passing
coming down the Merrimac with a drive of fifteen meaning milking, and not the making of butter. Holderness and Plymouth, and so far have had an Herodotus, in his account of the Scythians, makes obscure mention of butter. This is the oldest
excellent run. For å motive power they have reference known.
sixty oxen and one hundred and seventy-five men, besides the river, which is now in good navigable
order—for logs. AGRICULTURE.OF MASSACHUSETTS.
It is a very exciting and interesting sight to see The volume of Agricultural Transactions of the great logs rushing down the river, now piling Massachusetts, for 1854, has just been issued, and up in unshapely masses against the rocks in the will compare favorably with those of any pre-eddies. The men and oxen have as much to do as
rapids, and now drifting in immense rafts into the ceding years, and with volumes of the same char- they can well attend to. The lumbermen of acter from any other State. The character of Messrs. Fisk and Norcross are all temperate men the New York Transactions is different from this, and fine athletic fellows. The far-famed New Enginasmuch as they contain elaborate and careful land dish of baked beans constitutes one of their surveys of some of the counties, including their
chief articles of food while descending the river,
and it is cooked and served up in the lumbermen's early settlement, geography, topography, geologi- camp in a style which would do credit to the cal formations, and natural history, together with most accomplished cuisinier. Their process of whatever there is in them of a curious or re- cooking is this : In the evening they build a huge markable nature. We trust the day is not far fire upon the ground, and as soon as there is a distant when Massachusetts will find it for her plentiful supply of coals, they fill a huge earthen
pot with half a bushel or a bushel of beans, and interest to develop the agricultural resources of a few pounds of pork, and cover it over with a this Commonwealth, something after the example great pile of embers and ashes ; and when it is given us by our New York friends. She has opened at breakfast time the next morning, it is done nobly, already, we confess, in the numerous
found to contain a hot and savory mess, which, works which have been produced from time to cessories, furnishes a meal fit for a President.
with a good supply of strong coffee and other actime by order of the Legislature, and among Boston Journal. which are the Four Reports on Agriculture, by Mr. Colman, Reports on Geology, by Dr. Hitch- Tue CHEAPEST FOOD.—One hundred pounds of cock, on the Ichthyology and Herpetology, by D. good wheat flour contain 90 pounds of pure nu
One H. Storer, on Ornithology, by W. B. 0. Peabody, hundred pounds of potatoes contain from 20 to
tritive matter and 10 pounds of water. on the Herbaceous Flowering Plants of Mass., 25 pounds of nutritive matter depending upon by C. Dewey, on the Quadrupeds, by E. Emmons, the quality of the potatoes, say 224 pounds, upon on Insects Injurious to Vegetation, by T. W. Har- an average, consisting almost entirely of starch, ris, on the Invertebrata, comprising the Mollusca,
and 773 pounds of water and inert matter. It Crustacea, Arnelida, and Radiata, by A. A. Gould, of potatoes to supply the same amount of nutri
requires, therefore, exactly four hundred pounds also something upon Zoology and Botany, and the ment that one hundred pounds of wheat flour Report on the Trees and Shrubs growing nat-supply. The best potatoes weigh about 64 lbs. urally in the Forests of Massachusetts, by G. B. to the bushel, and a bushel contains 15 1-5 lbs. Emerson.
of nutriment. At two dollars per bushel, or fifThis volume, as well as that of last year on the
ty cents a peck, the retail price lately in our
markets, the nutritive portion of potatoes costs a general agriculture of the State, has been col- fraction over thirteen cents a pound, which is lected and compiled with great care and ability equivalent to twenty-three dollars and fifty cents by CHARLES L. Flint, Esq., the Seeretary of the for a barrel of good flour. While flour has Board, and is not only a credit to the State, to
doubled in price only, potatoes have increased at
four-fold rate.-Philadelphia Ledger. the Board, and the Secretary, but will prove of eminent service to the farmers themselves. We
We have received from Mr. JEDEDIAI KILhope at some future time to speak more in de
BORN, South Strafford, Vt., a fine specimen of tail, and present some of the contents of the vol- Maple Sugar, of his own manufacture. We are
The Secretaries of Farmers' Clubs in thankful to our friends for remembering us so any towns in this State, who wish to procure liberally, and can assure them that their favors copies of this work for distribution to members, are always appreciated. should address the Secretary of the Board of Agriculture at the State House. These volumes, as at last fallen through Georgia, South Carolina and
137 After protracted droughts, copious rains have well as the reports of the Secretary, are sent to Alabama.
For the New England Farmer. feed meal to young calves, either before or after USEFUL RECEIPTS.
weaning, the meal being too heating, injuring Mr. Brown :- I have made up the following digestion and bringing on purging, and worse little items from my memorandums, thinking still, if fed freely, causing the calf to grow out they may possibly be of use to somebody, and of shape, picked and scrawny. It is also difficult send them to you for publication, if you think to rear a nice well-shaped calf on gruel, because best.
of the meal of which the gruel is in part made, Rearing Calves.--I have sometimes raised and because the quality for forming well-developed calves by allowing them to suckle cows for the bone and a well-shaped body, which milk emifirst three or four months after birth, sometimes nently possesses, is too much lacking in the gruel. by giving them milk to drink for about the same Cure For PURGING.–Take of pulverized comperiod, and, in one or two instances, for want of mon white chalk, and of ginger, each a tablemilk, have brought them up on gruel. Latterly spoonful, put the same into the calf's milk, and I have practised the following mode, and think it, stir well while the calf is drinking it—the tenon the whole, the best of any I have tried : dency of the chalk being to settle on the bottom
Take the calf from its dam when a few days of the pail or trough. I have used this remedy or a week old, according to the condition of the for a dozen years or more, and have recommended cow's bag, and learn it to drink new milk, warm it to many persons during the time. However, from the cow, feeding it thus, twice a day till if a calf is carefully watched from day to day, four or six weeks old. Then begin quite gradu- and fed on proper food, suitably warıned, there ally to lessen the quantity of new milk, adding, will seldom be any occasion to treat him for any in place of that taken away, an equal measure
malady. of skimmed milk-the milk, previous to skim
To CURE THE GARGET.-A writer in the Ohio ming, having stood about twelve hours, and, be- Farmer says that a cow affected by garget may fore it is given to the calf, having been warmed be cured by rubbing the bag thoroughly, in all to the temperature of the new milk. So gradu- parts, with raw linseed oil; that one application ate the reduction of the new and the addition of is usually sufficient, if done on the first appearthe skimmed milk, that the latter shall consti- ance of the disorder, and that two or three rubtute the entire mess for the calf when it arrives bings will, in any case, effect a cure. He also at the age of eight or nine weeks. When the states that he has seen cows from whose bags, by calf is five or six weeks old, give it a few dry reason of garget, no milk could be drawn, so far oats, say a moderate handful daily, and increase cured in forty-eight hours that they would give a little at a time, till at and after ten weeks of nearly as much milk as previous to the attack, age the calf shall receive about a pint per day; and show no further symptoms of the disease. also, at the age of five weeks, begin to feed a TO REMOVE VERMIN FROM CATTLE.—Dissolve little nice fine hay. When the calf is ten weeks camphor gum in new rum, making the liquid old, the milk it receives may be that which has pretty strong of camphor, and apply it on various stood longer than twelve hours before being parts of the body of the animal. It is a harmless skimmed ; also at and after this age, the quantity application, so far as the animal is concerned, of milk may be gradually lessened, and water leaving the coat free and clear, but destroys the substituted for the milk taken away, so that lice. In about two or three weeks after the first when the calf is twelve or fourteen weeks old, application, rub on the liquid again, in order to the milk shall be wholly withdrawn, and the calf kill the young vermin that may bave hatched out shall receive oats, hay and water, or shall be after the first rubbing. I know of no safo appliturned off to good pasturage.
cation which will prevent the eggs or nits from Thus managed, the calf will never know when hatching. it was weaned from milk-will have no season of TO PREVENT FIELD MICE FROM GIRDLING TREES. repining and falling away in flesh, or remaining In passing over the farm of Mr. Solyman Cune, stationary in growth—will have no troublesome of this town, a few days ago, I saw the following babit, after the time for weaning, of sucking plan in use to secure his fruit trees from the cows that may chance to be in the pasture or depredations of field mice, they having formerly yard with it, and will be quite as large, plump caused him much vexation and loss by eating off and symmetrical when a yearling, as though it the bark of his trees. Small blocks of slitworkhad been reared by the more expensive mode of stuff, sawed say four to six inches long, are prosuckling a cow. During the winter preceding vided, and bored partly through, lengthwise, with the period when the calf becomes a yearling, it a 14 inch auger ; ratsbane and Indian meal should be fed on the best of fine hay, with one are mixed together, in the proportion of onequart of dry oats, or six to eight quarts of fourth of a pound of ratsbane to two quarts of mashed roots, daily. It is not a good practice to meal; into the hole in each block is put a teaspoonful of this mixture, and a block is placed favorite aliment---yet it possesses a greater power near each tree, the bored end lying a little the than most of assimilating the different manures
to its use. Hence in a series of crops to which it lowest, to keep out rain ; the blocks are covered
is desirable to apply large quantities of the coarsest with boards, some two feet or so long, and of manures, it is the best which can be chosen to resuitable width ; and the mice, on approaching a ceive them. To restore worn out lands to a high tree, run under the board for shelter, eat of the state of fertility by this means, and yet to proratsbane and meal, and die, and the tree escapes
duce constant returns, give a large application of uninjured. I examined many of Mr. Cune's fertilizing material, plant to corn, and follow with
the lesser grains and clover,--a course often taken trees, to see how the plan worked, and in no case by our most enterprising and intelligent farmers. discovered any injury to the bark by mice. It is impossible to mark out a plan of procedure
F. HOLBROOK. adapted to the wants and circumstances of all Brattleboro', April 25, 1855.
who will plant corn,—but from the course which one pursues successfully many others can gather
hints which they can adapt to their own use with SCATTER YE SEEDS.
profit. Sward ground or clover leys are almost Scatter ye seeds, and flowers will spring;
universally employed for raising corn ;-let us Strew them at broadcast o'er hill and glen;
speak of their preparation for that purpose, and Sow in your garden, and time will bring
the after-management of the crop. Bright flowers, with seeds to scatter again.
Apply, during the present month, from thirty Scatter ye seeds--nor think them lost,
to fifty two-horse loads of barn-yard manure to
the sward land intended for corn, and plow it Though they fall amid leaves and are buried in earth ; Spring will awake them, though heedlessly tossed,
under as soon as may be, as neatly and perfectly And to beautiful flowers those seeds will give birth. as possible, and at least eight or nine inches
deep. If the manure is rather coarse, it is more Scatter ye seeds ; tire not, but toil ; 'Tis the work of life, 'tis the labor of man ;
important that the plowing be well done, so as to In the head, in the heart, and on earth's own soil,
cover it well, and thus ensure its speedy decay. Sow, gather and sow, through life's own span.
Then, with a good harrow or cultivator, or bet
ter-a gang plow-reduce the surface to as fine Scatter ye seeds in the field of mind
tilth as it can be without disturbing the sod. Seeds of flowers, with seeds of grain;
Mark out the rows about three and one-half feet In the spring and summer, sweet garlands ye'll find, And in autumn ye'll reap rich fruits for your pain.
apart, if it is to be planted by hand, which, un
less one has a machine which will give rows both Scatter ye seeds in the garden of heart,
ways, is the best for small fields. Seeds of affection, of truth, and of love;
Plant according to the weather-the first half Cultivate carefully each hidden part,
of May used to be the timemand when the corn And thy flowers will be seen by angels above. is up so that it can be seen readily, pass through Scatter ye seeds—the seeds of Hope ;
with a one-horse cultivator, and then dress with Plant in your bosom the Tree of Life
a mixture of ashes, plaster and saltma handful Then the flowers here budding in Heaven shall ope, to each hill.
In a few days cultivate again and And in Heaven will ripen the fruits of strife.
dress carefully with the hoe, leaving four or five Then scatter ye seeds each passing year ;
plants to each hill; and keep the soil, by freSow amid winds and storms of rain
quent harrowing and hoeing, light and clear as Hope give thee courage, Faith cast out fear,
long as the size of the corn will admit of the pasGod will requite thee with infinite gain.
sage of the horse and cultivator between the rows. And, throughout the season, allow no
weeds to steal the fertility of the land and rob the INDIAN CORN----ITS CULTURE.
present and future crops of the nutriment properly In those sections of our country adapted to its their due. It is astonishing how much effect can production, and they cover almost its whole be produced by mere culture, even with a small area,) Indian corn is one of the most remunerat- application of manure. A fine deep, oft-stirred ing crops which can be grown, and each year soil, seems to have resources in itself, or to gather adds to its importance in the eyes of farmers. them from the air and rain, which a hard, halfThe large use which may be made of this producetilled soil knows nothing about. in feeding and fattening animals, and also for hu- All experience and experiment go to show that man food, renders it an article of much value for a rich, deep soil (naturally or artificially so) and consumoption on the farm, and the demands of thorough culture, are, more than any thing else, both foreign and home markets are such that any the great requisites for raising a great crop of surplus may always be disposed of at remunerat- Indian corn. The variety must be suited to the ing prices. As a uniform rule,the product per acres locality-our short summers needing a kind that is more in proportion with the care used in the grows rapidly and matures early, while South preparation of the soil, the planting, and culture, and West the larger and coarser kinds are more than most other grains--the crop being less liable productive. (And, we may add, that this article to blights or diseases, and the attacks of insects. will scarcely apply to other than Northern local
No plant repays more richly an abundant sup-ities.). A well-drained loam is, perhaps, the most ply of manure. "On a suitable soil-with climate congenial soil for the corn crop. It will not to match,-its growth is large, rapid, and healthy, flourish upon sour, wet land, nor will the maand it is a gross feeder, seldom injuriously affected nures it requires there produce the effect desired. by the quality or quantity of the fertilizers ap- If, also, the soil be deep and frequently worked, plied. Though corn, like other plants, has its drought and its opposite have much less effect on the corn crop. In short, thorough farming- was capable of. In a few days the wound was every thing well and seasonably performed—is healed, and in a short time she was laying eggs appreciated and repaid as well by this, as by any again. product to which the farmer can turn his atten- The Farmer comes to us, bringing a multiplicity tion.-Rural New-Yorker.
of good things. I am glad to see it take such a
stand against intemperance and slavery. Have For the New England Farmer.
occasionally seen a notice of revivals of religion,
and such news is cheering to every Christian STONE FOR BUILDING.
JOHN FISKE. FRIEND BROWN :- About a year ago,
I saw in
Holliston, Feb., 1855. the Farmer some remarks from you upon stone buildings, requesting some one to write upon the
For the New England Farmer. subject, as to the expense between stone and wood. I have been hoping to see something
PRUNING. written upon the subject, from some one better MR. Editor :- I have lately noticed some of my qualified than myself. I constructed a dwelling- neighbors, with jackknife, håndsaw and hatchet house, about eighteen years since, of this ever- in hand, attacking their fruit trees as though enduring material, and have found it, as you they were enemies whom it was their purpose to then remarked, “much less expensive to keep in wound and mutilate and disable by all means in repair, and warmer in winter and cooler in sum- their power. After the battle has been fought I mer," &c.
As to the first cost, I think it not have seen the ground covered with branches, and much more expensive than wood; and if I were in some cases, with heads and trunks lying scatto build again, I should build of stone, though in tered in all directions around the scathed and some manner different from what I built at first. bleeding trees, that remain like wounded and I should use cement instead of lime, and should maimed soldiers, after a hard fought conflict. not guage the stone to a width and lay in courses And the trophies of the victory thus obtained as brick, as this is more expensive. But I should are carried off by whole cart-loads, in the shape split out stone underpinning, long or short, as of sound, healthy sprouts and branches, covered they might happen to be, of sufficient thickness with leaf and fruit-bud, and consigned to the to square the ends where needed, as against win-wood-pile. dows, doors and corners, and chink up so as to It seems to me, sir, that these good neighbors make strong work. In this way I built the L of mine are trying an experiment to see how much
my house, and it is much less expensive. injury they can inflict upon their trees, without think where stone is near at hand and of the destroying their lives. When the Inquisitors right kind, the walls of a house can be erected in stretch a heretic upon the rack, they place a surthis way as cheap as wood. And it is strange, geon by his side, with his fingers upon the pulse, where stones are plenty, people do not build more to decide when the torture has been carried to with this enduring substance, especially when the limits of human endurance. But not so with lumber is so high.
our tree-trimmers. They seem to think that Many have an idea that a stone house is damp there is no limit to the endurance of vegetable and unhealthy, but it is not so if constructed life. This subject has often been referred to in rightly. The wood-work should be set off from your paper, and the evil consequences of such a the stone, giving room for the air. The house I course have been frequently pointed out. But built is thirty-nine by twenty-nine feet; the av- the fact that this practice still continues, shows crage thickness of stone on the lower story is one that enough has not yet been said. “Line upon foot-upper story eight inches. The expense of line, and precept upon precept," seems to be the the walls at the time it was built, about $400. only way in which truth can be fixed in the pubIt has cost but a trifle to keep it in repair com- lic mind. If those who pursue this course will pared to that of wood.
watch their trees carefully, and observe the efAs much is said and done in these days about fects of their treatment for two or three years, poultry, I add a word; if not for the benefit of I think they will be satisfied, that it is not only owners of fowls, it may afford some relief to the useless, but highly injurious. When the trees poor biddie while in distress. I lost a number of are trimmed in March, April and May, as soon as fowls, year after year, by a disease in the crop. the warm weather comes on, and the sap.presses There seemed to be a stoppage, and most of the into and distends the sap vessels, it bursts out of food they ate would remain there, till it swelled the recently wounded vessels, and runs down and so much it became a burden ; they would linger blackens and poisons the bark, and causes it to along a week or two, then die. At last I tried crack and separate from the underlying alburan experiment upon a hen that was about to dio. num, and thus effectually prevents the healing of I laid the fowl on its back, and while my son held the wound. Gangrene and death of a portion of the legs and head, with a sharp knife I cut a slit, the wood necessarily follow. Where several such an inch or more in length, in the skin, then cut wounds are made in a tree, its whole constitution the skin of the crop cross ways, in form of an X, will soon become impaired. It ceases to grow, and with a crooked wire hooked out the contents. and in a few years droops and dies. The crop was stuffed full of grass and grain, and Trees that are trimmed the least, will generalscented very much. I washed the inside of the ly be found to be the most vigorous, and to develcrop clean with cold water, then with a needle op the best formed and most beautiful heads. and strong thread sewed it up, and after that the Now and then, a limb that is putting forth in an outward skin. I then set the hen down upon the inconvenient direction, or in a direction which floor, when she immediately went off singing, ex- will injure the symmetry of the head, should be pressing all the thankfulness the poor creature taken away. A limb that is shooting out more