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vigorously than the rest, may be shortened, and who are located on a better soil. If we are lo-
first settlement of the country. I give my name The best time for general pruning is a mooted in full, so that, if my brother thinks 1 have made question among intelligent men. But my own any exaggeration, he can make me a visit, and I belief is that the proper time, in this climate at will produce living witnesses of all I have said. least, is in June and July, when the leaves have
Thomas HASKELL. attained their full size, and are in full health and Gloucester, April 14, 1855. vigor, and are elaborating an abundance of sap. In this state, a fresh wound will commence healing at once. New bark is rapidly formed to cov
FISH AS FOOD. er the wound. It is the descending sap from
There is much nourishment in fish, little less which the new bark as well as all the other tis- than in butcher's meat, weight for weight; and sues of the tree is formed. When this sap, prop-in effect it may be more nourishing, considering erly elaborated in the leaves, is not furnished to how, from its softer fibre, fish is more casily dithe formative vessels, no new growth of any kind is effected. Hence it is only when the leaves are stance which does not exist in the flesh of land
gested. Moreover, there is, I find, in fish—a sub-
prevent the production of scrofulous and tuber-
consumption, one of the most cruel and fatal
with which civilized society, and the highly eduHARD AND STONY LAND. cated and refined, are afflicted. Comparative tri
als preve that, in the majority of fish, the proporMR. BROWN :-There was an article in your tion of solid matter-that is, the matter which last week's paper, over the signature of “A Tiller remains after perfect desiccation, or the expulsion of Hard and Stony Soil," and, as I happen to be of the aqueous part—is little inferior to that of located on such soil, I thought I would say a the several kinds of butcher's meat, game or few words to encourage my brother to labor with poultry. And, if we give our attention to patience and perseverance to overcome those nat- classes of people—classed as to quality of food ural defects. "If there is a more hard and stony they principally subsist on--we find that the place in Massachusetts than Cape Ann, I hope ichthyophagous class are especially strong, healthy never to see it. The writer complains that the and prolifie. In no class than that of fishers do improved agricultural implements are not adapted we see larger families, handsomer women, or to such soils, and of plows in particular. He more robust and active men, or a greater exempsays the plows forty or fifty years ago would do tion from the maladies just alluded to.-Dr. the work better than the present ones.
I cannot tell how good the plows were in his section of the Dary's Angler and his Friend. country, but I can well remember the one that my father made use of fifty-five years ago. It A STARE.—"Father, I hate that Mr. Smith,” was from nine to ten feet long; the mould board said a beauty, the other day, to her honored pawas covered with old hoes, iron hoops, and a few rent. old ox-shoes, to fill up the vacant places. It re- “Why so, my daughter ?” quired four yoke of oxen to draw it, two men to "Because he always stares at me so, when he drive, and one to assist in managing it; and meets me in the street. when it was thrown out by a stone, it required "But, my child, how do you know that Mr. at least four feet to get it in again. Now my Smith stares at you ?" nephew can take one yoke of oxen, and one of “Why, father, because I have repeatedly seen Ruggles, Nourse & Mason's No. 2 Eagle plows, him do it." and perform far better work alone on the same "Well, Sarah, don't you look at the impudent land.
man again when you meet him, and then he may There is great improvement in other agricul- stare his eyes out without annoying you in the tural implements, hay and manure forks in par- least. Remember that it always takes two pairs ticular, that we can make use of, as well as those of eyes to make a stare.”
HARDY BORDER PLANTS.
For the New England Farmer. Tue Lily FavilY.-Portions of this tribe have
A GOOD HOG. a time-honored claim to the flower garden, long anterior to the introduction of the more showy writing for the public, therefore you must excuse
MESARS. EDITORS :-I am not in the habit of China and Japan species and varieties, all of which give promise of becoming ultimate y classed this intrusion. In looking over your paper of as hardy plants. According to Breck, they are Farnsworth, of New Hampshire, in which they
last week, I find a communication of S. & R. all quite hardy if protected during the winter with a coating of leaves or long dung ; ' if so, no garden give the particulars of a fine hog, excepting the should be without them. When planted, the cost of fattening, or, in other words, the profit bulbs of the lily should not be removed often, as
and loss. It is one thing to make a good hog it injures the flowering for the ensuing year, and
and another to get pay for so doing: if kept out of ground any length of time it will not 230 lbs, and fed him 90 days, in which time he
Feb. 1, 1853, I took a shoat which weighed recover its strength for two or three years.
consumed 194 bushels of grain, being a mixture They are readily propagated by the scales of the bulb, each of which is capable of forming a bushel.' He dressed 399 lbs.' Now for the profit.
of corn, oats, rye and wheat, worth 75 cents per new bulb, and should be stuck in sand in a shady border, or in pots, in pits or frames. This April 30, Cr. by 399 lbs. pork, at 9 cents per lb.......$35,91 method is usually resorted to, to propagate scarce
Feb. 1, Dr. to 230 lbs. shoat, at 6c per lb......$13,80
194 bushels grain, 75 per bushel. 14,62 or new kinds ; the ordinary way is to collect the
$28,42 small bulbs that spring from around the old ones
Leaving a net gain of... yearly, and plant them in a well prepared border, till they become strong enough to flower. They Allowing one-fourth shrinkage in dressing, (and also seed freely, and some kinds produce a quan- he was a lean hog,) and he gained nearly three tity of small bulbs upon the stems, which can be and one-third pounds a day for ninety days. used for propagation.
J. E. Putxan. Most garden soils will grow them, but to see Sutton, April 2, 1855. them in perfection, make a soil fifteen or eighteen inches deep, of loam, peat, muck, decayed leaves, and rotton manure, each equal parts, well mixed
IT CAN'T BE HELPED. together. The best time to transplant is as soon as the leaves die awayin August. The following kinds
“Can't be helped,” is one of the thousand conare all first rate, besides which every body should venient phrases with which men cheat and degrow the splendid native species—Lilium supur
ceive themselves. It is one on which the helpless bum, orange color in cluster-L. canadense, (Kod- and the idle take refuge as the last and only comding Meadow Lily,) yellow or deep orange scarlet fort-it can't be helped. Your energetic man is spotted with brown, and L. Philadelphicum, (com- for helping everything. If he sees an evil, and mon Red Lily,) vermillion, richly spotted with clearly discerns its cause, he is for taking steps black.
forthwith to remove it. He busies himself with L. longiflorum, the long flowered white lily. ways and means, devises practical plans and Flowers pure white, and fragrant, native of methods, and will not let the world rest until he Japan. Flowers in July. Good for pot cul- has done somethtng in a remedial way. The inture.
dolent man spares himself all this trouble. He L. candidum, the old white Lily-Worthy of will not budge. He sits with his arms folded, a place in every garden, from its imposing ap
and is ready with his unvarying observation, “It pearance when in flower. Levant. Súly. can't be helped !” as much as to say "If it is
L. Martagon, Turk’s cap Lily-So named from it ought to be, and we need not bestir ourselves the petals of the flower reflexing very much, giv
to alter it.” Wash your face, you dirty little soing it the resemblance of a cap. There are many
cial boy; you are vile, and repulsive, and vicious, varieties of this species, with different colored by reason of your neglect of cleinliness. “It flowers, as white, parple, spotted and variegated. can't be helped.” Clear away your refuse, sweep Germany. Flowers in July.
your streets, cleanse your drains and gutters, puL. tigrinum, Tiger spotted Lily—A very com- rify your atmosphere, you indolent corporations, mon showy garden kind, with orange ground, for the cholera is coming. “It can't be helped !” and black spotted flowers. China. Flowers in Educate your children, train them up in virtuous August.
habits, teach them to be industrious, obedient, L. chalcedonicum, scarlet Martagon Lily-. fragal, and thoughtful, you thougtless communiFlowers scarlet, reflexed, a good common kind;
ties, for they are now growing up vicious, ignonative of the Levant. Flowers in July.
rant and careless, a source of future peril to the L. japonicum, the Japan Lily-Táis and its nation. “It can't be helped.” But it can be varieties are the finest of the genus, and have helped. Every evil can be abated, every nuisance hitherto been treated as green-house plants. The got rid of, every abomination swept away; though variety speciosum has a pink and white frosted this will never be done by the “can't-be-helped" ground, finely spotted with deep crimson. The people. Man is not helpless, but can both help L. lancifolium album, is pure white, with reflexed himself and help others. He can act individually petals, and a peculiar crested projection of bright and unitedly against wrong and evil. He has crimson.
power to abate and eventually uproot them. L. lancifolium punctatum or roseum-Flowers But, alas! the greatest obstacle of all in the way large, white, petals studded with pale rose or of such beneficial action, is the feeling and dispoblush projections, and beautifully spotted with sition out of which arises the miserable, puling, rose color.- Edgar Saunders.
and idle ejaculation of “It can't be helped.”
For the New England Farmer. gritty. Equal care must be taken not to drown
the lime with too much water. Thus drowned it GRAVEL WALLS.
loses the greater part of its binding qualities, and MR. EDITOR :—The point at which the remarks this is especially the case with rich limes. I heretofore offered you stopped, was, a suitable “The substances mixed with lime to form moradhesive mixture for gravel buildings.
tar are sand, ashes and burnt clay. To enable Mortar, as a building material, is a cement lime to harden by the absorption of carbonic made of quick-lime and sand, for the purpose of acid, it is necessary to divide it as minutely as posholding stone, brick and other matter together. sible, or so as to expose as much surface as pos.
Limestone is sufficiently firm and compact for sible to the action of the air. The addition of building, and is doubtless safe and durable. The any of the above substances effects their division, process, as is well known, in producing quick-lime, and their action is simply mechanical.” The same is to expose this stone to a powerful heat. This writer says, “that if a greater proportion of sand process destroys its peculiar qualities as stone by is used than 3f of sand to 1 of lime, (chalk lime driving off the carbonic acid, yet is in a state is here spoken of) the mortar is not plastic enough which with suitable additions or absorptions of for use, and causes it to be too friable, for excess carbonic acid, it will become stone again. An of sand prevents mortar from setting into a comEnglish writer, Jennings, (not a very modern one, pact adhesive mass. But different limes require it is true,) says, “That it is well known that quick- different proportions." lime alone and water will not make good mortar. The theories of these authors differ seriously in Various substances have been used for the pur- reference to the process by which quick-lime bepose, as finely sifted coal ashes, and gravelly sand comes stone again, and the settlement of this from the neighborhood of spring water." He
question is very essential in reference especially says further, that equal parts of quick-lime and to concrete or gravel buildings. the article which is to supply the carbonic acid,
0. S. FOWLER, who first built on this mode in whether sand, fine gravel, coal ashes, or other this section of the country, and who publisbed a matter, will be a fair proportion of each ingredi- book on this subject, seems to have proceeded ent, but it may happen from peculiar circum- without much attention to the proportion or stances that this general rule ought to be depart- principles of mortar-making; and, so far as I am ed from.” It must not be overlooked too that wa- informed, those generally who have built in this ter is a necessary ingredient in the composition manner have followed too closely his directions. of mortar, and from our theory, he says, “it fol- On the 24th page of his book, after a description lows that that which contains the greatest quan- of the materials for his walls, is the following: tity of carbonic acid unmixed with substances “These materials now require to be mixed with not congenial to the composition of mortar, such lime, and any easy. mode of commingling these as clay and vegetable, watter must be the best. stones, gravel and sand with the lime, will serve. Besides the carbonic acid and lime, which are the the purpose. I have never tried mixing them in most important parts in the formation of mortar, a dry state, but am certain this will answer & there is reason for concluding that the water it good purpose, but it will probably take some self is more than a medium for the formation of the carbonate of lime; but what its precise oper- first, because it incorporates itself with these
more time ; yet I think it better to wet the lime ation is, we are not prepared to say.
stones better wet than dry; at least, I think the A writer, (Cregg,) in the tenth number of the lime can be wet more easily by itself, than after fourth volume of The Plough, the Loom and the mixing with the stones.” On the 28th page he Anvil, on the subject of slaking lime and prepar- says, " I deposited my lime” and “I then poured ing mortar, says, "To bring caustic or quick-lime in my water, not merely enough to wet the lime, into a fit state to be mixed with other ingredients but so that the whole mass would be as thin as to form mortar, it must be reduced to a hydrate, milk, and stirred it up completely, so as to amalwhen it is called slaked lime, and the process of gamate the water and the lime together:". He reducing it is called slaking. It is pretty gener- then put into this lime-water sixteen to eighteen ally admitted that the induration of mortars de barrows of sand to eight barrows of lime. “If it pends upon their absorption of carbonic acid from as too thick to be worked easily, more water the atmosphere, and it seems to be essential to was put in, and as it was worked water was still this reunion of carbonic acid with the lime, that added, until the mass was so thin that it would the latter should have previously combined with follow the men about as fast as they worked its equivalent, or about one-third of its weight backward and forward.” “I speak of this thinof water. Stuccoes made with hastily prepared ness," he says, “because lime mixes so much betlime remain soft and powdery for a long period ; ter when a large amount of water is used than but those prepared with well-slaked and tempered when it is rather dry.” He further says, "that lime soon absorb carbonic acid, and become hard he mixed about one hundred barrows of stone often to a considerable depth from the surface. and sand, to eight barrows of lime ; and the proThe presence of water being necessary, is further portionate value of the lime is to good stoneconfirmed by the fact, that if dry quick-lime be lime as 24 to 8, making from thirty to forty parts placed in a jar of carbonic acid, no absorption of gravel and stone to one of stone-lime. But whatever takes place.
this he admits is too little lime, and recommends “Quick-lime slaked by the addition of water, is one part stone-lime to twenty, twenty-five or thirthe mode usually used in practice. In this ty parts sand and stone; and finally recommends mode of slaking, care must be taken to throw on to those who are timid and cautious, one part of the necessary quantity at once ; none must be ad-good stone-lime to twenty of sand and gravel.” ded during the effervescence, or the lime will be This mass of lime and water, sand, gravel and numbed, fall in powder imperfectly, and continue stones, was mixed with the shovel and still wa
W. U N.
tered on its passage to the wall, with such an ac- water, being about half “as heavy as lead!" If cumulation of carbonic acid as it could meet, and you want the weight set forth in tons avoirduimmediately deposited on the wall and strange to pois, you have the following pretty row of figurestell, that it reniains hitherto, not so much an ad- 1,256,195,670,000,000,000,000,000 tons weight; hesive mass (if science be true) as a well-packed or, in words—one quadrillion, two hundred and collection of stones, sand, gravel and lime, (with fifty-six thousand, one hundred and ninety-five the irregular broken slato-stone predominating, trillions, six hundred and seventy thousand billion which is a very favorable feature) with but little tons avoirdu pois ! true mortar.
And now, good reader, are you any wiser than If your patience, Mr. Editor is parallel to my you were before? We trow not, for the figures disposition, I shall inflict upon your columns are beyond the power of human conception. They still another article at least on this subject, and if must stand in all their nakedness—an arithmetical any of your readers intend soon to build after marvel. In the words of Chambers' Journal, from this method, and are desirous for the whole sto- which we have condensed these facts, “after weighry, it may be said to them, get your foundation ing the earth, we cannot realize the enormity of ready as soon as you will, but do not compience its weight; and yet the earth itself is but an the work above the underpinnings earlier in the atom in the universe !”—Portland Transcript. season than the first of June. Waltham, May, 1855.
For the New England Farmer. WEIGHING THE EARTH.
HOW TO MANAGE STUBBLE LAND. “What, weighing the huge earth as you
MR. EDITOR: I have six ucres of stubble land a pound of soap or a lump of lead ?" And why
which was plowed last fall; soil gravelly loam; not? If modern science cannot furnish the ful- three acres of which, I design for corn, and the crum that Archimedes wished for that he might
other three for potatoes. Now I wish to obtain move the earth, it can at least find a balance in information through your valuable paper, as to which to weigh it. This curious operation was
the best modes of cultivating these crops. performed several times, in the last century, but one of my brother farmers tells ine to spread on recently with more accuracy by Mr. Bailly, late thirty loads of manure to the acre, and harrow it President of the Astronomical Society of England. in without disturbing the old turf. Another It was done in London and in a corner, but was says spread on fifty loads and cross plow it. not done in an hour or a day. It was a long
will be likely to give the best relabor of nearly four years duration. But how turns in corn? Shall I cross plow in the ma
nure, for potatoes, or harrow it in ? was it done?
Well, that would require many words to ex- pond muck answer as a manure, or would gypplain, but briefly we may say that Mr. Bailly did sum be better, or would you combine the two? not clap the earth into a scale, and counterbal- If you will give your views on these questions it ance it with an indefinite number of pound
will greatly oblige a young farmer. weights, nor did he take it to pieces and weigh it
A SUBSCRIBER. in fragments. He did it by the aid of Newton's great discovery—the power of attraction. He REMARKS.—Apply all the manure you can kung a slender rod, with a light ball upon each spare, per acre, immediately after plowing, and end, to the ceiling, by means of a silk or wire turn it under three or four inches, barrow with thread fastened to its middle. He then placed a massive leaden ball near each end of the rod, in
a sharp and long toothed implement moved at such a wise that each sphere attracted the ball a quick pace. The old turf ought to be disnext to it in opposite directions, both thus tend- turbed and thoroughly mingled with the other ing to twist the thread the same way. Carefully soil. If you can adopt the advice of your
friend observing the effect of the spheres in twisting the who says, "spread on fifty loads of manure and thread and causing the rod to vibrate, he then compared the results with the effect produced by
cross plow,” you will hardly fail of a crop, let the earth's attraction upon the thread, and hav. the season be what it may. Old muck and plasing accurately ascertained the weight of the leaden ter would be excellent in the hill. spheres, thence computed the weight of the earth.
But you may be sure all this was not done without combating with many disturbing influ
The Crops.—The Chicago Tribune of May 20 ences. A breath of air, a ray of light, the dis- says:—“We do not recollect a season for many turbance caused by a man's breathing, the emana- years, when on the first day of May the country tions of animal heat from the body—any of these has looked so beautiful, or the growing crops of sufficed to put the instrument out of tune, and wheat, oats and grass so thrifty, as they do now.” render the results of the experiments wholly fallacious. . Consequently, Mr. Bailly was obliged Spring wheat, the Tribune says, is all in and up to put a casing about the apparatus, and then, so as to cover the ground with its beautiful green that his own presence might not disturb it, stood verdure. The amount sown is fully one-fourth in a far corner and watched its movements with larger than ever before, and the prospect could telescopes, through small windows in the casing. not be more favorable. Oats, too, are generally
And now for the grand result—what does the earth weigh? Well, Mr. Bailly, after allowing
in, and in some instances are already growing for a small probable error, says the density of the above ground. The amount sowed is probably earth is five and a half times greater than that of about the same as last year. Corn had not been
BY B. P. SHILLABER.
planted; but the farmers were busy in preparing of Worcester are compared with the common their fields, and by the 15th it was thought the products of some other counties within my knowseed would generally be in the ground. The grass taper off to a point almost imperceptible. I cheer
ledge, the improved character of their stock will crop is said never to have looked better than it fully admit that a stock of cows that yield a now does. The prospect is that it will be nearly pound of butter each daily, for six months in a double what it was last year.
year, is entitled to be called good. I have rarely The Rochester Democrat of the 5th says: “We seen or known a stock, doing better than this, on learn from Ephraim Goss, Esq., of Pittsford, who ordinary feed, whatever may be the breed. If I
could find six native cows that would do this, at has just returned from quite an extensive western $50 each, I should prefer them to six of the best tour, that in the six States through portions of improved, costing $200 each, wherever found. which he passed, the wheat crop looks well, and May 7, 1855.
Essex, there is a pretty large breadth of land sown. But in Southern Michigan, it surpasses any thing
RAIN IN SUMMER. heretofore seen in the western country. It is considerably inore forward than in Western New
The farmer's heart was sad, bis toil was vain,
His famished crops were crisping in the field, York, and promises such a yield as has never been
For not one drop of life-sustaining rain surpassed in any portion of the Union.”
Did the red clouds of summer deign to yield. The Bangor Whig of Monday says that the The cattle 'neath the trees, with lolling tongue, grass is starting favorably in that region, and is Gave up the search of herbage in despair, much more forward than at the corresponding
And listless in the shade their heads they hung,
And chewed their cuds with most desponding air. period of last year, notwithstanding the rains
The brook was dry, or stood a muddy pool, have been light as yet.
Whose stagnant waters none might dare to drink,
Which fate, in crystal brightness, pure and cool,
Wooed with its song the thirsty to its brink.
The burning sun drank up the pearly dew
That evening pitying, on creation shed, MR. EDITOR :-Dear Sir,-In reply to the in- And o'er the parched earth his hot beams threwquiry of “W. S. L.,” in the Farmer of the 5th The herbage sickened, and the flowers lay dead. inst., “What constitutes a cow of native breed?" The river shimmered in its lurid rays, I would respectfully say, that when I use the The corn grew dry and withered as it stood, term native, it is in the sense generally given to The fainting birds scarce raised their tunely lays it by practical, common sense men. Scarcely an article appears in relation to cattle, that does not Then man and vegetation prayed for rainspeak of native cattle. He says he means by na- The withered stalks, like famished bands were raised ; tive breed one indigenous to the country"—that But day by day was man's petition vain, is, according to Webster, "born within it, not The clouds arose and vanished as he gazed. exotic"-"not imported from abroad."
At length the blessed boon, so long withheld, long an animal must have been within the coun- Came like an angel down in man's dismay, try to entitle its progeny to be called native, it Cheering the heart, that well-nigh had rebelled, may not be easy to define. I have been accus- And giving joy where grief erewhile held sway, tomed to look upon animals as native, that are
The thirsty earth drank in with greedy tongue, not clearly shown to be of a different character.
The cooling flood that trickled o'er its breastIt was in this view of the subject that I said
The trees abroad their arms enraptured flung, "nine-tenths of all the stock of New England are
And grass and flower once more upreared their crest. natives. This expression may appear extravagant
The brooks again resumed their gladsome song, to a gentleman who has been brought up to look
And through the meadows took their cheerful way; upon improved imported stock alone as worthy of
Once more the corn its verdant pennons Aung, notice ; but I think it will not so appear to those
Once more the birds made merry on the spray. common sense farmers who never owned any of
The farmer's heart grew glad, and on his knee, the imported stock.
His voice attuned with warm devotion's strain, Far be it from me to discourage, in any manner, the introduction of such stock. I am glad to
He poured his soul in gratitude to see
The blessed coming of the summer rain, know, from so good authority, the degree of attention given to this stock in the county of
Which falls, like God's own spirit, on the dust Worcester. I presume there is no other county
of man's fallen nature, dead in sin and pain, in the Commonwealth that can show a statement
Till with a newer hope and holier trust
It wakens into life and joy again. any thing like it. And, notwithstanding the intimation of the gentleman that some idea of the general characteristics of the stock of the county COMPARATIVE PRICES IN 1846 AD 1855.-- The N. can be formed from these facts, I presume he will Y. Journal of Commerce publistres a tabular statenot hazard the assertion that even one-fourth part ment of the wholesale, or cargo prices of articles of the animals in his own cherished city are what of consumption for ten years past-from 1846 to he would term "improved cattle." "By their 1855, both inclusive. From this it appears that fruits ye shall know them,” is a maxim as appli- while a few artieles, such as sugars and molasses, cable to cattle as to persons ; and when this rule and certain kinds of tea and spices, are now acis applied, and the best products of the county tually lower than they were in 1846, the great
In dim recesses of the ancient wood.