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majority of articles of consumption have advanced and milk, in almost any quantity, will be in de at a frightful rate from the average prices then mand at fair prices. It is the only article, howquoted. Breadstuffs of all kinds are now nearly double what they were in 1846. For example : sold at too low a price until within the six
ever, among the farm products, which has been Wheat flour in 1846 was $4,75 a bbl. In 1855, $9,811 months just passed. Rye
These premises being correct, it becomes an 1,12 bush.
important consideration how cows shall be fed 1,13
in order to produce the largest quantity and the Liquors of various kinds have fortunately kept best quality of each. Our pastures, throughout pace with breadstuffs. In 1846 Cogniac brandy New England, and especially in Massachusetts, sold at $2.62 a gallon ; now, $4.70 is the wholesale price.
comprise the most unproductive lands we have; Sperm oil in 1846 sold at 91 cts. a gallon for they have been overstocked and fed until excrude and 93 cts. for manufactured ; now the hausted of most of their original elements of fercrude brings $1.79 per gall., and the manufac- tility, and now require treble the number of acres tured $2.05. Provisions of all kinds have advanced propor
to support a cow that they did forty years ago, tionably thus:-In 1846 mess pork sold at $10.68 many of them are upon hill-sides too precipitous a barrel; now it sells at $17.378 ; mess beef for the plow, and others too stony to admit of then sold at $7.87, now, at $11.00 ; lard was cultivation, their phosphates exhausted and their then 64 cts. a pound, now it is 10 cents ; butter vitality mostly gone. was 17), now 26 cents ; cheese was 78 cents,
It is not our purpose now to inquire how these now 11 cts. Rice was then sold at $4.00 a barrel, now it is $6.00. The greatest rise on any one may be reclaimed, fertilized, and made profitaarticle, however, we believe has taken place in ble, but to speak of another source of supply grass seed. In 1846 Timothy is quoted (per bar- when close feeding and our scorching summer rel we presume) at $13.00, and now it is $28. suns have exhausted the natural pastures of their - Traveller.
The maize, or corn plant, of whatever variety, CORN PLANTS FOR FODDER.
is eminently adapted to our climate. It is harThere are few articles brought to market which dy, easily cultivated, full of saccharine juices, and are in greater demand than milk and butter- abounds in nutritious matter for cattle. They none, which it is more desirable that they should eat it greedily, including the stems when not be sweet and pure, and presented in fine condi- grown too rank, it produces an abundant flow tion. The best butter has brought from thirty- of rich milk, and yields two or three times as seven and a half to fifty cents a pound in Boston much per acre as our usual crops of grass. In market for several years past,--not at the stalls addition to all these advantages, it costs so little and market places, but supplied to families week- for seed, and is so easily cultivated and brought ly, in small quantities. Beef is now, and will to the cattle, that it commends itself to all who remain for some time, scarce, and prices will need a larger amount of green food for their rule that will forbid a use of it in anything like stock than they are able to obtain from their natthe amount consumed heretofore, and butter, in ural pastures. one form and another will supply its place in a Between two and three bushels of seed to the considerable degree. Butter is also largely ex- acre is probably the quantity required for sowported, at the same time that there is a constant ing; sow in highly manured drills, th: and rapid increase in the population, in a ratio three and a half feet apart, cultivate and boe greater, perhaps, than the means are increased thoroughly, and the rapidity of growth and for supplying it. There will unquestionably be amount produced will be surprising. In cutting a demand, at fair and remunerative prices, for it up do not cut below the lower joint, as that all the farmer can spare.
will materially check the after growth. It is now generally believed that milk is a nu- Most persons use the white flat southern corn tritious and substantial article of food ; that for seed, but varieties of sweet corn, as well as with bread, baked apples, boiled rice, hominy our common field corn, are used. We have sucand other articles, it is better adapted to the sys- ceeded admirably with the white flat. tem, even of laboring men, than a diet mainly A writer in the Albany Cultivator, in 1843, made up of meats. In one or another of the states that in the spring of 1842, he prepared forms mentioned above, it is common at the ho- two squares in his garden, each 20 by 30 feet, tels and cating-houses in the cities, and hundreds and sowed them with corn-about two quarts to daily dine upon it who have heretofore only con- each square, which he found too much. When sidered it fit food for children or persons not en- about waist high, he commenced pulling it up gaged in laborious occupations. The change is a by the roots, and feeding it green, to a fine Durwholesome one, especially in our hot summers, ham heifer and some pigs ; the latter devouring
it as greedily as the former. He pulled up and The second cavity is remarkable for the reticuresowed these squares four times during the sea- lated appearance of its interior, resembling honeyson, and kept the animals in the finest order, stomach of the camel they are termed water-cells,
comb, having a large number of cells. In the without anything else worth naming, and was and the animal has the power to close their satisfied that nothing else will produce half as orifices so as to retain their' fluid contents; and much, as corn thus planted or sown. Every possibly all ruminants have, to a certain extent, time he stript a square, it was forth with highly
the power to perform the same feat, so that they manured, and at once spaded up and resown; he
can exist without water much longer than a
horse. generally fed the corn as it was pulled up. Thethird copartment is commonly termed many
It will be observed that this writer obtained plies, from the peculiar arrangement of its intefour crops in a single season. Two stout crops rior, disposed like the leaves of a book, and termay be obtained in New England, and in favor- minating in the centre by an assemblage of free able seasons, when there are no severe frosts un
edges, thus affording an extensive surface within a small
space. til late in September, Okree crops.
The fourth is termed abomasum ; this is the Corn plants make an excellent fodder when true digestive stomach. In the calf it is termed permitted to grow to nearly their usual size, and rernet, and, by means of its organic acid, derives then cut and dried as hay is made-but the labor its extraordinary power of coagulating milk.' Inof drying is so great that it will not be generally
teriorly it is lined by a soft villous membrane,
congregated in longitudinal folds; these, as they used as fedder in that shape.
approach the pyloric, or lower outlet, are more
irregular, running in various directions. The RUMINATION-OR, RE-MASTICATION. secrete the gastric juice or true digestive fluid.
parts are studded with innumerable glands, which ristea for the New England Former,
On the lower part of the fourth stomach we find BY GEO. I. DADD, FETERINARY SURGEON. the pyloric outlet, within which is a valvular MR. EDITOR:-Sir,- rotice, in a recent num- projection; this, aided by the joint action of cirber of the New Erglind Farmer, an article writ- cular fibres, prevent crude materials entering the ter by ene.who appears to be skeptical regarding duodenum until they are properly comminuted, the phenomena of rumination, or re-mastication so as to form, through the action of bile and of food ky ruminantemoxen, sheep, &c.; and I pancreatic juices, an homogenous mass of nutribave thought that a few remarks, under the above ment. heading, way interest your readers. In fact, the Posterior to the pylorus we have the duodenum, article requires that some notice should be taken termed in non-ruminants—man and horse for exof it, because it promulgates an error, inasmuch ample- second stomach ; into which, through as the writer undertakes to show that 're-mastica- their respective canals, the bile and pancreatic tice és a meter of inpossibility, &c.
fluids enter, and this is considered as the comIt is the first instance, within my own observa- mencement of the intestines. tion, that an husbandnesn has ever doubted the The demi-canal, just alluded to, is in the region theory of suurination in rurrinants. Lest, how- where the opening into the various stomatic coerer, there shall be others in the same state of partments approach each other. Ordinarily, it is ignorance, I propose to offer a few remarks on a mere groove or duct; but by voluntary act, or the anatomy and physiology of the digestive not, as the case may be, it can be converted into organs, considering only the stomach and its ap- a tube, the inlet of which is the termination of pendages.
the gullet, and the outlet or posterior part is over We shall first notice the esophagus, or gullet. the region of one or more of the apertures. This is a strong membranous and muscular tube, Having thus bricily treated on the anatomy of extending from the mouth to the cardaic, or the parts, we shall next offer some physiological upper. portion of the stomach, which gradually remarks. enlarges as it descends, and finally terminates in The food, having entered the mouth, undergoes what is termed the demi-canal. It has, however, a slight mastication, and is somewhat insalivated prolongations into the third and fourth stomach's by the salivial Auids. In a rough and rather It is composed of four coats or layers, viz., an bulky form, it passes down the @sophagus and external, two middle, and internal; these are enters the demi-canal ; its rough, and conseunited by means of cellular adhesions, so as to quently irritating surface, coming in contact with admit of contraction and expansion.
the lips or pillars of this canal, act as a stimulus The principal parts deserving notice are the and arouse a set of involuntary movements, which middle coats; these are composed of muscular result in a separation of the pillars, so that the fibres, arranged spirally, in contrary directions, half-masticated food falls into the first or second 80 as to admit of descent and ascent of food and copartments of the stomach. The mere fluid and eud; and, at the same time, lengthen or shorten pulpy portions, being retained in the mouth and the tube-increase or decrease its calibce. oesophagus, flow gently onward without causing
the pillars to separate, and are thus conveyed to
the third stomach, and from thence to the fourth. The stomach is subdivided into four distinct cavities; the first is named ingluvies, or paunch ; second copartments, after being slightly masti
That portion of food which enters the first and the second, reticulum, or honeycomb. They are cated, is, by a reverse peristaltic action, forced, not, however, considered part of the true digestive in the form of globular pellets, into the demistomach, but merely dilations of the resophagus, canal, and thus at regular intervals ascends used as receptacles for crude aliment.
through the gullet into the mouth. After a Finally, the cud can be made to ascend or de second mastication, the same process is repeated, scend, in the following manner : we perceive the and so on to the end.
cud descend, now grasp the gullet firmly, and it The condition of food, therefore, as to bulk and re-ascends into the mouth. We next perceive solidity, is the circumstance which determines the cud ascending; arrest it by compressing the the closure or opening of the demi-canal, and gullet, and it rapidly descends again into the which, consequently, regulates its passage into stomach ; hence the phenomena of re-mastication the first and second, or third and fourth copart- can readily be demonstrated. ments. For example: if a cow be fed on thin, In view of confining this article to the limits washy diet, needing no re-mastication, it will pass prescribed by journalists, I now refer the reader on to the third and fourth. This is the case with to a diagram of the cow's stomach, to be seen at a calf; the milk, which forms its nourishment, the office of this paper.
G. H. Dadd. pass 8 on to the true digestive stomach, the aperture leading to the first, second and third, being contracted from a narrow, undivided tube, which NUTRITIVE QUALITIES OF MILK. constitutes the demi-canal.
In the Medical Convention, lately in session at From this fact, I contend that a ruminant has Philadelphia, Dr. N. S. Davis, of Chicago, preno power, as some persons suppose, to give a cer- sented a report on the nutritive qualities of milk, tain direction to food and lodge it in any part he and also on the question whether there is not chooses. The whole function of digestion is in- some mode by which the nutritive constituents of voluntary, and is governed by that same power milk can be preserved in their purity and sweetwhich causes the heart to pulsate; expands the ness, and furnished to the inhabitants of cities in lungs ; secretes bile, pancreatic juice and urine, such quantities as to supersede the present dewithout the aid or consent of the individual. fective and often unwholesome modes of supply: We may, however, to a certain extent, increase The report says that when railroads were opened or decrease these functions ; but their primary into the interior of the country, it was said that operations are uncontrollable by us, simply be- milk would be furnished to the residents of cities cause they are involuntary. It is probable, how- in the purity that it was found on farms, but a ever, that when the animal is imbibing a large sufficient time had lapsed to demonstrate that quantity of water, much of it passes into the such is not the case. The conveyance of the milk first and second copartments; and the same is from the farm to the cars, the transit on the railtrue of fluid medicine ; when forced down in a way, and the time lost in its delivery throughout rapid manner, it goes the same route, instead of the city, it was clearly shown, had the effect of passing, as it should, into the true digestive cav- making it unfit for the nourishment of a child, ity. Remember this, ye who drench cattle. Re- During the past half century, experiments had member, also, that medicine must never be given been made with a view of preserving milk in its to cattle in the form of a ball, or bolus, for it is pure state ; yet it was but recently that a disalmost sure to break through the pillars of the covery had been made, by a gentleman in New canal and fall into the paunch, and perhaps do York, which was to evaporate the water and mix more harm than good; to say the least, its op- with it white sugar, which rendered it what is eration will be uncertain. Hence it follows that termed solidified milk. In his practice he had fluid medicine is best adapted to the diseases of used this improved milk for the nourishment of cattle, and such must be poured down the infants with the most gratifying results, and after desophagus in a slow and careful manner.
having kept it for three months; and he knew of Now let us see if we understand the sensible its having been kept twelve months without any phenomena of rumination ; this will afford the injury to its qualities. most convincing argument to meet any scepticism that may arise as regards re-mastication. The best subjects for demonstrating the com
THE COURSE OF TRADE.- According to the Loupound act of mastication and rumination, are isville Journal, that city is entirely run round by animals with long, lean necks, such as the giraffe, the recently constructed railroads through Ohio camel, lama and dromedary; but in ordinary cat- and Indiana. The course of travel and trade has tle, not overburthened with muscle or fat, there is no difficulty in the way. For example : let a
left the Ohio river, and all the important cities person stand on the left side of the animal, in the Cincinnati not excepted—are suffering in conseregion of the neck, (supposing the latter to be in quence ; while inland cities, which a few years the ruminating mood.). He perceives the cud re- since had nothing but a sleepy future in prospect, ascend through the gullet and re-descena again have suddenly awakened to life and energy. The into the stomach. At the period of re-ascension, place the ear in the region of the gullet, and a
Journal says : gurgling sound will be heard, different from that “We know of no other city in all this past accompanying re-descension. The action has Union that is just now suffering so much injury been described as undulating-alternate-coming from the effects of the superior enterprise of and going like the motion of a ship; but this is other communities as Louisville. The construcregulated by the respiratory movements and dif- tion of numerous railways in every direction, ferent attitudes of the body. We can, however, North, East and West, while none have been at the moment of re-ascent, perceive a flank move- built South, has had the effect to divert both ment, deep inspiration, succeeded by rapid ex- travel and trade from her, and no effort worthy piration, showing conclusively that a powerful of respect has been made to counteract this tennervous concurrent force-involuntary-controls dency. Cincinnati has also been a sufferer from the action of rumination.
the injurious influences of the network of rail
ways that have been spread out on the North be- kle them with the aid of a large syringe or in tween that city and the lakes. But her citizens any other practicable way, and if the water have had the sagacity to perceive the evil; and reaches them they will soon light. to remedy.it, propose to extend railroads to the South, which will give to Cincinnati a decided But we earnestly recommend to all apiarians advantage in competing with Louisville for the and lovers of these interesting insects, the careful trade in that direction."
perusal of Langstroth's work on bees, where he
will find more valuable information and direcLOOK TO YOUR BEES.
tions for their inanagement, than it is in our powThere is no part of the business of the farm er to give. which has in itself a higher or more pleasant interest than that of bee-tending and the produc
THE PRESENT CRISIS. tion of honey ; but in order to realize this pleas-. The political and miscellaneous press abound ant interest, there must be a certain degree of in advice to the farmers, the burden of which is knowledge of the nature and habits of the insect, "sow and plant all you can, that the wants of the and of what kind of a home and accommodations should always be given with a caution. Farmers
people may be supplied.” Such advice, I think, it needs in order to facilitate its labors and find a have a mania of the plowing and sowing order, profit from them. These will require some expe- which propels them sufficiently in that direction rience, some reading and a good deal of observa- without foreign aid. High as are the prices for tion. About all we can do in a newspaper arti-grain, they are less exorbitant, if possible,
than the prices for butter, cheese, meat, &c., the cle is to call attention to the subject, and make a product mainly of hay and grass. It is quite as few general remarks.
necessary that we should now look to a good supThe common idea is, that the moth-miller is ply of grass as of grain. Milk, as an article of the great destroyer of the bee, and such is the diet, is not sufficiently appreciated. A good supfact, but not primarily—there is a serious exist-ply of milk and of dairy products depends essening difficulty before the miller begins its depreda- may be said of beef and mutton, and even pork.
tially upon a good supply of grass, and the same tions, the swarm itself is weak and declining. Plowing and sowing too much is the great fault Clean and well-fed cattle in good condition, are of American farmers. We need more and better seldom annoyed with vermin, nor do we be- grazing lands. When a field ceases to produce a lieve that perfectly healthy fruit trees are often
fair amount of grass, it may become necessary to attacked with borers; it is the already diseased, be confessed that a large portion of our grazing
plow, till thoroughly, and seed again ; and it must or neglected, in both cases, that become the suf- lands are less productive than they might become. ferers. The miller has the sagacity like an able But when fields conveniently situated and adapted general, to approach where it will meet the least to general tillage are once "broken up,” they resistance; it then enters the citadel, quietly en
are, as a general rule, allowed no rest till the
vegetable mould and the elements of grain are so circles it, saps the foundations and destroys it. nearly exhausted that they will produce very lit
Our first suggestion, then, is, in the words tle of either grass or grain. with which we began—"Look to your Bees”-if The amount of fertilizers applied to our land they are weak you must unite two colonies and is utterly disproportioned to the ground under make them strong, or if they are already molest-cultivation, and the labor is as scanty as the maed, dislodge their enemies, and let them have
We are bringing so much virgin soil un
der cultivation that it seems almost impossible & fair chance for life and labor.
that we could "use ourselves up” for a generaHives should be so constructed as to afford an tion or two to come, but the frequent recurrence opportunity for examination without disturbing of poor crops seems to indicate that we are althe bees; if the moth is at work, or if the hiveready abundantly enjoying the fruits of our imneeds cleaning or repairs, it can be seen and the providence. I am warranted in saying that all our evil corrected. With the old-fashioned hive, lit-half the land now employed.
agricultural products ought to be produced from tle or nothing can be done, but occasionally to My advice in the present emergency is this : destroy a swarm and take the honey. A weak Plow and sow no more, and in many cases less, hive will swarm late, and in that case it scarcely than usual. Find out by reading and observation has time to collect a winter's stock of food, and the best methods of tilling your land, and adopt thus its weakness is perpetuated. We want them them; Procure the best tools, and an abundant
supply of labor-saving implements. Secure plenty early, for,
of help. Work your ground thoroughly and in “A swarm in May, is worth a load of hay ;
many cases ditch it without delay. At all hazards, A swarm in June, is worth a silver spoon ; and at any reasonable cost, be up with your work. A swarm in July, isn't worth a fly."
Exterminate all weeds. Save, procure and apply Have hives prepared for the new-comers, and to your land whatever will enrich it. Let all the everything in readiness for their reception when Let all the villages and cities be ransacked for
slops of the house be used for watering the garden. they come out. If they seem uneasy when about food for plants. Be diligent and trust Providence. swarming and show a disposition to leave, sprin- Rural New Yorker.
Anxious to lay everything before the reader (a medal and diploma) at the great trial of agrithat will tend to facilitate his labors and enable cultural implements at Geneva, N. Y., in 1852; him to realize a large return for them, we give it has also taken the first premium at all the above the engraving and description of another
State and County Fairs where I have presented it, labor-saving implement. We have examined, but Fair in New York.
and in many other places. Also, at the World's not used it; it seems to be constructed on correct principles, and has been used for several years in the western part of the State. The inventor's de
COMMON THINGS. · scription is as follows :
In raising vines from cuttings, those which are "These labor-saving and profit-yielding ma
furnished with two eyes each will be sufficiently chines are presented to the public, as being of long for the purpose ; the lower part should be much greater utility than any other implements planted singly in small pots filled with good mold, ever presented for saving of labor and increase of leaving the
upper eye rather below the surface crops. Corn, broom-corn, carrots, and other than above it. The pots should be placed either small seeds, may be planted and cultivated with in a stove or in a hot-bed, allowing the plants less than one-half of the expense of the hoe, and room as they advance in height, and shifting in the most perfect manner, removing coarse sub-them into larger sized pots when they have filled. stances nine inches each way from the line of the the first with roots. As the season advances they row, smoothing and pulverizing a strip eighteen may be removed into the stove and other botinches wide, in the centre of which the plow on
house, and from thence to the greenhouse, keepthe under side cuts a channel at any required ing them neatly tied up to sticks, and allowing depth, making the earth still finer, into which them plenty of air, to prevent them from being the seed is dropped while the ground is moist, drawn up weakly. Vines raised from single eyes causing it to swell immediately, and being cov
require the same management as those from cutered of equal depth, it comes up from one to three tings, beginning only with a sinaller sized pot, days sooner than when covered with the hoe,
and removing thein into others as they gain thereby getting a start of the weeds. It plants in strength and it requires room. Those raised the hill or drill, depositing any suitable number from cuttings, as well as these, should be kept of grains at almost any given distance. Ten under glass throughout the summer, and a juacres are an ordinary day's work for a man and dicious application of liquid manure during the horse. When properly made and used, it gives growing months, would considerably promote the universal satisfaction. More than two hundred growth of both. have been sold in Hampshire and Franklin coun
CauliFLOWERS.—The seed should be sown now ties. Plaster, lime, ashes, bone-dust, or any other for the autumnal crop upon a gentle hot-bed. dry fine manure, the machine can drop upon the This sowing will come in during August, and for seed before it is covered, from one to forty bush- a later crop the seed should be sown the beginels to the acre. It was awarded the first premium'ning or middle of May; this will furnish heads