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cents per bushel ; coffee, 14 to 21 cents per pound ; that when they get a railroad from Mississippi Virginia coal from $9 to $15 per ton ; flour, $14 river, after the 'hard times' are over, (very well to $15 per barrel; hay, $21 to $24 per ton ; put in,) their produce will be worth more.” molasses, 48 to 54 cents per gallon; peas, $2,50 Also, “the city of Oskalooza is only twelve years to $3 per bushel ; rice, 7 cents per pound; rye, old, and yet they have 2500 inhabitants, with $1,75 to $3 per bushel ; sugar, loaf 23 to 25 cents merchants, stores, &c., furnishing every thing per pound, brown 11 to 15 per pound; teas, hyson for comfort that is wanted.” This writer in the $1,70, hyson-skin $1, souchong 68 to 75 cents Tribune further says, that "there is not one old per pound.'

dingy field in Connecticut but that can be made In this list of prices, I do not see any thing to produce wheat with more profit than at the that comes near it now except butter, which is west. The ground is here to hold the seed, and probably about the same now as then, at retail - that is all that is wanted, for 'science' points out 28 to 30 cents a pound. I have heard tell that the proper ingredients to apply to make the grain, during the war of 1812, for two years molasses and any dollar so expended will pay back fifty was two dollars a gallon, and most other groceries per cent. a year,” &c. Now this is all fine talk in proportion. This was owing more to the fact for outsiders, but, in plain English, there is no that all our seaports at that time were blockaded, truth, in reality, in one-half of the ideas, but a and, as these articles were mostly of foreign pro- mere ranting exaggeration of the subject. But duction, they could not be obtained scarcely at we recognize in this grumbling writer in the any price. But this list of prices named above, Tribune one who, a few years ago, was on a was some three years after peace was declared, so prairie farm at the west. But why did he not the country had got pretty much over the war stay on the farm and raise grain, and help make question by that time. But then, with these high cheap bread," instead of leaving and coming to prices thirty-eight years ago and the present high the city, to live in some six by eight "dog hole," prices, are the laboring people better off now than and join in the general hue and cry about starrathen? Of course they are, and why? Because tion of the poor, high prices, nothing to eat, &c. they can earn three dollars as easy now as they consistency has, in former times, been called a could two then. Probably there is two dollars jewel,” and I think there is something in it; in circulation now, throughout the country, where but it is a principle which we generally adopt there was one then, or in that ratio. But then, last.

L. DURAND. again, we have three times the population to Derby, Conn. support now that we had then, taking emigration and all. Most of this, however, is productive labor in good times ; but in hard times, like the

THE EARTH THAT WE WALK ON. present, much of it lies idle for want of employ

It may surprise some readers to learn that all ment. But, then, what is the remedy? For the earths—clay, flint, chalk, &c., are nothing hard times and high prices, like the present, it more than the rust of metals ; that at one time, will probably be a difficult matter to answer. during the age of this world, they were all One thing is certain ; more agricultural produc- shining, brilliant metals. Geologists speak of tions must be raised, and, of course, more men the earth as being hundreds of thousands of years must turn their attention to cultivating the soil. old. All their philosophy is based upon mecl anBut will they do it?

ical science : the formation of strata, the upheavAnd another thing is, farmers must lay out ing of mountains, the burying of forests, have more capital on their lands ; they must both been attributed to some great convulsion"learn to farm more and farm better, the present that is, to some shaking together of the earth's prices of farm produce will justify a liberal out- crust. Whether this great age of the world be lay in manures, in labor, skill, &c. Still, my true or not, it is very certain that before any of experience has led me to see that, with the body these events could ħave taken place, the Irmaof farmers generally, they were no more ready to tion of each of the earths must have a he lay out capital in farming when corn was a dollar work of ages ; otherwise the metals, of wil'in and a quarter a bushel, than when it only brings their base consists, could not have been so combut fifty or seventy-five cents. What appears to pletely rusted as to assume an earthy texture. be wanting most among farmers, is a generel ap- To understand this, we must leave the mechanpreciation of the business as an employment; ical, that is, the geological theory, and enter upon and when this can be fairly understood, no lack the primary or chemical theory. It cannot be of enterprise will be wanting on the part of far- disputed that the first changes of the earth's surmers to make farm improvements, and raise all face were of purely a chemical nature. Combinathe produce they can.

tions took place then as now; the metallic bases, A grumbling writer in the New York Tribune, by mere contact with the atmosphere or water, a few days ago, on the high prices of grain, says, passed into oxyds, as the chemist calls them, or in substance, that the lowest prices of corn that earths, as expressed in daily conversation. Chemhe can find in the corn districts or the prairies," ists thus recognize something like forty different is forty-five cents, and from that up to seventy- kinds of these oxyds or earthy bodies, some being five cents a bushel, while flour is from ten to very scarce, and others as plentiful. By the twelve and thirteen dollars and a half a barrel for merest touch of air, some of the metallic bases of the best in New York. Very well. A letter in these earths instantly pass into the rusty or earthy your paper, from Mr. Daniel Fay, dated Os- state; some, by contact with water, are so enerkalooza, Iowa, March 20, says, "corn here is getic that they burst into flame. worth twenty-five cents a bushel, wheat from By this process of reasoning, we come to the sixty to seventy-five cents a bushel, and pork from conclusion that the world is one mass or globe of two to three cents a pound.” He further says, mixed metals, of which the mere crust has become rusted, or of earthy form ; the outer rind,

last

HIDDEN LIGHT. as it were, preventing any rapid combination

I much mistrust the voice taking place with the metallic surface, five or six

That says all hearts are cold, miles below the face of the dry land. Eruptions

That mere self-interest reigns, from volcanoes are probably produced by the sea

And all is bought and sold. getting down to the metallic surface, through

I much mistrust the man some some fissure in the earth's crust; decompo

Who will not strive to find sition of the water then takes place—fire, flame

Some latent virtue in and steam causing an eruption. It would be an

The soul of all mankind. instructive lesson to man to quarry into the earth's

Yes ! if you say the fount crust to the depth of ten or twelve miles.- Scien

Is sealed and dry, I know tific American

It needs a wiser hand

To make the waters flow.
For the New England Farmer.

If you would still appeal
SHAPE AND CONSTRUCTION OF

To evil life in all,
CHURNS.

I know a demon band

Will answer to your call. If I am correct in what I here say, this is a subject of vast importance. I am a plain farmer,

But when the Lord was gone,

The Lord who came to save, and keep a few good cows, and have the vanity to believe my wife makes as good butter as any

Two angels, fair and bright,

Sat watching by the grave. woman; I have my house (which is small) well filled with patent churns and patent humbugs,

And from that blessed hour, some of one shape, and some another. Some years

With an immortal mein, ago, I became satisfied the cylinder was the only

In every tomb of Good proper shape for a churn. In all square and ob

Some angel sits unseen. long box churns, a large amount of cream must

The spell to bring it forth ? stick, and can only be churned by scraping it

With lowly, gentle mind, down. Now, does this cream put down at dif

With patient love and trust, ferent times, all come to butter? If not, there is

Go seek-and ye shall find.

Household Words. a loss; but this is not the worst of all ; it leaves a portion of half-churned cream, which is mixed

For the New England Farmer. with the butter in small particles, from which the buttermilk cannot be extracted, hence the

TURNIPS FOR PIGS. butter soon spoils. I am satisfied more butter is

MR. EDITOR :—In your paper of the 20th Janspoiled by uneven churning than by all other uary, I find an article with the above heading. causes.

Our friend from “Down East,” Bethel, Me., I am aware when I speak of box or square makes the interesting inquiry, whether any of churns, as losing five or ten per cent. of butter, your correspondents have had any experience in some will disbelieve me. But an honest trial will feeding swine on turnips ? convince unprejudiced dairy-men of the fact. I I have, for several years past, kept several saw something like this in a handbill put out by swine, though not to such an extent as some of Hall & Holmes, the proprietors of Fyler's Butter your Middlesex breeders. Mr. Haven, of South Working Churn, I was disposed to disbelieve. Framingham, of whom I purchased a Suffolk pig But about one year ago I was induced to pur- last winter, had about 120, of all sizes, sexes and chase one of the above churns, and I find it proves ages; and his feed at that season was principally all it was recommended, and will make full ten beef scraps, boiled in water, with some rice or per cent. more butter than the square-shaped corn meal, which I thought more economical churns in use; and the reason is, it stirs all the than any feed we had ever found in our vicinity. cream alike, there is nu putting down of the I have produced, for several years past, some cream. As the dasher fills the cylinder, and plays two or three hundred bushels 'annually of the astride of breakers, so there is a constant reac- Swedish, or, as we call them here, the sweet turtion; and what is inore, this churn will work but- nip, which I think the best root. I can grow ter and mix the salt better than anything I ever (compared with the expense of raising,) for any saw. I feel bound to say this, because it is no stock, including swine. humbug, but will perform all the proprietors I usually keep two or three breeding sows, that claim for it. And I feel the more willing to speak produce a litter each in a season ; and I comout, as it is alınost time to make butter, and 1 mence feeding them in November or December on can recommend this churn above all others.

1aw turnips, chopped, night and morning, till

they litter, which is usually from the first of For Pickling WALNUTS. -The walnuts should March to the first of April; they will eat them be gathered between the first and the middle of as readily as corn, while if, by chance, a rutaJune. Put them into a strong brine and let them baga should be among them, it would be rejected. stand ten or twelve days. Then soak them for I think the flat turnip of little value for swine ; two or three days in weak vinegar. Then scrape the ruta-baga, though similar to the Swedish, is them well, and to every peck of walnuts add an far superior for the table ; and, as I have never ounce of cloves, and half an ounce of whole black had a hog that refused the Swedish after two or pepper. Put them into a small-mouthed jar and three feedings, I think they are the turnips, and cover with strong vinegar. They will be fit for much cheaper than any other feed for winter and use in about four weeks. They are a very nice spring. Vo meal is needed until the sows litter pickle, and will repay the labor of making. and nurse. The expense of cooking is saved, for they prefer them raw, unless meal is added. For AFRICANS NO ARITHMETICIANS. fattening pork, for rearing young shoats and for

Mr. Gavett, a traveller in South Africa, says: nursing sows, where meal is required, they are, I

“We had to trust to the Damara guides, whose think, fifty per cent. cheaper than any root we ideas of time and distance were most provokingly can raise at this time, to cook, with which to indistinct; besides this, they have no comparison feed meal.

JOSEPH RAYMOND. Hubbardston, Jan. 22, 1855.

in their language, so that you cannot say to them Which is the longer of the two, the next stage

or the last one ?' but you must say, "The last For the New England Farmer, stage is little ; the next, is it great ? The reply GROUND NUTS---SOFT SOAP.

is not, it is a 'little longer, much longer,' or

‘very much longer ;' but simply, 'It is so,' or 'it MR. BROWN :-Your correspondent,“G. F. N." is not so.' They have a very poor notion of asks, if the "Ground Nut, or Indian Potato,'' time. If you say, “Suppose we start at sunrise, cannot be cultivated to "make it a valuable root." where will the sun be when we arrive ? they I answer yes, presuming it to be the artichoke- make the wildest points in the sky, though they known in boyhood's days as the "ground nut." are something of astronomers, and give names to No vegetable is more valuable for pickles, wheth- several stars. They have no way of distinguisher a "child of nature" or one of highly-cultivated ing days, but reckon by the rainy season, the dry taste. Cucumbers, peppers, tomatoes, melons, season, or the pig-nut season. When inquiries onions, &c. fall into insignificance compared with are made about how many days' journey off a the artichoke as a delicious, crumpy pickle. It place may be, their ignorance of all numerical never grows soft ; a lady at my side says, “I ideas is very annoying. In practice, whatever they wish I had a bushel of them this minute."

may possess in their language, they certainly use Dig them, wash them clean and put them in- no numeral greater than three. When they wish to vinegar (and spices if you want good pickles to express four, they take to their fingers, which of any kind;) no salt pickle or scalding is re- are to them as formidable instruments of calculaquired as with the usual vegetable pickles. tion as a sliding rule is to an English school-boy.

To make Soft Soap.–18 pounds of potash to 18 They puzzle very much after five, because no pounds of clarified grease makes a barrel of sjap; spare hand remains to grasp and secure the finpour in cold water and stir. Potash is cheap. gers that are required for ‘units.' Yet they selThere was a tradition among our ancient matrons, dom lose oxen ; the way in which they discover that May was the lucky month for "soap to the loss of one, is not by the number of the herd come.” This new practice, without regard to time, being diminished, but by the absence of a face dispenses with the ley-leach, hot fires and various they know. vexatious troubles, and every family can make When bartering is going on, each sheep must soap that makes grease.

be paid for separately. Thus, suppose two sticks

of tobacco (a stick is about an ounce) to be the THE USE OF LEAVES.

rate of exchange for one sheep, it would sorely

puzzle a Damara to take two sheep and give him The office and utility of leaves are becoming four sticks. I have done so, and seen a man first better understood by cultivators than formerly; put two of the sticks apart and take a sight over yet we find a good many still adhering to the old them at one of the sheep he was about to sell. belief that the sun's rays, directly shining on Having satisfied himself that that one was honforming fruit, are what perfect it independently estly paid for, and finding, to his surprise, that of other influences.

exactly two sticks remained in hand to settle the On this subject, theory and practice have been account for the other sheep, he would be aflicted invariably found in perfect accordance with each with doubts; the transaction seemed to come out other. The principles of physiology teach us that too “pat' to be correct; and he would refer back the sap of a tree, when it passes in at the roots, to the first couple of sticks, and then his mind remains nearly unchanged in its upward progress got hazy and confused, and wandered from one through stem and branches, until it reaches the sheep to the other, and he broke off the transacleaves, where, being spread out in those thin or- tion until two sticks were put into his hand and gans, to light and air, it undergoes a complete one sheep driven away, and then the other two change, and thus becomes suited to the formation sticks given him and the second sheep driven of new wood and new fruit. Strip a rapidly away. When a Damara's mind is bent upon growing tree of its leaves at midsummer, and from number, it is too much occupied to dwell upon that moment the

supply of new wood ceases, and quantity: thus, a heifer is bought from a man for it will grow no more till new leaves are formed ; ten sticks of tobacco ; his large hands being both and if it have young fruit, the growth and ma- spread out upon the ground, and a stick placed turity of the latter will cease in the same way. on each finger, he gathers up the tobacco; the A few years since, a Yellow Gage plum tree lost size of the mass pleases him, and the bargain is all its foliage from leaf-blight, when the plums struck. were not fully grown, and while yet destitute of

You then want to buy a second heifer ; the flavor. The fruit remained stationary and unal- same process is gone through, but half sticks intered, until, in a few weeks, a second crop of stead of whole ones are put upon his fingers ; leaves came out. They then swelled to full size, the man is equally satisfied at the time, but occareceived their crimson dots, and assumed their sionally finds it out and complains the next day. honied sweetness flavor.

Once, while I watched a Damara floundering The object of pruning should be, therefore, to hopelessly in a calculation on one side of me, allow the leaves to grow to full size without being observed Dinah, my spaniel, equally embarrassed injured from crowding.---Anon.

on the other. She was overlooking half a dozen

I. P.

:

W. S.

of her new-born puppies, which had been re- as in more accordance with my views. “The removed two or three times from her; and her flecting mind, it is true, beholds traces of a higher anxiety was excessive, as she tried to find out if wisdom and goodness in every step of every walk they were all present, or if any were still missing. of life ; but the husbandman, who drops a seemShe kept puzzling and running her eyes over them ingly lifeless seed into the cold, damp earth, there þackwards and forwards, but could not satisfy in a great part to decay—who sees the vital germ herself. She evidently had a vague notion of in a few days pierce the clod, rise into the air, counting, but the figure was too large for her drink the sun's rays and the dews of heaven, brain. Taking the two as they stood, dog and shoot upwards and expand, array itself in glories Damara, the comparison reflected no great honor beyond the royal vesture of Solomon, extract from on the man."

the same common earth and a thousand varieties

of the green of the leaf-the rainbow hues of the For the New England Farmer. petals—the juicy or the solid substance of the TIME FOR THOUGHT IN THE FIELDS, fruit, which is to form the food for man and his

dependent animals,-I say the intelligent husFRIEND BROWN :-"A Reader," who criticises bandman who beholds this, seems to step behind the articles in the Monthly Farmer, makes some the veil wb nceals the mysteries of creative remarks on the following sentence in Mr. Fay's power, and sit down (if I may so speak,) in the Essex County address : “He who delves and digs laboratory of Omnipotence.” the earth from morning until night, has little Now, Mr. Editor, I have endeavored to make time and less inclination for thought.” I have this as short as possible, and yet I have but just been happy to agree with him in most of his re- began ; but I will ask one or two questions, and marks, but do not in this. Cannot a man think then stop. Cannot a farmer exercise his thoughts while planting, hoeing, and harvesting his crops ? on various subjects, even when at work? And Think ye the only place for deep thought is in if he reads, will he not have inclination to critthe office of the lawyer, doctor, or office of the icise, compare, and come to conclusions? I think priest? Who that has one spark of animation he will, and in this find rational and rapid imleft when he goes into his fields, with the free provement. breath of heaven upon his cheeks, and standing South Woodstock, Vt., Feb., 1855. upon soil which he calls his own, cannot think, and think deeply, too! I assure you it is not I. “A Reader” says, “the advantages which the

AMERICAN PLATE GLASS. farmer enjoys for study and reflection, and his

On Thursday, last week, we experienced the opportunities for profiting by the changes of sea- pleasure of seeing the first plate glass manufacsons and the successive beauties which the rolling tory, established in our country, in successful year presents for his admiration and improve operation, at the foot of North-sixth Street, Brook. ment, are generally dwelt upon by agricultural lyn, (formerly Williamsburg.). In the month of orators in poetic ecstacies, (where is a better January last, not a brick of it was laid ; and on place to make poetry than in the field, on a pleas- the day mentioned, we saw six huge plates of ant summer morning ?) that are but poorly real- glass, nine feet by four, cast with great expediized by him who sits down in a warm room to tion, and with as complete success as if it were in study, after a day,spent in the woods, with the an old establishment. Some speeches were made, therinometer pointing at zero; or by him who after witnessing the operations, by some of the attempts to admire the glories of sunrise, after select 'party invited ; of these, some were very mowing long enough to be thinking of breakfast, appropriate and pointed, others were not. Judge or of his feet and legs, that are sopping wet with Beebee, who was present, paid Mr. Dickson, the the chill dews of a summer morning,

Now I

manager, a very high compliment; he said he have some experience in this matter, for I carry came here from England, with all the plans in on my farm of about ninety acres, without the his brain, and had ordered every thing from behelp of one hand, so much as three months in a ginning to end; and so well had every thing been year, and have been out teaming this winter with planned and executed, that not a single brick had the thermometer pointing thirty degrees below to be relaid, and nothing has been wrong done. zero, and had ample time for thought and consid

The process of making plate glass consists in eration, and a grand time for study, by a good melting the silex and flux in large crucibles, then fire when I got home. As to the glories of sun- emptying the molten mass upon a smooth iron rise, no one can beat me in the admiration of bed, with guide ways or strips of metal at the that; and as to thinking of breakfast up here in sides, on which rolls a huge iron roller, which Vermont, (except some of the very slack ones,) smooths down the molten mass on its bed like a we are enjoying the glories of sunrise so much, baker rolling out a cake. When it congeals, even while mowing, that we are hardly ready to which it does rapidly, it is shoved on a rolling go when the summons comes; we have a way, table into the annealing oven. American white also, to fix our feet and legs, so that we suffer no sand, for making glass, took the prize in the Lonmore from the chill dews (if I may call them so,) don Exhibition, in 1851, and we see no reason than if we remained in the house. We do not why we should not manufacture as good, if not have to delve so but that we can look around better plate glass than any other nation. The upon nature and up to nature's God. If our six large plates were made in about an hour;

friend "Reader' had said the farmer has less in- every thing was conducted skilfully, and no mis"elination to communicate his thoughts, I should takes were made; the utmost satisfaction was probably agree with him.

given. The best wishes were expressed for the Now, friend Brown, will you permit me to success of the enterprising American Plate Glass quote from an Essex address, by Hon. E. Everett, Company.--Scientific American.

[merged small][graphic][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][subsumed][merged small]

This horse, of known pedigree, as above, was growing thriftily without forcing them too rap19 years old in August last. He was raised in idly. In the fall they were put in the stables, Campton, N. H., and has been kept in New and fed on hay, and a little meal, increasing the Hampshire, Vermont and New York. He now

quantity of the latter gradually, with a view of stands at the stable where the celebrated “Old old or a little under. These calves at eleven

fitting them for beef” in the spring at one year Sherman” died, in 1835. Of him he is almost months old, look like young oxen, and are estian exact pattern, on an enlarged scale. He is mated to weigh about 600 pounds each alive. A considered, by judges who have known both, a correspondent at Cazenovia writes us that he has worthy successor to so distinguished a sire.

tried the same plan with equal success.-Rural

New-Yorker. Of great docility, spirit, energy, speed and endurance; of beautiful color ; of elegant form

For the New England Farner. and action, he possesses an unusual combination

CHEMISTRY.---No. 1. of desirable qualities, and his well known stock

WHAT MAY WE LEARN FROM IT? is fully proved to be of the highest excellence.

MR. EDITOR :-With your permission, I propose Very few studs sired by the “Old Sherman,

"to give your readers some facts in relation to this the most famous of the Morgans, still live—the however, because I feel myself competent to the

much-neglected branch of natural science; not, "original Vermont Black Hawk” being one. The task, for I am a mere tyro in this important subSHERMAN, some years younger than any other, is ject, and it is only to awaken an interest in it, believed to be the only one east of the Connecticut. and to call forth light from abler pens, that I atAt the same place stands also the “KENT MOR

tempt to say anything about it.

It is the province of chemistry to teach us of GAN, 11 years old, bay, very elegant, a grandson what all substances are made, the kind and proof Old Sherman and of old Woodbury. Pedigree portion of matter in each, their relation to each correct. He possesses a remarkable combination other, and the changes that take place, and what of the peculiar excellences of both these best of which we have any knowledge, from our own

it is that produces these changes. Everything original branches of the Morgan race. Colts of

bodies down to the most insignificant plant that this horse command good prices—from $200 to ever attracted the attention of man, is made $600.

up

of proper substances in due proportions, and

with the same species under the same circumstanBEEF AT ONE YEAR OLD.-We copied in an ces, they are always alike. early number, an account of the success of Mr. Does the cultivator of the soil wish to aid naCrowell, in rearing calves so as to fit them for the ture in producing any vegetable ? Chemistry tells butcher at one year old. When a few days old him of what that vegetable is composed," thus he commenced feeding them on sour milk, keep-telling him what to use as a stimulus to his growing them on the same kind of food during the ing crops. summer, taking good care to feed them uniform Certain substances or chemical elements when ly, but not very abundantly, so as to keep them brought together destroy (disorganize) cach oth

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