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er. Here, too, she is ready to speak. The far
For the New England Farmer. mer who composts a cord of manure, does it at a loss, unless he acts in accordance with chemical
CULTURE OF MADDER. principles. Nothing has been added and nothing Mr. Editor :-Will you be so kind as to give lost since the creation, and all the varied forms your friends in this region some information in of vegetation are only a change of matter, in relation to the culture of Madder? This subject form and location, and as these changes are con- is exciting considerable interest in our community stantly going on, not only around us but in our of late, and any information you may be able to yery systems, it must be of vital interest to us to impart through the Farmer, or to me, will be a know something of them as they daily occur. I favor to some of the readers of your valuable am happy to be able to say thắt this branch of paper in this county. There is an old man in science, so useful to the farmer, is beginning to Hydepark who tells of working at it some time, receive a share of the attention due it.
when it was very profitable. i think information S. TENNEY. from
you would be preferable to his. I wish to West Poland, Me., March, 1855.
know whether a piece of the root is planted for
the first crop, or whether I must start from the
seed? Also, where shall I get it, what kind of For the New England Farmer.
soil, and what would be the probable income per SHAPING CATTLES' HORNS.
A LAMOILE FARMER. MR. EDITOR :-In the Farmer of Jan 27, is an inquiry from Mr. S. F. Alger respecting the shap
REMARKS.—Mr. Russell Bronson, of Birminging of young cattles' horns; and as no one has ham, Huron County, Ohio, a successful cultivator seen fit to impart the information for which he of madder, has published a communication upon wishes, I thought that I would send you a few this subject, which contains the following inlines, stating what little I know of the point in formation :question. I have not had the experience of many others; but I have no hesitation in saying, that “A location facing the south or south-east, is the horns of cattle if commenced with in season, to be preferred. A sandy loam, not over stiff and may be made to assume any form to suit the taste heavy or light and sandy, or a good brown, deep, of the operator, (provided it is reasonable.) rich upland loam, free from foul grass, weeds,
My first attempt to correct the freaks of nature stones, or stumps of trees. Where a crop of poin this matter, was upon the horns of a pair of tatoes, peas, corn, or wheat has been cultivated steers, then owned by my father. Without giv- the past season, plow deep twice, once in Seping the details, suffice it to say, that I compelled tember and once in October, and if rather stiff, the horns of one steer to take a more upright po
let it lie after the plow until spring. When the sition, and at the same time a broader view, so spring opens, and the ground has become dry as to correspond with those of the other. Since and warm—say in Tennessee 1st of April, Ohio that time I have had several cases, and have nev- 15th, and New York 25th to 1st of May, (I speak er failed of success. In my own opinion, the best of the spring of 1836,), -plow again deep, the time is to commence in the month of March, and deeper the better; then harrow well and strike it continue the operation until the horns become it into ridges with a one-horse plow, 3 feet wide hardened for the winter. The process is simply and 4 feet vacant, or making a ridge once in 7 this; if you wish the horns to grow more up- feet, raising it, if on rather moist ground, 8 or right, you must take a knife or other instrument, 10 inches, and dry land 6 or 8 from the natural and by shaving or scraping, reduce the shell of level ; then, with a light harrow, level and shape the horn to about one-half the original thickness, the ridges like a well-formed bed of beets, &c. as a general rule, (but this must depend on the We will suppose you intend to plant one acre amount you wish to alter the horn,) upon the un- of ground, and that you have purchased eight der side of the horn. And if at the same time you
bushels of tap roots in the fall, and buried them wish to spread, or contract, always upon
like potatoes on your premises ; count the ridges site side of the horn from the direction in which on your acre, and take out of the ground one
it to turn. The horn should always be bushel of roots and plant it on one eighth of your left perfectly smooth, and occasionally oiled over ridges; you will then be able to ascertain how with some penetrating oil. If the horns are to to proportion your roots for the remainder. be corrected but little, the operation of thinning The following is the manner of planting, cultionce may be sufficient, but if they are more im- vating, &c., when the quantities of ground do not perfect, it may be necessary to follow them up exceed three or four acres. One person on each with more thinning until they are made to yield. side of the ridge to make the holes, (plant four There may be others who will give better light inches below the surface of the bed, or therethan this, but if no one else shall respond to your abouts, when covered,) one on each side to drop request, this small light may be better than none the roots, and one on each side to cover, pressing at all.
the hill in the manner of planting corn; or three West Brookfield, Feb. 12, 1855.
persons may be placed on one side, as the case
may be, whether you have one or more acres to REMARKS.—Mr. J. Farnum, of Uxbridge, Mass., plant. Let the owner be the dropper of roots, confirms the above, and says the reason is this : and his most thorough assistant behind him. “The side of the horn thus scraped off, by loosen- about six inches from the edge of the ridge. As
Make the holes from 12 to 18 inches apart, and ing the hard surface, grows faster than the un- the plants are supposed to have been purchased scraped side, and causes the horn to turn or curl in the fall, the roots may have thrown out sprouts, in an opposite direction."
and possibly have leaved. In this case, in drop
ping and covering, you will leave the most prom- deep, in 22 days. 3-8ths ; 6 inches deep, 23 days, inent sprouts a little out of the ground, as where only one came up. a plant has leaved, it ought not to be smothered. The rays of the sun furnish light-those
When the plant gets up three or four inches, nearest the yellow are remarkable for impeding weed with the hoe, and plow with one horse the heat-giving rays are favorable to it, if plenty between the ridges or beds, but not on them; of water is present ; while the blue rays, or those this will take place two or three weeks after concerned in chemical action or actimism, (from planting: When up 12 or 15 inches, many of the the Greek actim, a ray,) accelerate the process tops will fall ; assist them with ten feet poles and cause a rapid growth. His experiments were, crossing the beds, covering, with a shovel or making the light pass through colored glasses garden-rake, throwing the soil from between the upon the vegetable. He thinks that a blue glass ridges. After loosening with the one-horse plow, will prevent scorching of leaves, and that red glass you will, with a shovel, scatter the earth between will increase the heat. He says that a pale green the stalks, rather than throw it into heaps ; of glass made with oxide of copper, is best fitted for course we wish to keep the stalks separate, as conservatories--green being a compound of the they are to form new and important roots in the yellow or luminous rays with the blue or chemicentre of the beds. About the 20th of June you cal rays. A delicate emerald green glass has, at may plow between the beds, and scatter more his suggestion, been used in glazing the large Pall earth on the fresh tops, (all but the ends,) and House at Kew. when you get through, you may plant potatoes between the beds, if you please. I do not recom
NATIVE. mend it if you have plenty of land, although I
Some discussion has been had of late, as to the raised 1070° bushels of pink-eyes on eight acres the first year, and sixty bushels of corn. If your
use and meaning of this term-chiefly as it is apland is perfectly clear of weeds, you are through plied to cattle, or stock upon the farm. In itwith your labor on the madder crop for this year, self, it is as clear and as intelligible, as any other except in latitudes where there is not much snow word that is used, being defined by the Latin and considerable frost ; in this case, cover in October, two inches or thereabouts. Second year: dicates the fact of being born, or the place of
word from which it is derived, which simply insome operations in weeding, but no crop between ; cover once in June. Third year, weed only birth. If there be any ambiguity or uncertainty Fourth year, weed in the spring, if a weedy piece about this term, it must be from the words to of ground.
which it is often attached, rather than from the Begin to plow out the roots in Tennessee (3
word itself. years old) 1st of September; Ohio (4 years) same time; New York 15th or 20th, after cutting off
- As for instance, speaking of natives, meaning the tops with a sharp hoe. In plowing out the native cattle or native breeds of cattle, one may roots, use a heavy span of horses and a large have ideas relating only to the place in which plow. We ought to choose a soil neither too wet they came into being, another to those consideranor too dry, too stiff or light. Shake the dirt tions which ensure the ability to reproduce the from the roots, and rinse or wash, as the soil may like. It therefore is of the highest importance, be stiff or light; dry in a common hop-kiln; grind them in a mill similar to Wilson's patent that writers who would instruct others, should coffee-mill; this mill weighs from one to two accurately explain the meaning of the words they pounds. The madder mill may be from sixty to use, in the connection in which they are used. 80 pounds weight. Grind coarse, and fan in a
We find no fault with these discussions—we fanning mill; then grind again for market. The profit of this crop is immense ; the exhaustion of think their effect is decidedly beneficial; but we soil trifling, and glutting the market out of the are sorry that gentlemen of distinguished ability, question.
should waste their strength on words only-reMadder is used in whole, or part, for the fol- membering, as the great Doctor Johnson long ago and Åmerica, viz.: blue, black, red, buff, olive said,
“Words are the daughters of earth, brown, olive, navy blue, and many others ; final
Things the sons of heaven.” ly, it produces one of the most beautiful, durable, and healthy colors that is at this time dyed ; as To CURE SHEEP SKIN WITH THE WOOL ON.for calico printers, it enters greatly into their Take one table spoonful of alum and two of saltdyes.--Am. Farmer's Instructor.
petre; pulverize and mix well together, then As the tops of the plants spread very much, sprinkle the powder on the flesh side of the skin, some advise placing them in hills, somewhat like and lay the two flesh sides together, leaving the Indian corn, four and even six feet apart each wool outside. Then fold up the skins as you can, way, and two plants in each hill.”
and hang them in a dry place. In two or three
days as soon as they are dry, take them down and DEPTH OF PLANTING SEEDS.—We find the follow- scrape them with a blunt knife till clean and suping from a foreign author, among the papers read ple. This completes the process, and makes a before the Farmer's Club of the American Insti- most excellent saddle cover. Other skins which tute :
you desire to cure with the fur on, may be treated Seed buried } inch deep, up in 11 days, 7-8ths in the same way, of them ; 1 inch deep, in 12 days, all ; 2 inches We can speak in favor of the above recipe. deep, in 18 days, 7-8ths ; 3 inches deep, in 20 It does all it promises. Such skins make exceldays, ith; 4 inches deep, in 21 days, £ ; 5 inches lent mats for in-doors.— Farmer's Companion.
For the New England Farmer. while, the grub comes to its growth, and immeTHE CURCULIO.
diately after the falling of the fruit, quits the Mr. Brown :--As the season is fast approach- latter and burrows in the ground. This may ing in which this insect commences its depreda- occur at various times between the middle of tions upon the plum, I wish to call the attention June and of August; and in about three weeks of those who have had more experience in plum- afterwards, the insect completes its transformaraising than myself, that if possible some remedy tion and comes out of the ground in the beetle may be devised to destroy this noxious insect, or prevent its attacks upon this wholesome fruit. I form.” would like to inquire at what time, and how, they The fruit may be preserved by dusting it with propagate their species? The egg or larvæ that lime, ashes or plaster, twice a week, when the is deposited in the fruit, falls to the ground in fruit is wet, beginning as soon as it is as large as the premature decay of the plum; and the changes which take place from this time until it comes
a pea. We cannot account for the fact that your forth a perfect insect, ready again to destroy the neighbor's fruit is not attacked. choice fruits of our labor, are unknown to me. If it lies during this time in the ground beneath
For the New England Farmer. the tree, why can it not be destroyed by placing stone lime under the trees, and slaking it there, MIXING DIFFERENT VARIETIES OF or by the application of ashes, salt, or some oth-' CORN, AND CUTTING THE STALKS. er substance that is destructive to animal life? Observations of an octogenarian on the misI am not satisfied as to the amount of territory ing of different varieties of corn, and on the pracwhich they traverse, whether they roam about tice of cutting the stalks of corn. like other winged insects from tree to tree which The fact has never been doubted that the proare at a distance from each other, or whether duce of different sorts of corn which are planted they remain about the tree on which they are side by side, will be mixed. But how this refirst found. I have several trees which have been sult is caused seems not to be generally undergrowing for years, on which I have never found a stood. ripe plum; they blossom and set well, but not
The common opinion has been and still is, one tree escapes the bite of the deadly, enemy, that it is caused by the falling of the pollen from while many of my neighbors, near by, have an the top stalk on to the end of the ear. My obabundance of fruit. If all who have trees on servation teaches me otherwise. There is to which they hope to raise this fruit, will try ex- every kernel a silk which is tuberous, and when periments, and devise some means of preventing fully grown the end of it, beyond the top of the its destruction, and those who have tried and ear, falls down, so that the pollen could have no been successful, will make their remedies known effect upon it. through your valuable paper, they will confer a If you go into a field of corn, on a calm day, favor on many lovers of good fruit. CARLOS. you will see, by means of a good glass, vapors, Middlebury, Vt., May 7, 1855.
like the thread of a spider's web, pointing from
the top stalk to the end of the ear. I have seen REMARKS.— The plum-weevil, or curculio, as it this without
a glass when the vapors were so abunis often called, is fully described by Dr. Harris, in it less clear than it is at a distance. It is in this
dant as to effect the light over the field, making his excellent work on “Insects Injurious to Vege- way, I believe, by a law of attraction, that the tation.” He says “they begin to sting the plums effect is produced. I have seen one man who as
the fruit is set, and continue had made the same observation, but had not their operations to the middle of July, or as thought of its application. some say, till the first of August. In doing this,
Now a little, if you please, about cutting the
top stalks of corn. the beetle makes a small crescent-shaped incision By some this is never practiced, because they with its snout, in the skin of the plum, and believe the corn is benefited by having the stalks then, turning round, inserts an egg in the remain till it is ripe. Let us see. Every ear of wound. From one plum it goes to another, until corn comes out of a joint, and for the corn to be its store of eggs is exhausted ; so that, where benefited by the stalk, the sap in the stalk must
descend to the joint and ascend to the ear, which these beetles abound, not a plum will escape be- I think no observer of the circulation of sap in ing stung. Very rarely is there more than one vegetables will admit to be the case. After years incision made in the same fruit; and the weevil of careful observation, I am convinced that the lays only a single egg therein. The insect hatched stalk does no good to the corn after the top of it from this egg is a little, whitish grub, destitute the sun will be let in upon the ears and the corn
is dry. But if the top stalks are then removed, of feet, azd very much like a maggot in appear- will ripen much faster. Book Farmers, I supance, except that it has a distinct, rounded, pose, think otherwise, and recommend cutting up light brown head. It immediately burrows ob- the corn entirely, or suffering the whole to reliquely into the fruit, and finally penetrates to main till perfectly ripe. the stone. The irritation, arising from the
Westboro', Dec. 11, 1855. wounds, and from the gnawing of the grubs,
PICKLED PEACHES.—Take a gallon of good vincauses the young fruit to become gummy, dis
egar, add a few pounds of sugar, boil it for a few eased, and finally to drop before it is ripe. Mean-moments, and remove any scum that may rise ;
then take cling stone peaches that are fully ripe, are mantled with wild vines. Near such a scene rub them with a flannel cloth, to get off the down he generally huilds his nest, in a laurel or alder upon them, and stick three or four cloves in each ; bush. Outwardly it is composed of withered put them into a glass or earthen vessel, and pour beech leaves of the preceding year, laid at the the liquor upon them boiling hot; cover them bottom in considerable quantities, no doubt to up, and let them stand in a cool place for a week prevent damp and moisture from ascending or ten days, then pour off the liquor and boil it through, being generally built in low, wet situaas before, after which return it boiling to the tions ; above these are layers of knotty stalks of peaches, which should be carefully covered up withered grass, mixed with mud and smoothly and stored away for future use.
plastered, above which is laid a slight lining of fine, black, fibrous roots of plants. The eggs are
four, sometimes five, of a uniform light blue, For the New England Farmer.
without any spots. THE WOOD-THRUSH.
“The wood-thrush appears always singly or in This bird has not, I believe, been mentioned in pairs, and is of a shy, retired, unobtrusive dispoany of the essays which have occasionally ap
sition. With the modesty of true merit, he peared in the Farmer upon the Birds of New charms you with his song, but is content and England.” I have been hoping some one would even solicitous to be concealed. They are easily write upon the merits of this sweet songster of reared from the nest, and sing nearly as well in our woods and groves, but, despairing of this, confinement as when free." have myself undertaken the pleasing task. The
By the above description of the wood-thrush, wood-thrush, wood-robin, or ground, as it is dif- it will readily be distinguished from the brown ferently named, inhabits the whole of North thrush, or thrasher, as it is called in New EngAmeriča, from Hudson's Bay to the peninsula of land, which is a larger species of the thrush, and Florida. It arrives in New England towards the a well known and very distinguished songster, last of April, and returns to the south about the but far inferior to the wood-thrush in richness beginning of October. Not having its eract des- and melody of voice. From my early youth, the cription, I have quoted the following from Wil- song of the wood-thrush has, for me, had a peson's American Ornithology: “It measures eight culiar charm—a charm which I have never found inches in length, and thirteen from tip to tip of in the song of any other bird. His usual time of the expanded wings; the upper mandible of a song is in the early morn and between sunset and dusky brown, bent at the point and slightly dark; but sometimes his sweet voice can be notched; the lower, a flesh color towards the heard in some shady retreat, at the still hour of base; the legs are long, and, as well as the claws,
In cloudy or wet weather, his clear, muof a pale flesh color, or almost transparent.
sical notes can be heard from morning till night. The whole upper parts are of a brown-fulvous There is something in the rich tones of his voice color, brightening into redish on the head, and which is indescribably sweet and harmonious, inclining to an olive on the rump and tail ; chin and which, together with the solitude and beauty white; throat and breast white, tinged with a of the place he usually selects to unburden his light buff color, and beautifully marked with full heart of its melody, cannot fail to please the pointed spots of black or dusky, running in ear and benefit the heart of him or her who hears chains from the sides of the mouth, and inter-aright-to draw the thoughts away from earth secting each other all over the breast to the belly, and lift them above, even to those blissful regions which, with the vent, is of a pure white ; of perpetual spring, where are heard purer, narrow circle of white surrounds the eye, which sweeter and more thrilling strains, than was ever is large and full, the pupil black, and the iris of heard by mortal cars. a dark chocolate color; the inside of the mouth “The song of the wood-tbrush,” says Mr. Auduis yellow. The male and female of this species, bon, "although composed of but few notes, is so as, indeed, of almost the whole genus of thrushes, powerful, distinct, clear and mellow, that it is differ so little as scarcely to be distinguished from impossible for any person to hear it without beeach other."
ing struck with the effect it produces on the His powers of song are thus described : “But mind. I do not know to what instrumental at whatever time the wood-thrush may arrive, he sounds I can compare these notes, for I really soon announces his presence in the woods. With know none so melodious and harmonical.” the dawn of the succeeding morning, mounting He has two other modes of song which are not to the top of some tall tree that rises from a low, mentioned by Wilson ; the first consists of three thick-shaded part of the woods, he pipes his few, or four singular and rather plaintive notes, of a but clear and musical notes, in a kind of ecstacy, similar sound, which seem to come partly through the prelude or symphony to which strongly re- his nostrils ; although they cannot be compared sembles the double-tonguing of a German Gute, with those of his best song as to clearness and and sometimes the tinkling of a small bell; the melody, yet they are pleasing to hear, and the whole song consists of five or six parts, the last more so the nearer you are to the musician ; the note of each of which is in such a tone as to leave other is composed of only two notes—a higher the conclusion evidently suspended ; the finale is and a lower ; but these are loud, clear and melofinely managed, and with such charming effect as dious ; the lower note is sometimes sounded first, to soothe and tranquilize the mind, and to seem but more frequently the higher. He has also a sweeter and mellower at each successive repeti- low, chirping note, peculiar to himself, which he tion.
frequently uses. “The favorite haunts of the wood-thrush are Dear reader, is your heart sad? Are you low, thick-shaded hollows, through which a small weary of the world, or of your own inclinations ? brook meanders, overhung with alder bushes, that Does your spirit long for a nobler, traer life than this ? Go forth into nature's sanctuary, the fingers, or the wheel-hoe may be used instead of green woods, in the dewy morn or at evening's the plow. This will allow the rows to be placed twilight hour, and listen to the song of praise nearer to each other than when the plow is to be offered by this sinless worshipper to the great used. Creator, and if you have a true, earnest and per- When the crop is to be cultivated on a small severing desire in your inmost soul that you too scale, it is usual to use a dibble or small spade. may offer, from a heart as free and joyous, a song This is inserted into the ground, and by bearing as pure and acceptable to the Infinite God as does the handle towards the body, a wedge-shaped this innocent warbler, that desire will surely be opening is made, into each end of which a plant gratified ; if not fully granted in this life, yet it is inserted by a boy. The spade is then withwill be hereafter.
S. L. WHITE. drawn, and the earth is pressed around the roots Groton, May 18, 1855.
of the plants. The plants should be raised carefully from the bed in which they are started, by
a fork, and with as much dirt as possible adherFor the New England Farmer. ing to their roots, laid into baskets, and handled THE CULTURE OF RAPE OR COLE.
with much care when they are inserted into the
ground. If the plants are watered with nightThis plant, which belongs to the cabbage fami- soil steeped in water, sink drainings, or other ly, is extensively cultivated in many parts of Eu- liquid manures in the spring, they will become rope, both for the seed, from which an oil is ex- extremely luxuriant. They should be kept free pressed, which is used for the purpose of illumi- of weeds, and the earth frequently stirred around nation, and for the succulent food which it yields their roots. The lower pods are apt to become in great abundance, at a season when other fod- ripe, before those on the topmost branches. der is usually scarce. Its thick leaves and stalks When most of the pods are ripe, it should be cut are much relished by cows and sheep, and are while the dew is on it, and laid upon sheets, or very nutritious. I know no reason why this upon a wagon with a tight bottom; after lying plant should not be extensively cultivated by our one or two days in the sun, or on the barn-iloor milk-raisers. Indeed, it appears to be the very where the air can have free access to it, it is article they need, upon which to feed their cows threshed, and the seed spread upon a floor and in June and July, before the green corn is large frequently stirred to prevent its heating. It is enough to begin to cut. The seed, if not used for common in Germany thresh it on sheets in its oil, is probably, when ground, quite as valua- the field. Cattle and sheep are very fond of the ble as linseed meal for feeding cows. It is com- pods and small branches broken off in threshing: ing into extensive use for this purpose in Germa- The above are the principal facts connected ny and England. Large quantities are annually with the culture of this plant in Europe. Expeimported into this country, at an expense of $3 rience will determine how far European methods or $4 per bushel, for feeding cage birds. require to be varied to suit our climate. Who
There are two varieties of this plant. One will make an experiment in its culture this seacalled the colra, has its leaves covered with short son, and report, a year from next fall, the rehairs or bristles, while the leaf of the rape is sults ? Seed may be obtained at Wilson, Fairsmooth. The rough-leaved variety is said to be banks & Co.'s, Hanover Street, or at most of the the most productive. The rape is a biennial plant, wholesale druggists, or at the seed stores. that is, it is sown in one season,
and matures its Concord. seed in the following season, like winter rye and wheat. It is cultivated, sown broadcast, or in
For the New England Farmer. drills. The latter method is decidedly the best. It requires a good soil, such as would produce
POULTRY, &C.---No. I. good crops of barley or wheat. The soil must be MR. EDITOR :- I have been requested several thoroughly worked and pulverized, and well ma- times to state how I manage laying hens when nured with compost. Ashes is found to be an ex- shut up, and with your leave I will do so through cellent manure for it, and very much to increase the medium of the Farmer, if you think any its product. The seed should be sown in drills in benefit will be derived thereby. a bed, early in August. The bed should be pre- First, a good dry shelter or building, with a pared with the spade and made rich. They should southern aspect, with yard one rod of land at not be sown too thick. Land from which barley least for ten or twelve hens. Second, their food or wheat has been taken may be prepared by should be corn and oats, in equal quantities, by thorough plowing, manuring, and harrowing to them always ; also fresh water, pulverized oyster receive the plants.
shells and gravel, where they can obtain them The plants should be transferred from the bed when they require; they should have meat three to the field in which they are to grow, in Sep- times a week, or beef scraps, that can be obtained tember and October. When this crop is cultiva- of the tallow chandler, one pound of the former ted on a large scale, it is usual to make a furrow or half a pound of the latter, and as often should with a small plow, and against the upright side have raw vegetables, such as cabbage, potatoes, of the furrow place the plants about ten inches carrots, and grass in summer and hay in winter. apart, and then by a return of the plow throw Third, keep no rooster. the soil again into the furrow, and then with a To obtain the greatest amount of profit from a hoe level the earth and press it against the plants hen-yard, I am of opinion, from a fifteen years' by the foot. They are then left until the follow-experience, that more eggs can be obtained at a ing spring, when, if the rows are sufficiently dis- less relative expense from twelve hens, or a less tant, a plow may be passed between them, and number, than from a larger one, when yarded the weeds carefully removed by the hoe and the together. Never winter à fowl twice, but kill