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than an as editor, that Mr. Tucker excels. In the dust must be placed on the ground inside the box, uniform correctness and neatness of his publica- to the depth of one foot, and over this place loose tions, together with excellence of materials, no boards for the ice to lay upon. Cut the cakes of one has ever long come up beside him. It was ice two feet square, and build a tower of ice six our opinion when he started his “ Country Gen- feet square in the centre of your box, (or icetleman” that he had made a mistake in his title. house, we will now call it,) by laying the cakes We rather think that to be now Mr. Tucker's opin- compactly together, filling all crevices with sawion also ; though it is a popular paper, and is dust as you proceed. We have now a cube of ice, steadily growing in public favor. ' He was led with a space all around, between the ice and the to this title by Mr. Downing, whose idea it was, planks. Fill this space with sawdust, and cover the and whose esthetical preferences led him away top of the ice with the same, eighteen inches deep, from the masses of the people.

and you have ice enough secured to last a family “ Mr. Tucker is personally a man somewhat through the season. The upper three feet of the past middle life-say near 50 years of age-about side which is ten feet high should not be boarded five feet ten to six feet in stature ; of spare, tem- up, but left for ventilation, and a place of access perate and correct habit, and of decidedly nervous to the ice, and this aperture may be enlarged as temperament. He still labors day by day, at his convenience may require, while using the ice, and editorial desk, where he is now aided by a son, for more conveniently filling in. About eight late from the halls of old Yale, and to whom are hundred feet of lumber will be required, and the now committed the Fireside pages of the “ Coun- merest tyro in the use of tools can make it. Fresh try Gentleman.” J. J. Thomas, who has the sawdust is best, but it may be used a second wincare of the Horticultural Department, resides atter. The dust can easily be washed from the ice Macedon."

at the time of using."

ICE HOUSES.

JOHN RANDOLPH, Ice is no longer considered an article of lux

He was one of the large slaveholders of Virginury, merely, but one of healthful economy; it is ia, but disliked the institution, and when let cheaply and easily stored and preserved when the alone opposed its exertion. Thus in 1803, when right methods are pursued, and to those who as chairman of the committee which reported up

on the Indiana memorial for a temporary dispenmake it a matter of merchandize, one of considerable profit. The letter below will speak for it- nance of 1787, he puts the question upon a states

sation from the anti-slavery part of the ordiself.

man's ground; and reports against it, in a brief MR. EDITOR :—The ice house that I built three and comprehensive argument: years since, keeps ice the entire year. It stands "That the rapid population of the State of on the north side of my wood shed, and is made Ohio sufficiently evinces, in the opinion of your by setting a frame about ten feet square into the committee, that the labor of the slave is not necground, a plank set up on the outside, and dirt essary to promote the growth and settlement of thrown in to hold them up to the frame. The colonies in that region. That this labor, demonbottom is covered with a lower floor, the sides strably the dearest of any, can only be employed and roof made of rough boards, the sides being to advantage in the cultivation of products more open as a common barn, with a covering of straw valuable than any known to that quarter of the on the ice. Most of the ice houses in this vicin- United States ; and the committee deem it highity are made too close, which causes the ice to ly dangerous and inexpedient to impair a provision melt; the air should have free circulation through wisely calculated to promote the happiness and the building. I think the plan much better and prosperity of the north-western country, and to cheaper than to build them above ground; mine give strength and security to that extensive froncost about ten dollars.

tier. In the salutary operation of this sagacious Respectfully yours,

and benevolent restraint, it is believed that the

C. S. HAMILTON. inhabitants of Indiana will, at no very distant Hartford, Ct., Nov. 21, 1854.

day, find ample remuneration for a temporary Mr. E. Marks, in a late number of the Rural

privation of labor and emigration."

He was against slavery ; and by his will, both New-Yorker, gives the following directions for manumitted and provided for hundreds which he making a small ice house, which is pretty much held. But he was against foreign interference on the same plan as the above, though perhaps with his rights, his feelings, or his duties ; and not so durable.

never failed to resent and rebuke such interfer

Thus he was one of the most zealous op"Make a box eight feet square, by nailing hem- posers of the proposed Missouri restriction; and lock planks which are two inches thick, on to even voted against the divisional line of "thirtyhemlock scantling. Let one side of the box be six thirty.' In the House when the term "slaveseven feet high, and the side directly opposite ten holder" would be reproachfully used, he would feet high. This gives a roof eight feet long with a assume it, and refer to a member not in the parslant of three feet.

limentary phrase of colleague, but in the compli"It is well to have the roof boards extend over mentary title of “my fellow-slaveholder.” And, the sides of the box. Double boarding with hem- in London, when the consignees of his tobacco, lock makes a sufficient roof. Set this box on the and the slave factors of his father, urged him to top of the ground, in a dry and shady place where liberate his slaves, he quieted their intrusive phisurface water will not accumulate. No planks lanthropy on the spot, by saying, “Yes : you buy are needed on the bottom of the box, but saw-land set free to the amount of the money you have

ence.

JOIIN RAYNOLDS.

received from my father and his estate for these

For the New England Farmer. slaves and I will set free an equal number."

AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS. In his youth and later age, he fought duels : in his middle life he was against them; and for

REPORTED TO THE CONCORD FARMERS' CLUB, BY a while, would neither give nor receive a challenge. He was under religious convictions to the Agriculture, being the mother of the arts, and contruy, but finally yielded (as he believed) to the chief reliance of civilized man for the means an argument of his own, that a duel is a private of subsistence, and its operations having been, in war, and rested upon the same basis as public a great degree, dependent upon the application of war; and that both were allowable when there muscular strength, it has naturally followed that was no other redress for injuries. That was his inan's inventive genius has been more or less enargument; but I thought his relapse came more gaged, during the last half century, in the imfrom feeling than reason ; and especially from the provement of machinery, and all the implements death of Decatur, to whom he was greatly at- of farm husbandry. tached, and whose duel with Barron, long and In our country this spirit of improvement, this greatly excited him. He had religious impres- constant striving for something better, has persions, and a vein of piety which showed itself haps been more apparent than in any other part more in private than in external observances.- of the world, and has been attended with better He was habitual in his reverential regard for the and happier results. One of the evidences of this divinity of our religion; and one of his beautiful is, that during the last year one hundred and fourexpressions was that, “If woman has lost us par- teen patents have been granted for agricultural a lise, she has gained us heaven.” The Bible and implements, twenty-seven of which were for harShakespeare were, in his later years, his constant vesters, power reapers, mowers, &c. companions—travelling with him on the road- Agricultural organizations and cattle shows remaining with him in the chamber. The last serve to awaken the attention of farmers to the time I saw him in that last visit to Washington, necessity of employing all the aids which mechanafter his return from the Russian mission, and ical skill and invention can supply, and thereby when he was in the full view of death,) I heard increases the demand for that skill; and every him read the chapter in the Revelations (of the aid which the latter can contribute to the success opening of the seals,) with such power and beau- or prosperity of the farmer, is so much conty of voice and delivery, and such depth of pa- tributed to its own. thos, that I felt as if I had never heard the chap- I believe it is now generally conceded, by most ter read before. When he had got to the end of good farmers, that horse power and labor-saving the opening of the sixth seal, he stopped the machines may be introduced with advantage and reading, laid the book open at the place on his profit. The farmer and agricultural implement breast, as he lay on his bed, and began a discourse maker are mutually bound together by the strongupon the beauty and subiimity of the Scriptural est ties of interest, and the same stimulus which writings, compared to which he considered all promotes the advancement of the one, operates human composition vain and empty. Going over equally to the advantage of the other. It is this the images presented by the opening of the seals, stimulus which has brought to so high a state of he averred that their divinity was in their sub-perfection the various kinds of machinery and imlimity—that no human power could take the plements now employed on the farm. same images, and inspire the awe and terror, and The plow is the most important implement used sink ourselves into such nothingness in the pres- on the farm, and great improvements have been ence of the wrath of the Lamb” that he want- made in this article within a few years, especially ed no proof of their divine origin but the sub- in the draft, and in its adaptation to subsoiling. lime feelings which they inspire.—Benton's Thir- The double, or sod and subsoil plow, as it is called, ty Years.

I consider one of the best implements now in use,

and I think that any farmer who has witnessed HOW LONG IT TAKES TO GET AP- its operation, cannot but be convinced of its great PLES.

utility and importance. Mr. BUCKMINSTER, Editor of the Ploughman,

Another indispensable implement upon the in a recent editorial says

farm, and one of great utility, is the harrow.

This naturally follows the plow, and perhaps “We have three hundred trees set, two years ranks the second in importance.

There are many ago, in our orchard in Framingham. Some of forms of this implement. Having occasion to these (the Baldwins) bear fruit this year. One purchase one recently for my own use, I have has borne thirty-seven good apples. People may examined somewhat carefully their various merits, preach about waiting 20 or 30 years for a young and have come to the conclusion that there are orchard to come to bearing—and they must wait none in use better than the square and improved if they procure good-for-nothing trees and set hinge harrows. them in a good-for-nothing soil. But why not The roller I consider a very valuable article, give young trees a chance to grow?"

especially on light soils. Among the advantages The trees spoken of above, are very handsome, to be derived from its uso are, that on sowing and promising, and we think an examination of down to grass, it smoothes the land by forcing them would satisfy a person about to plant an verizes the lumps of earth, and, by pressing the

sods and small stones into the soft ground, pulorchard that trees of three or four years of age, light, loose soil around the seeds sowed, they will handsomely headed in the nursery, would prove be more likely to germinate ; by making the earth the most profitable, although costing something compact, also, at the surface, insects will be in a more than younger and smaller ones at first. measure deprived of their shelter. Rollers are constructed of both wood and iron, and are made quired, expecting her to show a pail of foaming in from one to six sections. For common use, I milk. should select one made of wood, with two sections “Oh, ma'am," she answered, dolorously, “I of about two and a half feet each, and about three slopped her all about the barn-yard, and could feet in diameter.

get nary a drop." The horse rake, in its various forms, has proved “Slopped her about the barn-yard! What itself of great service. With a good mowing does she mean?" I said to myself. I inquired inmachine and a good horse-rake, it would seem to the matter, and found she had been “bating” that the laborious task of haying might be con- the cow. verted into a pleasant amusement.

“Why did you do that?" I asked. “I have There are many other implements which have often told you never to strike her.- been recently introduced, and which promise to “But you said, ma'am, if I would slop her, be valuable aids to the farmer. Among these are she would give down her milk." the reaper, horse-drill, horse-boe, &c.

So poor Whitey had a beating, and Bridget Valuable improvements have also been made in had no milk, because I had used an expression many of the smaller and more common imple- which I had frequently heard, but which she enments, such as shovels, forks, hoes, &c. It is tirely misunderstood. If I had told her to give probably safe to say that double the amount of the cow a "mash,” she would probably have labor can be performed, in a given time, with known what I meant. such tools as we now have at command, than with After suitable explanations, Bridget tried a those used in by-gone days.

third time, and with much better success. She The whole subject of farm implements, in all prepared some food which the cow liked, and as its various bearings upon the labors of the farm, Mooly was not slapped, she stood still, and gave is, or should be, one of much interest to every down her milk, Bridget wisely concluding that farmer. No farmer or mechanic can perform å the way to a cow's heart, as to a child's, is through good piece of work without good tools, therefore the mouth.-American Agriculturist, parsimony in this matter is bad economy. In no way can a farmer contribute more to his

THE CITY OF SEBASTOPOL. pleasure, comfort, or success, than by a liberal and judicious expenditure for implements. The best description, which we have seen, of

the defence of the city and port of Sebastopol, is

one given by Mr. Scott, a late English traveller, WHAT WILL MAKE A COW GIVE DOWN who gives the results of his own observation.HER MILK ?

The port consists of a bay, running in a south The inquiry in the American Agriculturist, wide at the entrance, and narrowing to a quarter

easterly direction, four miles in depth, a mile “What will make a cow give down her milk ?” of a mile at the end, where a small river enters it. reminded me of an incident in my own expe- It has an average depth of water of about eight rience. We have a fine cow, which goes by the name of and of gravel at the sides. The military harbor,

fathoms; the bottom being of mud in the centre, Whitey, on account of her color. She gives a where the Black Sea fleet is moored in winter, large quantity of milk, and of superior quality: and where the largest ships may lie with all their Her only fault is, that she is rather too intelli

store on board, close to the quays, is a mile and gent, and knows too well how to look out for her own interests. She is evidently in favor of bov. land locked on every side. On the east side, near

a half long, and a quarter of a mile wide. It is ine rights, and has no idea of submitting, against the entrance, are the naval arsenals and docks. her judgment, to the control of man and woman. There are besides the commercial and the careenShe can let down the bars of the pasture very ing harbors, and outside the entrance is the quanicely, if there are no precautions taken to pre- rantine harbor. vent it; and if the fence is not "legal," she does

The port is defended on the south side by six not consider it worthy her regard. She under- principal batteries aud fortresses, mounting from stands the mysteries of latches and hooks; and: 50 to 190 guns each ; and on the north by four if she has a calf to look after, she knows very with 18 to 120 guns each; and there are many well how to retain a sufficient portion of her milk small batteries in addition. The fortresses are for its nourishment.

built on the casement principle. Three of them Bridget had been with us several weeks, and I had always given her particular instruction to The largest, Fort Nicholas, mounts about 190

have three tiers of guns, and a fourth two tiers. treat the cow gently, and never strike her. One

guns. day she came to me, and told me that Whitey mission to enter this port. He counted 186 güns.

Mr. Scott by great interest obtained perwould not give down her milk. She had tried It is built like all other forts, of white limestone ; for some time, and could not get a "sup." I had

a fine sound stone, which hardens by exposure to known the cow so long, that I had learned if she the air, and is very durable. Between every two was coaxed with a bucket of delicacies, she would casements are furnaces for heating shot red hot, for a time forget her calf, and not refuse to yield Mr. Scott measured the calibre of the guns and her milk

found it to be eight inches, capable of throwing "Unto the milkmaid's hand; while in regular cadence shells, or 8 lb. solid shot. We could not say Into the sounding pail the foaming streamlets descended."

whetner all the guns in the fortress were of the So I told Bridget if she would "slop” the cow, same size but it was his belief that most of the she would have no difficulty. She went out, and fortifications were heavily armed. pretty soon came in again.

At the time of his visit, there were not more “How have you succeeded this time?" I in- \than 850 pieces of artillery defending the fort to

ward the sea, and of these about 350 could be Mr. Scott remarks also that the fortresses were concentrated on a ship entering the bay. The po- found defective in ventilation, to remedy which, sition is admirably adapted by nature for strength some alterations were subsequently made, but adtowards the sca, and it has been fully taken ad- mitting all these defects, he adds, they are still vantage of to make it one of the strongest that strong enough to inflict some amount of injury can be imagined. The work, however, of the on an attacking fleet before their guns could be siconsummated fortresses, he says, is badly con- lenced; and in addition to these pieces, which now structed,—the work being carried on , under a may number 950, there are 500 guns of large Russian engineer, whose object was to make as calibre in strong open batteries, half of them much money as possible, and the walls are filled throwing shell and red hot shot, independently of in with rubbish. This is said to have been the mortars. If these forts can be silenced by the alcase with the principal fortress at Bomarsund, lied fleets alone, without land forces (these reyet it is difficult imagine that so costly and im- marks having been written before an attack by portant works as those at Sebastopol can have land was contemplated,) it would be satisfactory been lo general constructed in such a manner, to know, he remarks, what amount of resistance though we doubt not the Russian, as well as most Portsmouth could make with her 70 or 80 guns, other governments, has been defrauded to a great not more than five and twenty of which are heavextent in this manner.

lier than 32-pounders.

[graphic][merged small]

The design here given, and the accompanying since in midsummer it is the resting-place, loungdescription, we copy from Downing's Country ing spot, and place of resort, of the whole famiHouses,” believing that they will prove accepta

ly, at certain hours of the day. It is not, how

ever, an absolute necessity, like a kitchen or a ble to many who would be glad to build if a bed-room, and, therefore the smallest cottages, proper design were presented them, one coming or those dwellings in which economy and utility within moderate means, and combining conven- are the leading considerations, are constructed ience with something of elegance and taste It

without verandas. But the moment the dwelling

rises so far in dignity above the werely useful as may cost no more to combine these qualities than

to employ any considerable feature not entirely to build without them. He says :-

intended for use, then the veranda should find its “A pleasing, symmetrical form, some pictur- place. To decorate a cottage highly, which has esqueness of roof, united to considerable simplici- wo verandi-like feature, is, in this climate, as ty of construction, and an expression of more du- unphilosophical and false in taste, as it would be inestic enjoyment than cottages of this size usual- w paint a log-hut, or gild the rafters of a barn. ly exhibit, are the characteristics of this design. -- ACCOMMODATION. The interior of this cottage,

“The larger expression of domestic enjoyment gives a neat and pretty parlor, of 14 by 20 feet; is conveyed in the veranda or piazza. In a cool the principle is to get as large an amount of conclimate, like that of England, the veranda is a venience and comfort in every-day-life as possible, feature of little importance. But over almost the and leave the rest to take a secondary rank. whole extent of the United States, a veranda is a “Hence, the kitchen, bed-room, nursery, and positive luxury in all the warmer part of the year, back-kitchen, the scene of a good deal of the daily life of the mistress of this cottage, are all on larger kitchen, usually, a pleasant family diningthe first floor, and all close together. The last room. three of these are economically obtained by put- “There is a partition across the hall, just by ting them in a one story wing added to the rear the stairs, which is intended to serve as the ex'of the cottage ; and though the rooms thus af- treme limits of nursery excursions, on all occaforded are not large, yet they are large enough sions when

decorum in the parlor is the order of when they are to be kept in order with very little the day, The door here, as well as the front door, "help.”

should have the two uppermost panels glazed, so "The kitchen, in this plan is properly the liv- as to light both parts of the hall when they are ing and eating room of the family, and in order closed. that it may always be kept neatly, there is a small Estimate. The estimated cost of this cottage, back kitchen adjoining, with its separate flue for well-finished, is $1278.” This, of course, would a small range or cooking stove, so that all the vary in different locations, and would be higher pougher work can be done there, which makes the now than for several years past.

[blocks in formation]

NO COMFORTS---THE SECRET. what relates to a home here, but are continually A few days since we were in one of our lower less they can hoard up gold.

unsatisfied themselves and making others so, 10valleys, and while in conversation with a few cultivators and their families, we heard continually

We believe this class of farmers are the inca mof the poverty of those who were engaged in bus upon the soil, and the quicker all get rid of farming. All manner of coinplaints came from them the better; and we believe the present emthe families of their want of the ordinary.com- riculture result from this very class of men.

barrassments that rest upon the interests of Age forts of life. One good and industrious wife remarked that she would like to live here if she What California wants, in and among Agriculcould have those necessary comforts that make tural districts, is homes, where the chief aim life desirable ; she did not like to live as she did. shall be to render that home as attractive as pusHer husband was always complaining of hard sible, and where the entire income of a farm times and of scarcity of money, that he could shall be devoted to its improvement and increased not get along, and that he would never get productions, and to placing, in and around that enough to go home with. For her part she did home, those comforts and blessings that shall not like to live so. They had plenty of land iind give it such attractions that there shall never grain, cattle and horses ; but she had no garden, be a spirit of complaint or murmuring, but one no wash-house, no wood-shed, no hens or chick

continued hymn of rejoicing and thankfulness for ens, no cow; in fact she had but little or none of

the "abundance which the earth giveth.” the comforts she thought ought to be had around

When such a spirit prevails it will be emanaa place where one lived. Upon an inquiry of the tions from an enlightened body of men, who will farmer how he was getting along—well, he was

then understand their own employment, and untrying hard to get enough to take him back derstanding it, they will avoid the mistakes which again ; he had not done much this year, he l ad the present heterogeneous mass now make, whose only made about five thousand dollars.

only aim is to make money-home or no home-Here is the secret ; a class of men who are

which must ever result in ruin to themselves and farming to make money, living to make money,

all connected with them.- California Farmer. not making it to live ; and while they are doing well they deprive their families of the ordinary P At the close of the current year, it is stated, means and comforts of life, filching the treasures the trǝasury of the State of Missouri will have on of earth to carry away. They feel no interest in hand the handsome surplus sum of $400,000.

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