« ՆախորդըՇարունակել »
self between the middle horses, with his face to- after having run it through a screen of quarter wards the plough, to guide it straight, and in inch mesh, if the large round smooth cobble is this position he stepped backwards with the reins abundant, the larger ones should be rejected, in his hand. Another walked behind the horses the lime having less affinity with them,--and with a cleeked staff, which he fastened in front of rough uneven stones substituted, or what is betthe beam, and by means of this regulated the ter, stone chips from a quarry or from a stone depth of the furrow, by raising or lowering the yard. These may be put into the wall as large plow, as occasion required. The plowman fol- as its thickness will admit. The materials thus fowed with hold of the stills; and in this formi- selected or fixed upon, the next important point dable and ludicrous manner they repeated their when the cellar is excavated (and in many situaattacks on the soil.
tions the cellar will furnish the material for the In harvest, a basket machine was placed on wall,) a good, substantial foundation of stone, horseback, for carrying home the grain ; and per- laid in mortar if it can be afforded, should be sons were employed on each side with forks to keep made ;-as good a foundation as would be reit in a proper poise. It is said that the practice is quired for a stone or brick building, and an underyet to be met with in Galloway.
pinning eighteen inches above the surface of the Many practices existing even at this day in ground, laid in solid masonry of brick or stone. Ireland are still more ridiculous. Mr. Arthur Slate stone for the underpinning is the best, as Young tells us that in Donegal he has actually the slate will hold the outer finish better than seen horses plowing by the tail !—Port. Trans. brick.
The foundation completed, planks of suitable
length, proportioned to the size of the building, For the New England Farmer.
and twelve or fifteen inches in width, should be "GRAVEL WALLS.”
made ready, by planing the side that is to go Mr. Editor :—The recent demolition of several next to the wall; if they are rough, they will gravel buildings, and the denunciation of the press
break its surface, as they are raised up. Pine in one or two instances of the “gravel wall plank is best, as it is more easily worked. Hemfever,” as they are pleased to term it, should, per
lock is not suitable as it will warp. Iron rods haps, dictate to the writer silence, instead of of an inch size of sufficient length to pass through offering any statements in answer to the in- both plank when set for the thickness of the quiries of "A Subscriber.” But in view of the wall, should be prepared, by boring one end onerous demands for all materials and labor con- headed, and the other tapped, and a thumb nut nected with buildings in the usual mode, some
fitted to the screen end ; these rods should pass will be inspired, despite all denunciations and mis- through the plank at proper distances to keep haps hitherto, to obey the teachings of the spider, them in position, then place them edgewise on and try again until unfailing success crowns the the underpinning and the builder is ready for effort. It is not a very unusual occurrence for the material for the wall. brick buildings to fall, even some which were
We now come to a very important part of the supposed to have been well built; but if well operation, and that is the preparation of suitable built upon a good foundation, it is believed there adhesive mixture. On this point very serious misis as little danger from gravel as from brick or
takes have been made during the last year, and stone.
is one prominent cause of the disasters which There were many buildings erected in this have happened. This part must be left for anState during the last year, of gravel and lime ; other communication. of those covered in, there has been to the knowl- Waltham, April 20. edge of the writer three totally destroyed, and two or three partially injured.
For the New England Farmer. The question arises, is this destruction owing
WASH FOR TREES. to the building material, the severity of the climate, or to the ignorance and heedlessness of the
Mr. Brown :- I would like to have you inform þuilders? There are those who will, without me in what quantities whale oil soap should be hesitation, pronounce the latter as the sole about six hundred to wash ; or is there any thing
used in washing stems of apple trees, for I have cause of these disasters. And being of that opinion, I will, in conformity with a promise, better? Last season I washed them with potash
that you would recommend in its stead as being proceed to answer the interrogations of your "subscriber."
water, with cow manure added.
Yours, Persons contemplating the erection of buildings of this kind, should avoid the off-hand, haphazard mode, recommended in a book which gave
REMARKS.-Nothing, in our opinion, is better the first impetus, in this section of country, to than common soft soap and water. It is perthis mode of building. Under this mode, as well fectly safe, easily applied, and answers all the as under all others, the building should be under desired purposes. the supervision of a good builder, and one who has theory and experience in building, and not TO PREVENT Bots in HORSES.-A person of entrusted to those who know enough only to much experience in veterinary science is never pour water on to lime, and to shovel gravel. A troubled with this disease in his horses. His simdry site is the first desideratum. Next, proximi- ple practice during the fall months is, to keep ty to a good coarse gravel bed, free as possible a greasy cloth in the stable, and once a week rub from loam. Blue gravel will answer, but light with it such parts of the animal as may have is thought to be the best. If the gravel is fine, been attacked by the nit-fly. Grease destroys it is not suitable. If coarse gravel predominates, and prevents the eggs from hatching.
W. H. N.
D. E. J.
For the New England Farmer. flammation in the part. Connected with this GARGET.
last cause is the necessity of the advice already
given, to milk the cow as clean as possible, at Mr. Brown :-At this season of the year, least twice in the day, during the existence and many cows are afflicted with what is called gar- treatment of garget. get-the premonitory symptoms of which are,
Treatment. -A little time before and after want of energy, dullness, running at the nose calving, particularly in the first birth, often too and eyes, loss of appetite, &c., &c., and, unless at other periods, there is observed on the udder a successfully treated, usually results in seated in- painful inflammatory swelling: the organ is flammation. The udder is generally the seat of hard, tense, hot and red; the entire, or only a inflammation, which, in severe cases, becomes part, is affected with swelling. The animal has very much enlarged, and has the appearance of rather high fever, a sharp thirst, the mouth is being filled with knobs, or bunches of different dry, and there is but little appetite; the secreforms and sizes, and many times extremely sensi- tion of milk is more or less diminished. If it tive upon the slightest pressure ; not unfre- has been caused by external injury, frequently quently tumors, from which pus is discharged, moistening the part with arnica water is suffiand the cow rendered nearly worthless for the cient to cure it; a dose of it should also be season, and may be entirely worthless for the taken internally every day. Arsenicum should dairy ever after, and only fit for the butcher. I be employed only when the disease has been negknow many slight cases of this disease have been lected, or when there have supervened gangrenous successfully treated by giving the animal garget- inflammation or ill-conducted ulcerations, with root, sulphur, salt, salt petre, &c.; but will you, hard and everted edges. After cold, the cure is or some of your many readers, inform me, through readily obtained by aconitum at first, then brythe medium of your monthly publication, the best onia ; 'if the latter does not safice, dulcamara. method of treatment for a severe case ?
Chamomilla, also, has frequently proved useful. REMARKS.-In reply, we copy from Youatt and
CLAY. Martin on Cattle. Perhaps some of our readers
On sandy soils, which are deficient in cohesimay suggest a simple remedy. There is annually very considerable loss to farmers from this dis- and to be blown by winds, no application is more
bility, and which are consequently liable to wash,
valuable than clay. This earth is a compound GARGET, or Sore Bag.–Too often, however, of silica (sand) and alumina (clay)—not merely the inflammation assumes another and worse mixed or mingled together, but existing in a character : it attacks the internal substance of
Most of the the udder ; one of the teats or the quarters be- state of chemical combination. comes enlarged, hot, and tender ; it soon begins natural clays, are mixed with an extra quantity to feel hard and knotty; it contains within it of sand, or silex, which is sand free from extralittle distinct hardened tumors or kernels. In a neous substances, and in various degrees of fineshort space of time, other teats or other quarters probably assume the same character. The milk
The only methods of separating the silex has coagulated in the bag to a certain degree, from the pure clay, is by washing or boiling. and it has caused local inflammation where it The silex, however, which exists in a state of lodges. This occurs particularly in young cows, chemical combination with the clay, can be sepafter their first calving, and when they are in a arated from it only by the action of chemical resomewhat too high condition, and it is usually attended by a greater or less degree of fever.
agents. “Clay differs in appearance from silica The most effectual remedy for this, in the early
and alumina, and its properties do not correspond stage of the complaint, is a very simple one ; the in that degree which might be expected from the calf should be put to the mother, and it should proportion in which these two earths are united suck and knock about the udder at its pleasure. in it. It has peculiar properties which a meIn most cases, this will relieve her from the too chanical mixture of silica and alumina cannot great flow of milk, and disperse all the lumps. The causes of garget are various; the thought
be made to exhibit. Nature. seems, indeed, to less and unfeeling exposure of the animal to cold have reserved to herself the power of effecting and wet, at the time of or soon after parturition, this intimate union, for although means have the neglect of physic or bleeding before calving, been discovered for effecting the combination for or suffering the cow to get into too high condi
silica and alumina by chemical processes, the comtion, are frequent causes. So powerful is the latter one, that instances are not unfrequent of pound thus forined does not constitute a true cows, that have for some time been dried, and of clay." heifers that have never yielded milk, having vio- The very lightest and thinest soils, by having lent inflammation of the udder. The hastily a sufficient quantity of good clay incorporated drying of the cow has given rise to indurations with them, will be capacified for producing all in the udder that have not easily been removed. the variety of crops ordinarily cultivated on the An awkward manner of lying upon and bruising the udder is an occasional cause; and a very fre farm, and will be so far mechanically and conquent one is the careless habit of not milking stitutionally ameliorated by the admixture of the cow clean, but leaving a portion in the bag, this earth, as never again to become oppressed and the best portion of the milk too, and which with the sterility with which they were primi gradually becomes a source of irritation and in
Last week we gave the cut of a Mower, with LEAVES.—Every person conversant with vegesome remarks and testimonials in its favor. We table philosophy is aware that the all important present this engraving so that the farmer may
requisite, in the growth of fine fruit, is a good
supply of big, vigorous, healthy leaves. A tree have before him such of the labor-saving imple- which he kept defoliated for a single season must ments as promise to be useful, and may learn die; and fruit growing upon branches which are something of their construction and merits. deprived of their leaves cannot ripen-examples We copy from the circular of Messrs. Ruggles,
of which are furnished by the instant cessation Nourse, Mason of Co., as follows:
of growth and ripening of fruit upon trees which
become stripped by leaf blight. In one instance, “We would also invite your attention to a a dense mass of plums remained half-grown and Hay Making Machine, described and shown be- favorless for several weeks, in consequence of the low. This machine, we believe, will prove al premature dropping of the foliage-a second crop great acquisition in facilitating the business of of leaves three weeks afterwards effected the comhay harvesting. Machines for the purpose, much pletion of their growth and their ripening to honmore expensive, but not more efficient, have long eyed sweetness. The editor of the Michigan been used in England and approved.
Farmer mentions the following interesting case “We have made several trials of this machine illustrating the same principle : for making and turning hay. Its operation was "Mr. Moro, of Detroit, has a magnificent very satisfactory to all who witnessed its work. grape vine, spreading itself over one side of his It is worked by one horse; a boy rides the horse house, which had been in September richly laden and spreads, shakes or turns an acre in twenty with fruit. After the cluster was formed a cow minutes. The hay is raised from the ground and entered the enclosure, ate the leaves entirely, but thrown into the air from six to ten feet, falling left the fruit untouched. The consequence was evenly distributed over the whole surface, leaving that upon that portion of the vine, which was it so very light that the air and sun act forcibly beyond the reach of the cow, there never were and equally on the whole.
finer clusters, while upon the portion from which "Being enabled by the Mowing Machine to cut the leaves were removed, the clusters dwindled the grass after the dew is dried off, and by the away and came to nothing, and that, too, up to spreader to stir or turn it often, it is supposed the very line of separation between the mutilated that generally hay may be cut, cured and put and unmutilated portions.” — Maine Farmer. into the barn the same day. In addition to a great saving of labor, much would be saved by putting the hay in the same day, both in labor
To CORRESPONDENTS.-Several excellent articles, and risk of weather.”
on various topics, and some agricultural poetic
contributions, are on hand, which shall appear
For the New England Farmer, soon. We hope our correspondents will make
CURE FOR RHEUMATISM. a note" of their experiments and operations, as they go along with their crops, and thus supply ed, as its name indicates, to be the organ of far
I suppose the New England Farmer is intendthe data upon which to found articles to be writ- mers in all matters pertaining to agriculture. ten next winter, if time cannot be afforded at As the agriculturist has duties to perform not present. We embrace the opportunity to express, strictly agricultural, yet of equal importance to again, our thanks for the liberal and valuable aid the rearing of great crops, and breeding fine horsafforded us by our intelligent corps of correspond-fit of agriculture than for the good of the agri
es, I suppose a communication, less for the beneents. We trust the advantages are mutual. culturist, may not be amiss.
The health of the farmer and his family is cer
tainly paramount to agricultural achievements, TRAPPING GRUBS AND CUT WORMS. as a slight disease in his physical system may A writer over the signature of “C. Q." in the
blast all his hopes of success in his common avo
cation, or the illness of his wife, the mother of May number of the Michigan Farmer, relates his his family and the mistress of his household, success in preventing the depredations of these
may tax his time and means sufficiently to keep pests of the farmer by a new and very, ingenious his pecuniary affairs in statu quo” or put them invention of his own. As neither fall plowing
on the downhill track. nor any other generally known method is much to be relied upon, probably many may be in. Vermont, a disease often provoked, to those
In a cold and changeable climate as we have in duced to try this newly-proposed method. If found as successful as “o. Q.” represents it, we in all kinds of weather, is rheumatisın in some of
whose business keeps them much in the open air shall be happy to make a report thereof, and to its great variety of forms. This is always a disbe the organ through which those who may find it
ease of the joints. useful may send a vote of thanks to the original inventor.
Each joint in the body is covered and protected
by a white, smooth, glistening membrane, called "Last spring,” says "C. Q.,”?" I tried an ex- cartilege,” and white fibrous tissues generally, periment with the 'varmints' which I will relate such as tendons, (the extremities of muscles,) for the benefit of whom it may concern." He capsules, ligaments and bursa, for protecting, planted his corn on a clover-sod plowed in spring: strengthening and lubricating the joints. While planting, he found plenty of the small Rheumatism is an inflammation of some of those grubs. The corn was planted about the 20th of fibrous tissues about the joints, and acute rheuMay, and as soon as it came up they commenced matism is an extremely painful disease.
It is their mischief. Knowing no reliable or certain usually, if not always, produced by cold obway of saving the corn, he concluded to trap structing the perspiration of the skin, etc. Sleepthem. For this purpose, he took a round stick, ing in damp sheets, going with wet feet, or ex3 or 4 feet long, and about 2 inches in diameter, posing the body to cold when heated, and wearand making one end sharp, and taking two rowsing damp or insufficient clothing, are the immeat a time, he made froin two to four holes 4 or 5 diate causes which produce this very
troublesome inches deep in or close by every hill. After fix- malady. Usually that class of persons who wear ing several rows in this way, he waited to see the the lightest fabrics for garments, and those who result. On examination he found that almost ev- are too poor or too penurious to provide them, ery hole had one or more worms in it. In one selves garments adequate to the autumnal and hole he counted as many as six. He then went vernal changes in this climate, are most liable to over the whole field in the same way, and the re- rheumatic affections. sult was that hardly a hill of corn was destroyed Spring and fall are the seasons that people are after the holes were made, while his neighbor's most afficted with what is called chronic rheucorn just over the fence, which was on ground matism, attacking the shoulders, hips, back, or any plowed very early, was more than half cut off other joints in the body, and often lasting for with the worms. It might be supposed,” says months, disabling the patient for performing all “C. Q.," "that when the fellows fell into the kinds of manual labor. traps they would bore into the side and escape ; Now it is a fact not enough appreciated but on watching them, I found they would al- that those who provide themselves with good ways fall back again, when about twenty-four woollen shirts and drawers and other woollen hours of sunshine and starvation would put an garments are most exempt from attacks of this end to them. They usually commit their depre- kind. Such Aannel and woollen garments are dations in the night, and while crawling around not only preventives of rheumatism, but very ofto find the corn they tumble in.” An additional ten the sole means of cure. recommendation of this method is, that the birds
A near neighbor of mine, some three or four will not pull up the corn, when they find plenty years since, was attacked with pain and lameness of grub already provided for them.
in the left hip joint, in the autumn, so as to dis"C. Q.” states farther that a portion of this qualify him for all kinds of labor. His physifield of corn looked green and flourished luxuri- cian recognized the disease at once, and very wiseantly, while another portion looked pale and yel- ly prescribed woollen shirts and drawers. He low. To the former he had applied (a table- thought he could not afford the expense, but paid spoonful to each hill)
a mixture of 2 parts lime dollars for patent medicines, and laid idle through with 3 parts ashes. The latter had no such ap- the entire winter, and was forced to believe himplication.- Country Gentleman.
self suffering from ulceration of the hip joint,
commonly called "hip complaint," so great were
SPECIFIC MANURES. his sufferings at times. He made arrangements No very important movement for the general to sell his little farm, when he again encountered good ever yet had uninterrupted success, and as his old physician who once more told him to get the woollen shirt and drawers. At last they were
it is struggle and opposition that best acquaints, procured, and to the patient's astonishment his even the advocates of any measure, with its pain and lameness immediately disappeared. strong and weak points, it is not best it should ; From that time to the present, whenever he lays indeed, for this reason fair and honorable opposiaside his woollen garments he is attacked with tion is to be desired, but the attacks of calumny, the same disease, but never when he wears them.
So we say to such as are troubled with rheu: deceit and meanness are particularly difficult to be matic diseases, use woollen undergarments, and to met. say the least you may calculate with safety that No set of men ever had more uphill work and you will be much benefited. By woollen gar- greater difficulties to face than the advocates of imments, we mean garments made of the products proved agriculture, and that they have triumphed of sheeps' backs, and not those fabrics known as cotton flannels, which are much better conduc
through them, and in spite of them, is shown by tors of caloric and far inferior to woollen as gar
the strong interest felt by the community in genments.
eral in agricultural matters ; in the establishment Guilford Centre, Vt., April, 1855.
of means for the diffusion of useful knowledge amongst the rural population, in our well attend
ed autumnal cattle shows, in the growing use of POOR FARMING AN EXPENSIVE BUSI
various specific manures, &c. NESS.
Any careful observer of the respective theories The truth is, poor farming is an expensive and “isms” of the day would decide that the agbusiness. The cost exceeds the income. ff from ricultural is the most popular one, and that it is a very low grade of farming, which must of course be unprofitable, we ascend to a better con
likely in the end to be triumphant; but let no dition of the art, we shall come to a point where one suppose this popularity has come unsought, there is neither loss nor gain ; the income equals or with small effort. How many men have dethe outgoes; the ends meet, as they say: And voted years of gratuitous labor to the cause ; rethis, if we understand these matters, is the very member the untiring efforts of Pickering, Colecondition in which nine-tenths of our farming now is.
man, Buel, Phinney, Lowell and numerous othThe farmer of a hundred acres puts on his farm ers; or in our own day, it is only necessary to in his own labor, in the labor of his wife and his point to the Massachusetts Board of Agriculture, children, in taxes, insurance, &c., $500. And he who, with an immense amount of gratuitous, and takes off in some marketable produce or for home consumption, $500. “The ends meet ;' and if
apparently almost thankless labor, persevere unthere were no better way he need not complain ;'
dismayed in their efforts to improve and benefit for he is working his way through the world as the agricultural condition of their friends and quietly and as easily as most men ; for the devel- neighbors, whether of the same town, county or opment of high moral qualities he has the advan- State. tage of most others; and what is more, he has It is most worthy of laudatory notice, that the best possible means of training his children twenty or more men could have been selected to those habits of industry and frugality which more than conspire to make them good men and from various parts of the State, who would be women and worthy citizens. Let him not, there- willing to devote a large portion of their time, fore, complain. But if there is a better way, let unremunerated, to the duties of the Board, and him fall into it. We do not believe that farm- renders them deserving of the State's gratitude. ing is necessarily limited to the operation of put- We are apt to but lightly esteem advice gratis, ting on $500 and taking off $500, and living by the operation, only because what is put on is and it is not impossible that these men's efforts mostly in the form of labor done by the family. are underrated for that very cause, and perhaps If a farm will give $500, with the labor of one many who are aware of their existence suppose man, it will give a great deal more with the la- them to be the incumbents of fat offices, which bor of two men ; and the excess will more than balance the wages and board of the second. In
are mere sinecures, instead of which they give a stead of putting on $500 and taking off $500, very large amount of time, labor and money the better way is to put on $700 and take off without any other present or prospective reward $900; and then to put on $900 and take off than the success of their measures, and the benefit $1200. There is doubtless a limit beyond which of their countrymen. the income could not be made to increase above
Since the first establishment of this Board, in the expenditures ; but very few of us are in danger of going beyond the limit. There is much spite of opposition, and of the narrow-minded atmore danger of falling short of it. Our standard tacks of men who judge only by the evidences of is too low. Men are afraid to trust their land, their senses, they have accomplished an immense lest it should not pay them. It is the best pay- amount in the way of undermining prejudices, master in the world.— The Farmer, by J. A. Nash.
enlightening darkness and introducing improvement.