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skies ; that is, they have attained all they need, How that is, we do not know. But it is evident to enable them to fulfil the object of their exist- that a vast amount of labor is annually expended
Brief lessons, yet how perfectly acquired, in “bush-whacking," and it is labor that will not and how competent to enable them to gratify stay done. In a summer or two they are up again their wants.
as large as ever, and the work must be done over The Dog-Star rages. The air seems to lose its again. Now suppose an experiment is made, and freshness and elasticity—the heat is more op- the results watched, so as to know what advanpressive than ever-man and his animals get tired tages may be derived from it? Burn the bushes sooner than in July, and the returning Sabbath on a single acre after they are cut, and then plow is welcomed with grateful delight.
as well as it can be done, say two, three or five "How sweet the Sabbath wakes its rest again ! inches, and apply some sort of manure-guano, And on each weary mind what rapture dwells, To hear once more the pleasant chiming bells,
bone-dust, or superphosphate, if other is not to That from each steeple, peeping here and there, be had. We should prefer the bone-dust, 500 Murmur a soothing lullaby to care."
pounds to the acre, and then sow a mixture of Appropriate and peculiar duties also belong to
grasses, in which white clover seed should make August. The first of the month may be im
a part. Will some person make this experiment, proved to get in a crop of Alat turnips, where cir- and let us know whether it proves better than the cumstances have prevented its being done earlier. annual cutting of bushes ? Superphosphate of lime will be an excellent ma
DRAINING.–Our summer droughts usually afnure for them, if the barn manure is not to be
ford a fine opportunity in August to ditch and had. Let the sowing immediately follow the
drain the wet portions of the farm. Let it be harrowing, while the soil is fresh and moist.
improved. Thin them early and hoe frequently, and a good
MEADOW Muck.—No one thing has wrought crop may be expected. Nothing will prove more
higher advantages to the farmer, than the exadvantageous to your milch cows than a plentiful change of a portion of his sunken swamp land to supply of roots with their winter feed. They the high ground, and returning some of the sand largely increase the flow of milk, and keep the and gravel to the low. It greatly benefits both. system in a healthful condition. If there is a It is not necessary to recapitulate these advanmixture, comprising turnips, beets, carrots, pars- tages here, but only to suggest that the time is nips, ruta bagas and mangels, so much the better.
at hand. If the hay crop proves short, sow a liberal
As an absorbent to the manure heap, meadow breadth to turnips, in order to make up the de
muck is worth, at least, $2,00 per cord, where ficiency.
the farm contains what is usually denominated WEEDS.-Keep down the weeds. Each fully-plain land. developed dock, or wormwood, sorrel, mulleir or mallows, leaves seeds sufficient to propagate its
CALIFORNIA TREES.— The San Joaquin (Cal.) kind for years to come. The thorough cultiva- Republican tells some famous great stories about tion of this year lessons the labor of the next,
the mammoth trees of Calaveras County. In one and gives vigor and weight to the crop now under grove of them, it says, there is a first-class hoyour hands. Do not "lay down the hoe” yet.
tel well fitted up, and with fine accommodations What a proud moment it is, when the best far- for travellers. Near the hotel is a building mer in your neighborhood declares to you that a eighty feet long by fourteen feet wide, divided inhandful of weeds cannot be found in your six to two fine bowling alleys and built upon the top acre lot of potatoes and corn! Weeds perpetuate
of a fallen log! The lower part of the log, which their kind, steal nutrition from the crop and ex- is separated from the main portion, is placed on haust the soil. Who can afford to let them grow ? end, and is to be hollowed out and converted into
HAYING.--Some persons do not cut their mead, a spacious ball-room more than thirty feet in diows-that is, low land bearing an inferior grass
ameter. until late in August, or even September. But TREES FOR RAILROADS.—The Chicago Press says these grasses are far more valuable cut as soon as that the Illinois Central Railroad Company have they are in bloom, made as little as possible, so contracted for the planting of three rows of locust that they will keep, and put away with three or trees on each side of the Illinois Central Railroad four quarts of salt per ton. Cattle will eat one for the distance of one hundred and twenty or two fodderings of this each day in preference miles. The rows are to be set eight feet apart, to feeding entirely on good upland hay. It af- and the trees three feet from each other. In eight fords a variety, and they like this as well as the years, it is said, the trees will furnish ties in rest of us.
place of those which have become rotten. They · PASTURES.— There is a general belief that Au- will also furnish a delightful shade in summer, gust is the favorable month for cutting bushes. and a protection from the snow drifts in winter. For the New England Farmer. and good fashioned way,” instead of using the PREJUDICE AGAINST FARMING.
mowing or the reaping machines ? Why not
thrash with the frail instead of using any of the Messrs. Editors :—Having taken your paper modern inventions to accomplish the same result for a year or two, I have become much interested within one-fourth of the time, and with one-half in agriculture, and long for the day when I can of the expense? Why not sow all of your seeds leave my office and give to it my energies, care by hand, instead of using machines ?' This list and thoughts. To me, no employment seems might be greatly increased, but enough for the more ennobling. None, I am satisfied, is more illustration. conducive to true manliness, citizenship and Give me, I say, suggestions, give to me the restrict morality. With the farmers rest the wel- sults of others' watchfulness, vigilance, industry fare of our nation ; with them rest sound morali- and knowledge, give to me the result of many ty, patriotism,-all the cardinal virtues and the valuable experiments by others, which may have well-being of the republic. Oh that they were cost them hundreds and thousands of dollars to fully aware of all this. Could they realize it so, test and make sure, and which are given to us in and feel its truthfulness in all its length and return for the merest trifle. breadth, a great change would be manifest. Let no one get so well-informed as to reject Formerly it was thought dishonorable, low and suggestions, none so ignorant as to fear to read, stupid, to till the soil. A farmer was an ignora- reflect and digest. The bee gathers sweet from mus, a mere "plow jogger,” one with huge every flower. May we not, in the like manner. paws" who knew, but little, was rough, un- gather valuable ideas from others' suggestions and learned, and half-civilized. This impression pre-experiments ? Like the bee, we can extract the vailed to a very great extent. Prejudice had its sweet, leaving the bitter and poisonong. full sway, and the farmer was spoken of with Burlington, Vt., June. A SUBSCRIBER. ridicule and sneers. This silly notion, which prevailed extensively, had a most powerful and in
THE RAIN CONCERT. jurious influence. No farmer's sons would be a “plow jogger.” They were too ambitious to be
Millions of tiny rain-drops called dumps, blockheads and ignoramuses. Too
Are falling all around; proud to till the soil amidst the sncers and jeers
They're dancing on the house-tops,
They're hiding in the ground. of these who put on airs,''and made it in their line to “look down upon them,” they sought
They are fairy-like musicians, other employment. The consequences have been
With any thing for keys, manifest, viz : too much competition in manufac
Beating tunes upon the windows, tures, in merchandizing, the professions, and so on,
Keeping time upon the trees. and a great scarcity of the real and absolute ne- A light and airy treble cessaries of life. These things will, in time, regu
They play upon the stream, late themselves. The prejudice which has exist
And the melody enchants us ed against farmers and farming is rapidly pass
Like the music of a dream. ing away. Ten years have accomplished much ; A deeper bass is sounding ten more, with the aid of the press and with
Where they're dropping into caves, high prices of products, will do still more. There With a tenor from the zephyr, is, occasionally, however, a deep prejudice against
And an alto from the waves. "book" or "newspaper farming. This prevails,
O'tis a shower of music, in many places, amongst “old fashioned" far
And Robin don't intrude mers, and to me it appears so unsatisfactory and If, when the rain is weary, so unsound, that I am half inclined to read then
He drops an interlude. a “Caudle lecture” upon it, for it is tantamount
It geems as if the warbling to saying, there can be no improvement, no pro
Of the birds in all the bowers gress ; that one man's mind contains all the
Had been gathered into rain-drops, knowledge there is, suggestions from others are
And was coming down to showers. of no account, “we know it all," and therefore
The blossoms are all bathing shall continue in the “old beaten path”, as we
In the liquid melody, have done for years. Our fathers did so and so.
Breathing thanks in sweetest odors, Mr. So-and-so did so, and Capt. Success did
Looking up into the sky. so too, and what more do you want? “Let well enough alone." Continue to put the grist in one end of the bag, and a stone to balance it in
To CORRESPONDENTS.-We have now on hand the other, because our fathers did, or Mr. Snipes numerous articles from correspondents, discussing or Smith did so! This is a changing world, one with ability a variety of subjects, together with of progress and real improvement. We mever stand still, be assured of this, and he who through
many inquiries, which will all be attended to as prejudice or ignorance perseveres in “old no- space in our columns and opportunity to reply tions," when new and better ones are apparent, permits. These attentions, by correspondents, is, it seems to me, "a little behind the times.” are a constant source of encouragement to us, Mr. Progress will, you may be assured, outstrip and must result in great benefit to the reader. you. Why not freight by four horse teams at a The Farmer was never so prosperous as at the dear price your produce hundreds of miles instead of availing yourselves of cheap transportation by present moment, and we may reasonably impute canals and railroads? Why not cut all your much of this to the ability and constancy of its grain and grass with the hand scythe,—the old large and able corps of contributors.
and judicious cultivation. What has been our This ancient town is one of the most beautiful surprise, then, for two or three years past, to in the Commonwealth. Its people are intelli- see these noble old orchards defoliated, poisoned, gent, enterprising and industrious, who main- and become loathsome to the sight, by allowing tain excellent schools and the ordinances of re- caterpillars to fatten upon their foliage, and perligion, and in their political predilections are ac- petuate their millions to plague and prey upon tuated more by the principles of humanity than them again! How short-sighted must be the noby a course of policy merely calculated to sus- tions of economy of any man, who thus suffers a tain a party rule, or share in the general honors whole crop to be torn from his possession, after and emoluments of office.
the labor and care of many successive years have A portion of the town is quite attractive, from nearly completed it, to drop in bountiful fruition its varied surface, and its excellent and highly- into his open hands! It is a policy at once discredcultivated lands ; its sweet pasturage on the hills itable to the noble art in which he is engaged, and its rich grasses that clothe the sweeping and to his own judgment. meadows. In past.times the cultivated lands The labor of an active man for two days, divihave been so admirably managed, and the crops
ded into periods of two hours each at the proper produced so abundant, as to entitle her to the time, would entirely destroy the caterpillars from credit of the second best agricultural town in the an orchard of two hundred trees, and thus leave State! This was a compliment, not only to the them free to gladden the heart of their owner industry and skill of her people, but, as we have and the eye of the traveller, and to perfect the never known a high degree of agricultural success crop of fruit. Two poles of unequal length, with attained in a licentious or indolent community, a spiral brush on one, and a bunch of rags on it was as much a commendation of the morals the other, and a bucket of soap suds, are all that and manners of the people. But Marlboro’ has is needed. Ply these industriously, morning and other attractions, in the well-arranged and well- evening, for a short time, and the orchard and finished dwellings of her homesteads—in the fine fruit is safe, at least from the common caterpilbarns that shelter her ample crops, her noble lar. Yet in the beautiful town of which we have oxen and prolific cows, and in the productive or spoken, whole orchards are, to-day, as barren of chards that covered the slopes of her moist and leaves as they were in March, while their limbs rich hill-sides. Next to her grass-fields, these are covered with the web, the exuviæ and rotten orchards were the beautiful features which at- carcasses of legions of caterpillars, until they tracted the attention of the traveller, both from taint the air and become an offence to the nosour own people, as well as those from more dis- trils. tant lands. Marlboro', then, has been as nearly Of course, nothing but a crop of sorrow and a perfect little republic as could be found. Adam regrets can be reaped there. If the loss of the Smith might have pointed to it as a model. But present year's crop were all, the evil would be Marlboro' now, must look well to her laurels or less—but it is not so. The tree loses a year's they will be wrested from her !
growth, and the ugly race is perpetuated to come In visiting the State Farm at Westboro' dur- again and torment their propagators. ing the last two or three years, we have had occasion repeatedly to pass through this town, and
For the New England Farmer. to notice with some care the evidences of thrift
GREAT YIELD OF POTATOES FROM or decline which might meet the eye of the traveller. And the indications of either thrift or de
ONE BUSHEL OF SEED. cline are obvious to a casual observer; thrift in
MR. EDITOR:- It seems a matter yet undetera fluctuating and uncertain business, which may the various experiments that have been made,
mined, notwithstanding all the talk, and even all excite competition between, and bring profit to a whether it is wisest to plant large potatoes or few, and decline, in that noble art underlying small potatoes, cut or uncut, and whether we and sustaining all others, which fosters virtue, should seed light" or "seed heavy.” A fact strengthens the affections, rears the school-house that lately came to my knowledge in regard to and the church, and embellishes and beautifies the subject of "seeding,” and of a very large the country. The attention and care of her peo- not be uninteresting to your readers, and, per
yield of potatoes for the amount planted, may ple are evidently divided. Whether they are haps, may also shed some light on this matter. generally affected, or mostly those living upon the As I was visiting, a few days since, the beauline of the great roads, we are not able to say.
tiful grounds and very rich and extensive nurThere is probably no land in New England
series of my friend, B. M. WATSON, Esq., of Plymore favorable to the cultivation of fruit than to a yield of potatoes the last season of severe
mouth, a fact was communicated to me in regard the hills and broad swells of Marlboro', and none drought, that struck me as being very extraorwhich has produced more profit under a liberal dinary and worthy of notice. Mr. Elias THOMAS,
A VALUABLE AND TIMELY ARTICLE.
Jr., of Plymouth, cut a bushel of peach-blows— growth, which is indicated by the formation of the same, I suppose, with what are called further a bud on the point, called the terminal bud, and west Sand-lakes-into eyes, and planted them on the buds inserted should all be wood buds. On good land, seeding very lightly. And from that a shoot of this kind there are a number of buds single bushel, thus divided into eyes, what, think unsuitable for working; those at the base being you, Mr. Editor, was the yield ? No less than but partially developed, are liable to become seventy-one bushels of first-rate potatoes. I have dormant, and those on the point, where the wood this statement from Mr. Watson, Mr. Thomas's is pithy, perish. The ripening, or maturing of neighbor, corroborated by the testimony of other the buds, must regulate the period of budding, and most trust-worthy individuals. What will so that the time at which any given tree or class some of our most scientific New York editors say of trees should be worked, depends upon the seato this matter of light seeding, thus illustrated, son, the soil, and other circumstances which conthose especially who are such sticklers for plant-trol the ripening of wood. In our climate, plums ing the tubers whole ?
usually complete their growth earlier than other And now, Mr. Editor, I have one question to fruit trees, and are, therefore, budded first; we put to you. Can you tell me if there is any usually have ripe buds by the middle of July. In white potato - that is as prolific as the red or yel- some cases, when the stocks are likely to stop low sort, or that will bear comparison with the growing early, it becomes necessary to take the Sand-lakes? And can you inform me how the buds before the entire shoots have completed their Seal's Foot, State of Maine, and Dover stand growth, and then the ripe buds from the middle in regard to abundant yield ?' I have never tried and lower parts are chosen. Cherries come next, either of them very extensively till the present and are generally worked about the first of Auyear. Respectfully yours,
gust. The buds must be mature, or a failure will JAMES RICHARDSON, Jr.
be certain. Kirgstor, June 16, 1855.
In the third place, the stock must be in the right condition--that is, the bark must lift freely
and cleanly from the wood, and there must be A FEW HINTS ON BUDDING.
a sufficient quantity of sap between the bark and
wood to sustain the inserted bud and form a union Budding, or inoculation, is one of the most gen- with it. Stocks, such as the common sorts of eral, and, in this country, by far the most im- plum, pear, and cherry, that finish their growth portant method of summer propagation. This early, must be worked early ; while such as the operation consists in removing a bud from the Peach, Quince, wild or native Plum, Mahaleb variety to be propagated, and inserting it on Cherry, &c., that grow late, must be worked late. another which is called the stock. Its success If these stocks that grow freely till late in the depends upon the following conditions : In the autumn be budded early, the buds will either be first place, there must be a certain degree of covered up—"drowned," as it is technically affinity between the stock and the parent plant called—by the rapid formation of new woody from which we propose to propagate. Thus, substance, or they will be forced out into a preamong fruit trees, the Apple, Crab, Pear, Quince, mature growth. Mespilus, and Mountain Ash, all belong to the A very great degree of sappiness, in either the same natural family, and may be worked upon stock or hud, make up, in part, for the dryness each other. The Plum, Apricot, Nectarine, Peach of the other. Thus, in the fall, when plum buds and Almond, form another natural division, and are quite dry, we can work them successfully on work upon each other. The Cherry must be stocks that are growing rapidly. This is a very worked upon some kind of Cherry, and Currants fortunate circumstance, too. Young stocks, with and Gooseberries go together. In general prac- a smooth, clean bark, are more easily and suctice the Apple is worked either upon Apple cessfully worked than old ones, and when it hapseedlings, which are called free stocks, or upon pens that the latter have to be used, young parts the Doucain or Paradise, which are dwarf grow- of them should be chosen to insert the bud on. ing species, and are used for the purpose of In localities where buds are liable to injury from making small trees. The Pear is worked either freezing and thawing in the winter, the buds are upon Pear seedlings, which are called free stocks, safer on the north side of the stock, and when or upon the Quince, to make dwarfs ; occasion-exposed to danger from wind, they should be inally it is worked upon the Mountain Ash and serted on the side facing the point where the most Thorn. But it must be borne in mind that while dangerous wind blows from. Attention to this all varieties succeed on the Pear seedling, a cer-point may obviate the necessity of tying up, which, tain number fail entirely on the other stocks we in large practice, is an item of some moment. have named. Lists of such as succeed partic- In the fourth place, the manual operation must ularly well on the Quince will be found in previ- be performed with neatness and dispatch. Ifa bud ous numbers of the Horticulturist. The Cherry be taken off with ragged edges, or if it be ever so is worked either upon seedlings of what is known slightly bruised, or if the bark of the stock be not as the Mazzard, small, black, sweet cherry, lifted clean without bruising the wood under it, that form a very large, robust tree; or for dwarts, the case will certainly be a failure. The buddingon the Mahaleb, or perfumed cherry, which is a knife must be thin and sharp. A rough-edged small tree with bitter fruit, about as large as a razor is no more certain to make a painful shave, common pea.
than a rough-edged budding-knife is to make an In the second place, the buds must be in a unsuccessful bud. It takes a good knife, a steady proper state. The shoot, or scion budded from, hand, and considerable practice to cut off buds must be the present season's growth, and it should handsomely, well, and quick. As to taking out be mature—that is, it should have completed its the particle of wood attached to the bud, it mat
ters little, if the cut be good and not too deep. in proportion to the extent of the change,) will In taking out the wood, great care is necessary to notify the borse of your order, and prevent you avoid taking the root of the bud with it. Then, being thrown forward when he obeys. when the bud is in its place, it must be well tied He will slacken his speed, or halt, without up. Nice, smooth, soft strips of bark, like nar- waiting for the powerful strain of the bit, esrow ribbons, are the best and most convenient in pecially if his mouth has not been calloused by a
Every part of the cut must be rider who tries to keep his seat by hanging on to wrapped so firm as to exclude air completely; the reins. Be careful not to spur or rein without and this should be done as quickly as possible, as an object. Let the horse know that no pain folthe air soon blackens the inner surface of the new lows his prompt obedience. parts that are placed in contact.
If you wish to wheel to the right or left, a We have thus stated briefly, for the benefit of slight inclination of the body, a pressure of the beginners, the chief points that require particu- rein in that direction against the neck, and a lar attention in budding, or inoculation. Ama- movement of the leg on that side as to apply the teurs, who have little to do, should choose the spur, will move the fore quarters of the horse mornings and evenings, or cloudy, cool days, to toward and the hind quarters from it. In gendo their budding; but nurserymen must work in eral, the movement will be done before the rowel all weathers, and in all hours of the day ; but touches the skin. their superior skill and quickness renders it less When you leap a fence, as the horse rises on hazardous. When only a few stocks are to be his hind feet, you incline your body forward and worked, and the weather happens to be dry, a lower your feet, to get your weight to the same thorough watering or two will be of great ser-bearing as his own on the hind legs that support vice in making the bark lift freely.—The Horti- him. Your preparing yourself for the leap when culturist.
he sees the obstacle, notifies the horse of your in
tention, and he will spring without waiting for For the New England Farmer. the spurs, which he knows enforce all movements "TRAINING HORSES FOR THE
to the front. When the horse leaps, you keep SADDLE.”
your body in the same vertical position, as he
changes his bearing from the hind legs to the To sit on horseback, the rider should retain a fore, bringing your shoulders back and your feet uniform position from the waist to the knee. forward, to resist the shock when his fore feet The changes in position and bearing are obtained strike the ground. All movements are performed by the movements of the body above the waist, by the horse with more or less rapidity, as the and of the legs below the knce.
rider's movements are more or less accelerated. Keeping your seat, depends upon keeping the Passaging.–To move sideways at a halt (to centre of your weight in a line with the legs of close an opening or clear an obstacle,) before your horse, as seen from front or rear, and, there- moving forward, move the bridle hand' toward fore, at the same angle with the ground as his the object you wish to approach, and apply the own weight, bears in all his movements. opposite spur.
The horse will then move up When the horse, at speed, wheels, he inclines without advancing or falling back. As this is his body to the side he turns to, and thereby re- the most difficult motion to teach the horse, he sisting the impetus of his velocity in the former should be first well trained in the other movedirection. If you incline your body with his, ments. He should be trained to close up with you keep your centre of gravity at the same other horses, a pace or two from him, or more up angle with the ground as the horse's weight to a gate he is to pass through, that he may unrests, and are not forced out of the saddle by derstand what is wanted. your own momentum.
A horse can be readily trained so that the rider The skill of the horseman (acquired by prac- can command his position while seated in the tice,) enables him to anticipate the movements saddle as readily as if he stood on the ground, and of the animal, and be so placed at every change with a horse's rapidity added. The horse will of motion, that his own weight does not throw change his position to suit the direction you wish him when the horse attempts to dismount the to point the carabine or the telescope, as though rider.
the rider's eye and the horse's legs were parts of You communicate your orders to the horse, and the same body.
Guidox. inform him of the movement required, by inclining your body toward the attitude you should
For the New England Farmer. have when he obeys, and enforce his obedience by DOES THE MOON INFLUENCE VEGEthe spur or the bit. If, at a halt, you wish to move forward, or, on
TATION? the march, wish to increase his speed, a slight MR. EDITOR :-I have read the commentaries inclination of the body forward and drawing in your paper on “lunar influences, and must back of the feet, will notify the horse of your confess that I do not perceive any good reason for intention, and place you in a position to apply changing the opinions heretofore entertained. I the spur, and resist the effect of any violent should as soon think of consulting the book of spring that might be made by a restive horse. Job to ascertain the influence of Orion and the
The horse, after a little practice, moves with- Pleiades on the growing of Indian corn, or the out waiting for the spur to prick him. When he book of Deuteronomy to determine the effect of obeys, resume your former position.
the moon on the cutting of bushes. My recolOn the march, if you wish to slacken your lection of the article of February 17, referred to, speed, or halt, the backing the upper part of the is very imperfect; but, if I remember right, it body and putting forward the feet, (more or less, brought to mind a remark of the late Col. Pick