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RECLAIMING MEADOW LAND.
THE GRUB WORM.
ering on the same subject, which I always thought strikingly expressive. Some facts, more to the MR. EDITOR :-I should be very glad to be point than any yet cited, will need to be produced told the best method of procedure, and what is before I shall be disposed to admit the direct in- the best crop for a piece of low, sandy, damp fluence of the moon on the growth of vegetables land, and whether chip dust and ashes would be of any kind, or the health of persons. We have worth drawing in as a dressing for it? Said land quite enough of superlative fertilizers on earth, is very flat, and is bordered on one side by a mnill at the present time, without resorting to the pond, and is not more than eight or ten inches moon for an addition.
above the water when the pond is full. You June, 1855.
would also oblige me, and some others in this
vicinity, by giving the prices of the three small EXTRACTS AND REPLIES. seed drills shown in your paper a few weeks since.
RALPH. Will you inform me what is the best préven
REMARKS.- The best use to be made of such tative for the grub worm upon flower and other land, is, probably, to get it into grass. Plow roots, and more particularly the former, through thoroughly, and then apply your chip dirt and your paper, as I am greatly annoyed with them the present season ?
ashes, which will be a capital dressing. Add Lowell, June, 1855.
other manure, if you can, and work it under ; REMARKS.— There is much complaint of the rav
then sow your grass seed. You will remember, ages of the cut or grub worms this season, and however, that drainage is the first operation. If the question is often asked, How shall they be
the water from the pond backs up and underlies destroyed? Who can answer it? On flower roots,
the land you speak of, get all you can from it as
The or any plants cultivated in small quantities, a pasturage and cultivate somewhere else. personal examination would be effectual, as they prices of the seed-sowers, which we published a may be easily found by a little digging. But no
few weeks ago, are $3,00, $6,00, and $10,00 reremedy readily applied to fields is known to us.
HOLDING UP THE MILK.
CURE FOR BLACK LEG.
G. W. C. D.
Wu. BETHEL, of Queeche, Vt., says that this
Mr. Editor :-Will you, or some of your able disease may be cured by cuttiug an incision in uable paper, inform a young farmer of the best
correspondents, through the medium of your valthe "little hollow" above the foot and inserting method of treating a cow which has acquired the bruised garlic. He had seen it done. After babit of holding up her milk? I have tried inserting the garlic, sew up the incision.
every thing that I can think of, yet it does no
good whatever. She is an extra cow in all other WHAT SHEEP ARE BEST?
respects, so I do not like to turn her for beef. MR. EDITOR :—What breed of sheep will make
By answering the above inquiry, you will greatly
oblige the most pounds, mutton being the greater object and wool the less? Where are they to be ob
Hanover, N. H., June 15, 1855. tained, and at what probable price? What is the REMARKS.-Feed well, so as to cause an abundbest work upon the subject of raising and man- ant flow of milk, then treat her kindly, and aging sheep, and where may it be had?
while milking allow her to eat a little meal and WILLIAM IRISH.
water, a handful of fresh grass, or some dainty Hartford, Me., June 5, 1855.
morsel, and she will soon get into the habit of REMARKS.-Although having had considerable
"giving down" freely. experience in the rearing of sheep, so much time has elapsed since, and so many varieties introduced, we do not feel justified in giving unhesi- MR. EDITOR :- In perusing the May number tating opinions on the questions propounded. of the Farmır, I noticed an article from a “Tiller Among experienced breeders, opinions are some of Hard and Stony Soil,” wishing to know if what at variance as to what particular breeds tured for the express purpose of tilling stony
there is “a plow in the whole world manufacare best.
soil." I noticed, also, in the same number, sey“In the “Farmer's and Planter's Encyclope- eral answers, all recommending the Eaglo plows dia," there is a capital article on sheep. “Youatt, of Ruggles, Nourse, Mason & Co. I think them on Sheep, their Breeds, Management and Dis- far preferable to the old-fashioned plows; but I eases,” is a comprehensive and excellent work, a plow invented in this town, and I think for the
have been using, for the past two or three years, and “The American Shepherd,” by L. A. Mor- express purpose of tilling a stony soil ;' if not, RELL, giving a history of the sheep, and illus- I am sure it would be hard getting one that trated with portraits of different breeds, is another. would work better. It is called the Iron Beam This work also contains many letters from em
Plow, and is manufactured and for sale by Siinent wool-growers and sheep-fatteners of differ- monds, Durand & Co., of this town. It is a
side-hill plow, and, like any other, works better ent States, detailing their respective modes of on smooth land than rough ; but for stɔny, unmanagement.
even, hilly, or flat land, it is certainly the one
A PLOW FOR STONY SOIL.
GREEN LICE ON FRUIT TREES.
thing needful.;” and if he or his neighbors should that go under the name of dyspepsia. It also see fit to try it, I think they must be satisfied exerts a disastrous influence on the mind. with the result.
J. B. FREEMAN. Lebanon, N. H., June 18, 1855.
For the New England Farmer.
AGRICULTURE IN MAINE. MR. EDITOR :—Will you inform me of the best
MR. EDITOR :- I have penned a few facts in reremedy for the destruction of green lice on young
gard to the agricultural interest of Maine, which fruit trees, and confer a favor on
you are at liberty to publishı, if you feel so disWaterford, Me., 1855.
present extravagant price of bread
stuffs has at length aroused the farming comuniREMARKS.-We have never found these insects ty of this State from their agricultural lethargy, essentially destructive to the foliage of trees, to a consciousness of their dependence on the They may be destroyed by a sprinkling of whale-southern and western States for bread. And they oil soap, perhaps common strong soap-suds, or by sent prices another year, to be the gainers there
have resolved that if provisions retain their presifting ashes over them.
by. There has been more planted in Maine, this
year, by one-third, perhaps I may be justified by PLOWING-MANURING-GUANO.
saying one-half, than any previous year for ten Mr. Editor :- In looking over the June num- years past; and I am led to suppose that Maine ber of the Farmer, I find an article from “Agri- will now take a deeper interest in farming than cola” on plowing, and I wish to ask if he means she ever has before, from the fact, that for years to be understood that by plowing alone we can past the agricultural portions of our State have raise good crops? As I am not much experi- had other resources than farming,-that of lumenced in farming, I wish to inquire of you, or bering. Lumbering has been the chief cause of some one, who will be kind enough to answer the the neglect which a very large majority of our following question: When is the best time to farms exhibit. That, however, in most of our plow, and when should the manure be put on? farming districts, is growing scarce. This, with Should it be before it is plowed, or after it has the present high price of provisions, renders it been plowed, if it is to be plowed a second time? highly necessary that our agricultural friends
If guano will kill plants, if too much is ap- should take more interest and display more ener. plied, will it kill the brake that grows in our gy in farming than they have heretofore. A very pastures? If so, will any thing else (as grass) large portion of our land has become exhausted come in to take its place?
and almost worthless from continually taking In plowing land, is it best to work on one piece away from the soil, without returning anything until it is fit to sow or plant, or let it lay and in the shape of manures. Consequently an extra warm before it is further worked upon ? effort will have to be made to renovate such lands.
Is it beneficial to roll land when it is sowed, Another hindrance to the promotion of agricul. whether it is lain down to grass or not? ture in this State is, that a great many who farm
it are decidedly behind the times. You talk to Ludlow, Vt., June 2, 1855.
them of muck, which is a very common fertilizer, Remarks.—The above are questions of impor- and they will deny its fertilizing qualities, and tance, and we should be glad to have “Agricola”
pronounce it one of the humbugs of book-farming.
Last winter I hauled a load of sawdust from a reply to them himself.
neighboring mill to litter my cattle with. One
of my neighbors was present, who, perhaps, had HOW SHALL I USE BLACKSMITH'S CINDERS? farmed it fifty years; he inquired what use I MR. BROWN :—Will you, or some of your cor- should make of it; on learning that I was going respondents, through the medium of your paper, to bed my cattle with it, he expressed much surinforni me the best use which I can make of some prise, and inquired if it would not spoil the maten cart-loads of cinder and dirt, such as is nure.
There is an immense quantity of swamp usually thrown out of a blacksmith's shop? land in Maine, which might be cleared and What kind of soil will it benefit most, wet or drained, and rendered very valuable as grass dry, light or heavy? Or what crops is it best lands, which are considered by many as worthadapted to as a dressing? Will it be useful to less, and are left for foul weeds and all kinds of put around apple and other fruit trees ? shrubbery to spring up and decorate the farm.Chester, N. H., 1855.
There are some, however, who appreciate the vaREMARKS.--Will some correspondent reply to
lue of such lands, and are not afraid of investing
a sum requisite to reclaim them into fine meadows these inquiries who has a practical knowledge ? of grass, which amply pay for their time and
trouble, and a good profit besides. Uses or TOBACCO.—In the United States, phy
Maine has every facility for becoming one of sicians have estimated that 20,000 persons die the first farming States of New England. Her every year from the use of tobacco. In Germany soil is good-her sons hardy. But farming has the physicians have calculated that, of all the been considered, here as elsewhere, a low occupadeaths which occur between the ages of 18 and tion, and those that till the soil have been looked 26, one-half originate in the waste of the constitu- upon as little better than the slaves of the south. tion by smoking. They say that the article es- They begin, however, to look at it in a different hausts and deranges the nervous powers, and pro- light, and the time is not far distant when it will duces a long train of nervous diseases, to which be considered a science, and brought on an equal the stomach is liable, and especially those forms with other professions.
J. M. Searsmont, Me., June 15, 1855.
We have said a good deal in the Farmer, we
“Rub, scrub, rub, scrub,
Scold, scold away"confess, about plows and pitchforks, hoes and harrows, mowers and reapers, and various other there's nothing of this about our domicil now; machines and implements which tend to expedite but bless the women-we mean Mr. Wheeler-if and make easy the labor of the farmer. But to one is a little late at breakfast on a Monday mornhelp her who bears up the other end of the yoke, ing, he would scarcely know from appearances and without such even draft every thing goes that such an operation had been thought of by askew, we have said but little, because, indeed, any of the family for a month. we did not know what to say. But now, Eureka ! The cut above is a truthful illustration of this we have found it. Half of the Washing Days machine. The clothes are put in at each end of knocked out of the year! the women good-natured the tub, and the turning of the crank impels the because their work is done rapidly and easily, the dasher forward and backward, giving a complete children well-cared for, and the husband's face fulling-mill stroke, so that the clothes are not beaming with smiles in consideration of snowy rubbed at all. We know that the machine has shirt-bosoms and dickeys, and his wife's unusual the following merits, from actual experiment and elasticity of spirit. As Sancho invoked blessings observation : on the man who invented sleep, so do we on Mr.
1. It saves a third of the time. Wheeler, for his machine.
2. It saves the washer from sweltering over hot is not potatoes, and their botanical character and suds.
physiological structure and functions are so dif3. It wears the clothes very little.
ferent, that no conclusion of this sort drawn from
one will apply to the other. I cannot here enter 4. It is easier, every way, to do the same work
on the discussion of this subject. The other ilwith this machine than to rub them with the lustrations, so far as applicable to potatoes, are hands.
just as much in need of a decision as the potaWe recommend it, heartily, to every family toes. It is but borrowing one hypothesis to prove who has washing to be done. The price we be- another. My, allusion to the natural growth, lieve is $10.
&c., was simply to show that the diseases of the potato were not attributable to planting small
potatoes. Every botanist is aware of the tenFor the New England Farmer.
dency of all our cultivated plants to resort to SMALL POTATOES AGAIN. their original type, and the fact of their doing Mr. Editor :- I have just been hoeing some so, shows the artificial character of large growths, small potatoes, that have come up well and look for the most part. These that have thus rejust as large as large potatoes do when they verted, are no less perfect in respect to vitality sprout; and, having got enough of that exercise, and the specific character of the plant. I am not I will attend to the next field I meet-last week's aware that the chemical composition of the small Farmer—not all small potatoes, by the way.
potato is different from the large one. Nor is Your correspondent, Mr. Poor, has differed there any, evidence that its vitality is proved. It widely, both from my opinion and yours. As is certainly, a tendency to revert to its original his article contains, as I think, several fallacies, type, and does not imply any deficiency in the common to reasoning on agriculture, I will notice power of the tuber to reproduce. The question it at length. And the first is, that there is but is, will it as well reproduce large potatoes ?-a one right way” to do a thing in farming. This question of fact. is a prolific source of trouble, but has no founda- The only fact to which your correspondent tion in fact. Nature is by no means as niggardly refers the practice of Long Island farmers and of her means as men would make her. The pro
Mercers-is indefinite, and only proves that large vision for reproduction in the potato shows she potatoes will produce large ones, under favorable can do the thing in two ways at least—by the circumstances, a fact which is not new; but the balls and by the tubers. We should like to see question is, will not small ones also? I last year the proof of that statement of “but one right planted some potatoes, called here the New York All nature is against it.
potatoes, of large size. I finished in a hollow by In the second place, I cannot answer for the a piece of corn, and had not enough to finish. season when my father raised his small potatoes ; I therefore planted about a square rod with small (I did not come up that year ;) but it was such peach-blows. The hollow, in all, covered about that his neighbors raised good crops, and his three square rods. I dug from it, by measureland was the same kind usually planted. The ment, between nine and ten bushels, the two “large seed" was not given as the cause of the kinds yielding about equally. From the whole I small result, but to show that large potatoes did sorted out less than a half bushel of small ones, not of necessity secure large potatoes, nor small and these were as plenty from the large seed as ones small. Why they grew small, I am as ig- from the small. This plat was excellent land for norant as need be, and, if your correspondent potatoes, and my conclusion coincides very much can show a reason, I will give him all the data in with that of a thrifty farmer, whose opinion I my power. Theoretical speculations will not in- asked on this point. "Large potatoes,” said he, validate a fact ; and this involves another prin- "are very good, and I don't know but small ones ciple of great importance to the farmer,—that he are just as good ; but the best thing is to have the depends on facts wholly, and on SPECULATION none ground in good condition.'
8. P. at all. The diversity of opinion arises from imperfect generalizations and crude speculations not
For the New England Farmer. a little. In the third place, one large potato did not
YOUNG APPLE TREES DYING. furnish my neighbor with half
small Mr. Editor :-I am this spring suffering the ones did me. If 20 or 30 stalks overstocka hill, loss of some 15 to 25 fine young apple trees, from 40 or 50 would still more, and I had the most 2 to 5 inches in diameter. vines and potatoes also. I cannot say how many I have recently learned that like losses have shoots either of us had, but too many, I presume. been extensive, embracing ornamental, as well as
In the fourth place, the potato is indigenous to different kinds of fruit trees. I wish, with the the mountainous regions about the head of the aid of yourself and your numerous readers to, Amazon, as well as elsewhere. There the native account for this loss. I have made no observagrowth exists wild, to which I refer, and there tions beyond my own farm. Those trees which no large tubers are found. Hence, large tubers first attracted my attention were situated near a are of artificial growth, as well as large cabbage wall, and were for a long time during the winheads. But I named this not as a reason, but an ter imbedded in a snow-bank some 4 or 5 feet illustration.
deep, which lay upon unfrozen ground. I noI have not attempted to prove small potatoes ticed no indications of decline until the leaves better than large ones, but to ascertain, by facts, were partially expanded and presented an unif they are as good. And this is a question of healthy look? On examination, the trunk was fact. Our planting plump grain has no bearing found to be destitute of any lively bark from the on this question, for the good reason that grain limbs to within 3 to six inches of the ground.
These trees were immediately engrafted very near year. But this year, rains during harvest, and the ground and are now doing well. A week more or less while threshing, caused so great later others were discovered farther advanced in dampness of the grain, that the whole body befoliage but destitute of lively bark upon the came damp, and this heat and dampness genetrunks. As late as the 11th inst., others still rated the weevil in great numbers. "How many were discovered loaded with the richest foliage of them have fallen on my desk and on this sheet and well formed fruit, with no indications of de- since I commenced writing, it would be imposcline, and yet the trunk of the trees was covered sible to tell. I am not certain that the lime did only with a dark moist dead bark.
pot do more hurt than good this year, on account I have desisted from engrafting these last, for of the dampness of the grain. At any rate, I the purpose of observing their further progress in am not exactly satisfied with the experiment of decline.
My theory at first was, that the heavy body The steam flouring mill-said to be an excelof snow upon unfrozen ground, had occasioned a lent one-commenced operation early in June. slight movement in the sap in the trunk of the The price paid for wheat at first was 24 cents per tree, and the intense cold following in quick suc-pound. This, however, was not paid after a few cession, the heavy thaws had frozen the trunk as weeks. The company soon threw off one-fourth low down as the snow had been removed, while of a cent, then three-fourths of a cent more, and the circulation had not extended into the limbs some has been sold as low as one cent. And even at all. This theory was somewhat satisfactory at this low rate the company will, doubtless, sink to me, until as late as the 11th inst., I find other money this year. One of the shareholders told trees with dried trunks and yet loaded with the me that they should probably sink some six richest foliage and well formed fruit. I am thousand dollars. This estimate, however, may now confounded, and await the discussion of the be rather high. subject in your columns. N. F. EMERSOX. You can easily see that there is some ground of Chester, N. H., June 16, 1855.
discouragement in relation to Hawaiian flour.
Wheat can easily be raised, and wheat of an exREMARKS.—We have seen some of the trees cellent quality. The experiment has been fairly spoken of by our correspondent, and others, in tried. Even last year, the wheat was much of it different localities, affected in the same manner. yielded about forty bushels to the acre.
of large growth and good kernel. Some of it
But Can some of our intelligent tree-growers give the harvesting and curing the crop will be the difficause and a remedy ?
culty. We have no barns nor granaries ; of course we have to stack our wheat.
In dry seasons, this method answers very well. In good For the New England Farmer.
season, say September, we can thresh the grain, HAWAIIAN AGRICULTURE. (all that we can spare,) and send it to Honolulu, MAKAWA0-Mari, HAWAIIAN ISLANDS,
though at some risk, from the sca-leaky vessel or
March 8th, 1855. wet passage. What we need for seed we can EDITORS NEW ENGLAND FARMER :- Gentlemen, leave in the stack till sowing time, and if the In my last communication, June, 1854, I told wheat was thoroughly dried when stacked, there you of the wheat crop which we were then har- will not be many weevils in the seed. This year, vesting, and of one of Hussey's reapers which now that the season for sowing has returned, we was marching through our fields. Before I shall find the seed poor and full of weevils. We could have occasion to speak of another crop of this not keep what we threshed in early autumn, precious grain, let me tell you of the value of the though more than usual lime was thrown into it, crop of 1854, and of the disposition which we and it was put into a large and dry room. The made of it,
weevil has become such a nuisance, that I cannot I may say, in a word, much of the crop of consent again to store it in the house. We need 1854. was injured by the rains. A portion of it such a granary as I see described in the Country was utterly ruined, rotted in the field, and scarcely Gentleman, of December 14; but we have not a bushel of what was saved was as good as usual. the means of buildıng such an one at Makawao— When the flour made of the first lot of wheat, at least, I have not. Fences and buildings of which was sent down to the mill at Honolulu, some kind for wheat, corn, beans, &c., are indiswas made into bread, there was a great outcry. pensable to success in farming, here or elsewhere. The bread was neither white nor sweet. Serious We lack stone at Makawao for building wall, damage to the credit of Hawaiian flour seemed and the wire fence is very expensive. for a time to be unavoidable. And though the We are now near the middle of March, but character of some lots of wheat, which were considerable wheat remains to be sown. Not ground afterwards, was such as to retrieve, in more of this grain will be sold this year than part, the reputation of Makawao as a wheat last, but much of it will be put in in better country, still suspicion and doubt rest on many style. The excessive rains of last year caused so minds as to the success of the enterprise. Much rapid a growth of vegetation, and prevented the of the wheat which we designed for seed is in- possibility of burning it, that we find it a great jured, some by heating, and all by the weevil, so deal of work to prepare the ground decently for that only about six-tenths of it will come. You a crop. The winter rains, too, are copious, so mistook me as saying that early sowing was a that there is danger that we shall find the season preventive of the weevil. Dry weather during too short for sowing all that we desire. Some of harvest and till threshed, with a small quantity the neighbors, who sowed a good deal last year, of good air-slacked lime, will do much to prevent do much less this. Others do nothing; though the ravages of this insect; at least, it did so last several foreigners and some natives, who have