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while they do the work quite as well, in every re
spect, as any other machines, they seem to be more There was a trial of mowing machines, on easily managed and to require less power.” Tuesday, on the farm of Mr. Moses Wetherbee, in Dedham, under the superintendence of a com
For the New England Farmer. mittee of the Norfolk Coụnty Agricultural So
HARD TIMES AND THE PRICE OF ciety. The trial was in competition for the pre
LABOR. mium of $600 offered by the State Society. We find a report of the proceedings in the Telegraph, in a previous number, you say, "it is not the
MR. EDITOR :-In speaking of "hard times," from which we condense the following account: merchant who fails, or the manufacturer who
“The field was very level generally, and free from stops his machinery, that suffers from hunger, any obstructions whatever in the nature of stones or cold or nakedness. But there is a class who stumps, though the surface was not entirely even. have, until recently, received liberal compensaThe grass to be cut was very light, but very even, tion, who rise in the morning not knowing when being almost wholly a fine red-top of a wiry, hard or how they shall find food for the day:" I kind, with a fine bottom.
would inquire of this class if the fault is not "Three machines were on the ground, of Ketch- their own? If they have received liberal pay, um's patent, two of them being heavy for two horses, (as it is known that workmen have received, in cutting a swath about 4 feet 8 inches wide, and one for a single horse. These machines operate with a many cases, double pay to what was paid for the vibratory motion, the cutting apparatus being fixed same labor ten years ago,) if they should not upon a rod which is moved swiftly from right to left. have been able, through a long period of pros
“There are also three machines on the ground of perity,, to have laid up enough to carry them Manny's patent, made by Adriance & Co., of Wor- through a “hard time' of six or eight months cester. One of these also was for a single horse. The without suffering? It seems to me that, by using larger machines weighed about 500 and 600 pounds some economy, they should have been able to do respectively. They also cut with a vibratory motion so. The farmer has paid to the foreigner almost in the same manner as those of Ketchum's; but they double for labor the past year, that they forhave what Ketchum's do not, a small wheel on the merly paid to good men from New Hampshire right hand side of the machine, which helps to sup- and Vermont. 'I think the increased wages paid port it and causes it to move with less friction, and by farmers is unreasonable. The mechanic had, consequently greater ease for the team. They also have a reel which is made to revolve with a down- cost of provisions, and by increase of pay, was
as a reason for the increase of wages, the high ward and backward motion as the machine moves enabled to save more than formerly, when proforward, thus pressing the grass more firmly downward toward the knives.
visions were not so high. But the laborers on a Mr. Fisk Russell, of South Boston, also introduced farm have no board to pay or provisions to buy, three machines of similar sizes, but cutting on difler- as this item comes out of the employer; so that ent principles, the knives being so arranged that each the farmer has been obliged to pay extra wages, blade turns upon a pivot, as the rod to which they and the extra expense of board, which has made are attached moves backward and forward, and thus the wages paid by the farmer amount to about the edges of each blade cut with a drawing motion. $34 per month, or $20 per month with board, The larger machines of Ketchum and Manny cut four while the laborers in manufacturing establishfeet and eight inches in width.
ments have received but $26 per month, or $! “There was also one of R. L. Allen's machines, of New York, of a different kind from either of the oth
per day without board. ers in some respects, though the cutting blades move
I think the wages paid by farmers the last like those of Ketchum and Manny.
year too high, as the farmer cannot afford to pay "The amount of land assigned to each team was half more than manufacturing companies. Neither an acre. Six two-horse teams entered on the first is it worth more to work on a farm than it is to trial at fifteen minutes after eleven. , work was
work on wharves or for manufacturing campacompleted in from twenty-two to twenty-fiwe minutes, nies, without the certainty of more than a week's and was well done by all, though there seemed at work at a time; $14 or $15 and board, is as this trial to be a general impression in tavor of Man- much as the laborer can command at any other ny's machine, on account of the greater af parent work, and the farmer, who wishes to make as ease with which the work was done.
much as the laborer, should not pay more than "The second mode of trial was by allowing each com- this sum.
E. G. petitor to cut a single swath through the field and Lexington, June 23, 1855. back again, and then examining the ground after the hay was removed by a horse-rake. In this trial, the machine of Manny showed a closer cut swath, and er
REMARKS.—There are, no doubt, hundreds of idently was considered by the spectators generally, as cases of suffering where dissipation or impruthe best machine.
dence have been the cause, and other hundreds “The next test was that of the machines drawn by where honest toil and rigid economy have not a single horse, but no new light was thrown upon the qualities of the machines by this trial, except that it received their due reward. Let each examine appeared that Manny's machine would admit of cut- and judge for himself, and give liberally from his ting either a full swath or only a partial one without abundance ; or, what is better, supply employclogging, while others did not seem to admit of that ment and allow each to earn his own bread. variation.
“One or two other trials, slightly varying from the But let none suffer. last, were then had, and at the close the general opinion, as expressed by the witnesses, was rather in FIG TREES IN THE SOUTHERN STATES.—Tho Nafavor of Manny's machines, on the ground that, |tional Intelligencer says that choice varieties of the fig have been imported from the south of ordered three of the machines to be sent to his France, under the auspices of the agricultural country. department of the patent office. They are intended for distribution in our southern and south
The experiment was one of the most astonishwestern States, where it is known that they willing exhibitions of mechanical power that we have grow and thrive.
ever witnessed. The machine is exceedingly simple, and not liable to get out of repair.
A very pleasant and appropriate address was PATENT STUMP PULLER.
made to the multitude at the close of the exhibiAmong the visits made by us during the pres- tion by FIELD, Esq., of Athol. All present ent month to the homes of the farmers in various seemed pleased and instructed by the occasion. parts of this State, and New Hampshire, was one to Below we give a statement of the power of the the town of Orange, Mass., to witness the opera- machine, furnished by Mr. Willis. tions of the eighth wonder of the world, the Pa
ORANGE, June 7, 1855. tent Stump Puller, owned and operated by Mr. The
of the machine varies according to W. W. Willis, of that town. Notice of the tri- dimensions. Suppose a machine to have a lever al had been given, so that persons assembled from 18 feet long, the anchor loop or fulcrum to be the adjoining towns, and a few had come from
14 feet from the end upon which the power is
applied, the first purchase loop to be 6 inches remote distances.
from the fulcrum ; this will give you 28 times At ten o'clock the hook of a stout chain was the amount of power applied at the end of the placed under the root of a moderately-sized lever. Suppose your team to draw 2 tons, you stump, and it was turned out with as much ap
have an actual purchase on the stump of twice parent ease as though it had been a mere log
28, or 56 tons, and more in the same proportion with no attachments to the ground. Other stumps Suppose, in combination with the lever, you
as you extend the lever. of still larger size, and more extensive roots, were rise shears 12 feet high, and the foot of the shears then taken out, and all with certainty, and with placed 2 feet from the stump; in this case, you out the slightest confusion, and the time occu
have an amount of power 168 times greater than pied in removing each one after the chain was
that applied at the end of the lever. Suppose applied, not exceeding ten minutes !
your team to draw 2 tons, you have an actual
purchase on the stump of 336 tons ! Sufficient to At length, the visitors having multiplied to hurl out well nigh any monster! quite a crowd, a larger chain was attached, and When the power of the shears has become exan enormous stump, the growth, perhaps, of cen- hausted, if you apply the chain and pulleys, you turies, was selected. With a small, half-circular double the power of the lever, which gives 56 spade, room was made under one of the roots and the lever. That is, suppose 2 tons purchase by
times the amount of power applied at the end of a stont hook attached ; the chain passing from the team, you obtain 112 tons; this is sufficient the hook up over the end of the shears. The whole when the stump is once moved from its bed by the surface of the ground about the stump was cov- greater power, to perfect the work. ered with the stumps of a later growth of young to get the greatest power, and they exert the
The shears should be placed near to the stump pines, whose roots penetrated the soil, and min
greatest, when, rising, they reach exactly the pergled with those of their ancient progenitor. The pendicular position. A large portion of all work stump itself was between two or three feet in di- may be done without their aid. ameter, and sound, as were its roots.
Å strong horse will answer most purposes, A pair of stout oxen were then hitched to the this machine slowly, but it requires two or three
though oxen are preferable. One man can work lever, and driven forward. When they had ad- to work it rapidly. A little patience and pracvanced some four rods, the chain was taken up, and tice will enable almost any one to work it in a they were turned back without
short time. any unhitching,
Yours very respectfully,
WM. W. WILLIS. the roots in the meantime cracking and making a noise like a pistol exploded under water. The Locusts. It is said that in some parts of Illiground gradually rose about the stump, and in nois, particularly in the vicinity of Alton, the five minutes its gnarly roots which had securely locusts, which have been quite numerous, are Jaid there for ages were brought to the light! At dying in great numbers. The ground beneath the expiration of ten minutes the old hero was the forest trees is covered with their carcasses, fairly turned over, and the roots on the upper side and the hogs of the farmers are getting quite pointing to the heavens! Upon actual measure- corpulent from the unwonted good living which
nt, we found the roots extending something is thus provided for them. The insect appears to more than 16 feet from each side of the stump. have fulfilled its mission, its body has become
A gentleman from Valparaiso, who accompa- large and hollow, and its strength exhausted, and nied us, and who is entrusted by the Chilian gov- in flying from one place to another, it at last ernment with funds to purchase agricultural im- tumbles to the ground, falls upon its back, and plements, after witnessing the exhibition, at once that is the last of Mr. Locust.
mean it to be inferred that a man should be The cheapest, best and most durable cellar floor, prodigal in his expenditure; but that he should which is also impervious to rats, may be made in show to his customers, if he is a trader, or those the following manner : Supposing the cellar wall whom he may be doing any kind of business already laid, with a sufficient drain to the cellar ; with, that, in all his transactions, as well as sothen dig a trench all around the wall on the cial relations, he acknowledges the everlasting inner side, a foot wide and deep, connecting with fact that there can be no permanent prosperity the cellar drain. In the centre of this trench or good feeling in a community where benefits make a drain by standing two stones, bracing
are not reciprocal.—Hunt's Merchant's Mayaagainst each other, at an angle of about 45 de zine. grees. Then fill up the trench with small stones, to within two or three inches of the top; cover
HORSES AND RATS IN PARIS. these stones with a layer of pine shavings, and A correspondent of the N. Y. Spirit of the then with the earth thrown out of the trench, Times gives an interesting account of the manner levelling off the same with the floor of the cellar. in which the bodies of Parisian horses and rats If the ground of the cellar should be gravel, nothing further will be required; but if clay, are usually disposed of. He says : make it perfectly smooth, and strew, over it a Four hundred horses die or are killed in Paris coating of clean gravel ; one load of thirty bush- in one week. There is a common pound, surels will be ample for a cellar of twelve hundred rounded by a stone wall, covering some ten acres. square feet. The cost of such a floor, estimating According to some municipal regulations (there the gravel at a dollar, will not exceed eight is an 'ordonnance' for every thing in France) all dollars; the cellar will be rat proof, and the dead carcasses, except human bones, must be floor smooth-dry and hard. This is theory veri-brought to this general receptacle. The carcass of fied by experience.
AGRICULTOR. a horse is valuable for the bone, the hide, and the Hancock County, June 4.
hair, to say nothing of the flesh, much prized, P.S. I have been planting about a quarter of when fresh, in certain sausage manufactories. an acre with alternate rows of potatoes and sweet But should you wait until the horse has actually corn, 24 feet apart, distance between hills 34 feet, shuffled off his hairy coil, you might miss a barwith a hill of peas between each hill of corn and gain-another of the trade precedes and purchases. potatoes. The potatoes were started on a bed of Hence it is important to buy the horse, as a dead horse manure, and when from 4 to 6 inches high, borse, before he is dead. It is a regular business were set out in the hills, receiving at the time in Paris. You can tell these agents for the purwhat was equivalent to a heavy hoeing on the chase of dead horses at a glance; the dress in 26th ult. They will be ready for market by the that of an English groom, save the vignette on middle of next month, and the rows occupied by the visor of the cap, representing a dead horse's them will be set out with Early York Cabbages head and cross-bones ; a memorandum book, a and Ruta Baga Turnips. The peas between the pencil, a stamp, and a piece of caustic complete corn will be off about the same time, leaving the his accoutrements. With scrutinizing eye he corn standing at 5 feet distance one way and 34 travels the thoroughfares of Paris ; should a horse the other. The corn is intended for táble use, go lame, break a leg or neck, should he show and when the ears are gathered, will be cut up symptoms of distress in a word, anywhere or in and used for green fodder. The result shall be any way evince signs of the many ills to which communicated if favorable, which is not doubted. horseflesh is heir, immediately is an offer made
This is economy, and of the right kind-prac- for the animal, deliverable when really dead. tical economy. "By a little calculation of this The bargain concluded, the 'signalement of the sort, farmers and gardeners might make old horse and owner is carefully recorded, and a primother earth yield double for the support of her vate mark stamped on the inside of the foreleg children which she now does.— Rural Intelligencer. with the caustic; the horse goes, perhaps rejoic
ing, on his way for weeks, perhaps months, only
to be met with and identified after death, at the MEANNESS DOES NOT PAY.
public graveyard for horses. Now, except in There is no greater mistake that a business cases of fresh specimens, as mentioned above, the man makes than to be mean in his business. first operation on a dead horse is to take off the Always taking the half cent for the dollars he skin ; then the flesh, to get at the bones. The has made and is making. Such a policy is very skinning portion is easy, and performed with a much like the farmer's, who sows three pecks of dexterity and rapidity truly astonishing. seed when he ought to have sown five, and as a I have seen in the enclosure spoken of, at one recompense for the leanness of his soul, only gets time, over one hundred horses skinned, or being ten when he ought to have got fifteen bushels of put through that process. The next point is to grain. Everybody has heard of the proverb of divest the bones of adhesive and often putrid penny wise and pound foolish." A liberal ex- filesh ; bones are valued in proportion as they are penditure in the way of business is always sure clear, neat, and free from other matter. To tako to be a capital investment. There are people in off the flesh by hand, is a tedious and difficult the world who are short-sighted enough to be- operation. An ingenious Frenchman solved the lieve that their interest can be best promoted by difficulty. He noticed that rats were very fond grasping and clinging to all they can get, and of horse flesh; he advised the authorities to colonever letting a cent slip through their fingers. nize the dead horse pound with these animals; As a general thing, it will be found, other things the catacombs of Paris furnished them by thoubeing equal, that he who is the most liberal is sands. It was done, and now-a-days a dead most successful in business. Of course we do not horse's carcass, put in over night, is literally nothing but a neat and beautiful skeleton in the tive nearness to the earth. The moon, then, Oh, morning. The pecuniary saving to bone dealers Dr. Lardner !—or your shade, if you be deadfrom the voracity and gnawing propensities of does have an influence on the water? So it has on the rat family, is, I was told, very considerable. certain kinds of vegetation ; the sun-light has an
Our Yankee Frenchman did not, however, stop influence; the moun-light has also an influence. there. It was natural to suppose that rats, so For what, I would respectfully ask of the sarans, well fed and provided for, would rapidly increase was the moon made? To shine, say a fourth and multiplyhence the necessity of regulating part of the nights of the year, and “keep dark" the matter. Every three months a grand battue the balance ? Can “J. W. P." sleep as well on is made upon the aforesaid colony of rats, and all a moonlight night as on a dark one? It is not caught above ground die the death of rats. The the light in his room that causes him to be manner of doing this amused me. Horizontal wakeful, altogether; for he could sleep facing a and cylindrical holes are bored all around, in and lighted lamp—"cat-naps” at first, perhaps, if at the foot of the enclosing walls—the depth and not accustumed to the artificial light; but let diameter being respectively the length and thick- the full moon beam into his face, and he will lie ness of the rat’s body. Upon the morning of the awake for hours reviewing the sins of his past battue,' men armed with tin pans, kettles, drums, life. &c., rush in at the peep of day and charivari' Mr. Editor, on the whole, “J. W. P." did not the poor rats, who, frightened to death, poke write that article; if he did, let me ask of him their heads into the first opening. Of course, respectfully to take up an old-fashioned book, all those in the wall holes have tails sticking out. called the “Holy Bible,” and turn to the 330 The rat collector, with bag over his left shoul- chapter of Deuteronomy, read the 14th verse, and der, now makes a tour of the premises, and the let reflection have its “perfect work." scientific and rapid manner with which the rats
J. D. CANNING. are seized by the tail and safely (to both rats and operator) transferred to the bag, challenges ad- BOOK WORMS AND DUNCES. miration. It even surpasses the “Chiffonnier's' rag picking. Perhaps you wish to know what time in the perusal of antiquated works on agri
The difference between those who'sp nd a lifebecomes of the rats. These, also, are sold before culture, and those who never read at all, is much they are caught or killed. The privilege of gath- less than is generally supposed ; and while a thorering rats on the battue' days is farined out by ough reading of the current practical improve the authorities, and a profitable business it is. ments of the day is highly useful, the application These rats, sleek and fat as they necessarily are, of an antiquarian taste in the study of agriculture fetch a highly remunerative price—the fur, the is worse than useless. What can it avail to a skin, and the flesh, meet with ready sales. modern farmer, to know what were the processes
of a thousand years ago? What consequence For the New England Farmer.
can it be to him to know what crops could be "LUNAR INFLUENCES."
raised by the use of a wooden plow, or what was
the opinion of Jethro Tuli on matters which have I noticed in the Farmer, for February 17, a been materially improved and better understood short article headed “Lunar Influences." The since his time? Many of our agricultural works signed initials are those of one whom I know, by ure half filled with the bistory of agriculture, reputation, to be a judicious and practical man; with scarcely a pertinent word in relation to the and I was very sorry to see him express himself minutia of present processes. They remind us in the language of ridicule, dashed with bitter- of a work which has enjoyed some popularity, ness, as having no fellowship with the supersti- entitled "Hydraulics,” from which no artizan tious believers in lunar influence.
can learn how to build a pump. It is merely a The moon may have nothing to do with the revamping of Vitruveus and other writers, decutting and killing of brush ; but, somehow or scribing the modes of raising water by the Another, it will kill brush to cut them in the old of cients. An Examiner in the Patent Office migh the moon in August. I speak from experience, study the history of agricultural tools with profit, having first discovered the fact by accident, after for it would enable him to know what was strictly cutting the brush on the same land for two or new, but a farmer should study to know the best three years without any effect, unless it were to and most recent improvements of the day. He make them "renew their youth like the eagles.”' need not fear that any tools preceding those now The moon may have no influence upon vines ; in extended use, are superior, for had they been but, for some reason or other, vines planted in so, they would have remained in use. No set the old of the moon will be more fruitful than of artizans are so jealous of their old tools as those planted in the new, as “J. W. P." can farmers. Any new invention must be clearly very easily ascertain by experiment. Plant them proved to be superior to those which preceded it, so that the pollen will not mix, and try it. before it can find its way into the tool house of
I remember reading the lectures of one Dr. most farmers. The continued repetition and reLardner, a very learned and scientific man, who cital of agricultural processes of the ancients, run away with another man's wife, and laid although the fashion of the day, is like the refudown science to Uncle Sam's boys several years sal of our colleges to grant their honors to those ago. He ridiculed the superstitious traditions of who can substitute a knowledge of two of the farmers and the common people" concerning modern languages in place of one of the dead the influence of the moon on vegetation, The ones. Progression the order of the day, as same Dr. Lardner ascribed the cause of the tides well as the first law of nature, and fariners, beto the attraction of the sun and moon, princi- yond all others, should be the first to remember pally of the moon, on account of her compara-land obey this law.--Working Farmer.
able size may be judicious and safe. For instance, We are glad to see that the abominable prac- riant state, with dense heads, in which the fruit
in the case of neglected orchard trees, in a luxutice of docking and nicking horses is going out of fashion. Ii prevails in no country in the is deprived of air and light. In such cases, the world besides England and the United States ; face heals even more rapidly and smoothly than
branches may be thinned out and cut; the surwe got it from the mother country, and the sooner we leave it off the better. It is wonder- at any other time. But it is unsafe to produce fu! how any body but an ignorant, narrow- any very sensible diminution of foliage, as it arminded blockbead of a jockey should 'ever have rests the growth of the tree. thought of it-being as offensive to good taste as
All pruning in the growing season tends to arit is a violation of every human feeling. Has rest growth. Nurserymen know that a slight nature done her work in such a bungling man- pruning of stocks before budding will so arrest ner, in forming that paragon of animals, the growth as to make the bark adhere firmly; when, horse, that he requires to have a large piece of
before the pruning, it lifted freely. It is only on bone chopped off with an axe to reduce him to this principle that most all pruning, to promote symmetry? or that beauty and grace can be ob- fruitfulness, must be done at a point
of greater or tained only by cutting a pair of his large often resorted to as a means of subduing a super
less activity of growth. Late spring pruning is muscles. “The docking and nicking of horses,” says an
abundant vigor, and it has the same effect as root intelligent writer on Farriery, “is a cruel
prac- pruning to a certain extent.
Horticulturist. tice, and ought to be abandoned by the whole race of mankind. Every human being, possessed
For the New England Farmer. of a feeling heart and magnanimous mind, must confess that both the docking and nicking of
PIGS AND POULTRY. horses is cruel ; but that creature, called man,
Mr. Editor :- The following account, which attempts thus to mend the works of his Creator, I have kept for my own satisfaction, I had not in doing which he often spoils and disfigures thought of making public till recently, upon be them. What is more beautiful than a fine horse ing advised by a friend ; it is not as particular as with an elegant long tail and flowing mane, I should have kept it if designed for the public. waving in the sports of the wind, and exhibiting itself in a perfect state of nature? Besides, our
The 26th of July, 1853, I commenced my account
with 10 pigs, 6 weeks old, for which I charged Creator has given them to the horse for defence $3.50, or..
. $35.00 as well as beauty.” The same author relates an instance of a fine
From that time up to the 26th Feb., 1865, I have
given them 56 bags coro, 192 bushels cob corn, hunting horse owned by an Englishman, which 13 bushels barley, 4 bushels oats, 1536 pounds would carry his rider over the highest tive barred shorts, and 255 pounds rice, making an aggre
gate cost, including toll, of.. gate with ease; but he thought the horse did not carry as good tail as he wished; he therefore had Pigs, mother and all..
$328.20 him nicked, and when the horse got well, he In the spring of 1854, I had 6 pigs from the could scarcely carry him over two bars. “Thus,” mother, being her second litter, and & pigs froja said be, “I have spoiled a fine horse ; and no one of the 10 above named. I will now give you wonder, for it weakened him in his loins." Any an account of what I have received in return for man of common sense would cheerfully give ten all this outlay, first informing you that I kept per cent. more for a fine horse whose tail had my poultry out of the grain charged to the pigs, never been mutilated, than for one which had and also, what grain my horse has had has been been under the hands of a jockey.-Maine Far- taken from that, as it was not convenient to keep
In the spring of 1854, I killed 918 lbs. pork.... $100.98 PRUNING WHEN THE LEAVES ARE I sold 3 pigs for... ON.
I kiled 4 pigs July 3d for roasting, 76 lbs., 14c........10.64
During the last fall and winter killed 1700 lbs.........187.00 The only pruning we hold to be sound, safe
Have on hand one of the 10 I began with-one I lost...12.00
Grain for horse during the time.... and commendable, at this season, is that of the finger and thum',-in other words, pinching. It
$330.37 is quite inconsistent with good management to
Add to this for poultry sold during game time.
Eggs do. do..... rear a crop of good shoots at two or three inches growth before they attain to woodliness. This
$112.03 economizes the force of the tree, and turns it in- 'Leaving me $84 for about 250 bushels carrots I to a channel where it will promote instead of have given them. The manure, I think, will frustrating the ends we are aiming at. For in- pay for the trouble of tending them. I have stance, if we plant a young tree, and have it reckoned the pork at 11 cents per pound, as it trimmed with a view to a certain form, and, con- has averaged me that by cutting it up and selling trary to our expectations, a shoot breaks out at it in the form of ham, sausages and salt pork. I an unexpected point, and assumes a vigorous hab- could not have saved the expense had I sold them it, and robs all other parts, it would be evidently whole, at from 7 to 8 cents per pound, the marunwise to tolerate this intruder until it arrives at ket price. full growth and then cut it away. Too many It is my opinion, formed from this experience, trees are thus managed by the neglect of summer that if fariners will save their own corn, it will pruning or pinching. We admit, however, that pay well to raise hogs to fat. It is also my There are cases in which the summer pruning, or opinion that cob corn is the cheapest and best entire lopping off or cutting of limbs of consider-, food for hogs, till within a week or two of killing.