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from an acre of land under cabbage is, compara- handling necessary to gather and secure them. tively with most other crops, very large, and with When mowed, let the grass get fairly wilted and an extended knowledge of this fact, the cultiva- the moisture dried off while in the swath, with tion of it will be probably much extended. The perhaps, a single thorough shaking up and spreadland requires to be rich, deep, and somewhat ing, and then be put into cocks, and it may be moist. The rows should be at least 30 inches secured with very little loss. The partial fermenapart, and the plants not less than 24 or 26 inch- tation or "sweating” which it undergoes causes
The two best varieties for field cultivation but slight change in its constituent parts—Save are the Drumhead and the York.
that it separates the water therefrom, -and after standing thus twenty-four hours, it needs but
little after-tending to prepare it for the mow or HAY AND HAY-MAKING.
stacks, and has far less of that harsh or strawy A seasonable subject, truly, but one upon tendency which it would possess if cured in a difwhich we can hope to say little that will be new ferent manner. Care should be exercised in curto all our readers. But there are some things ing in this way, not to put up the hay before it which need to be repeated, as the season for at- is fully wilted, and that the cocks be small and tention to the subject returns, so we recall some well constructed, so that the "sweating” process facts and suggestions on Hay and Hay-making. may not be carried to excess, and induce so great In what stage of its growth grass should be cut, a fermentation as to decompose the sugar of the and how it should be cured, are questions of con-hay-changing it to alcohol and carbonic acid. siderable importance-but questions which are The weather has a great influence on the real not authoritatively decided. We will state some value of the hay crop, but that is a matter beyond facts relative to both subjects-drawn from our control. If one has hay down and the chemistry and analogy--but bearing more par- weather proves changeable, with frequent showers, ticularly in favor of early cutting and shade cur- the less the hay is stirred the better, for it will ing, which are thought by many of our most in- retain its value while lying wet in the swath, telligent farmers to secure the greatest nutritive much longer than if disturbed with repeated dryvalue of the hay.
ings and wettings. Nothing so injures hay as Chemistry shows us that all plants contain the washing by rains, and this, if many times relargest amount of matter solable in water at the peated, will totally destroy its value. period of flowering, and that the sugar and glu- We might add further practical directions in ten of the grass, and a few other soluble ingredi- regard to baying, but our present article is about ents, constitute its chief value as food for ani- as long as those interested will care to read, at mals. These rapidly diminish as the seed forms, this season. Beside, haying will not commence changing into insoluble woody fibre, and the hay, under a fortnight!— Rural New-Yorker. which should, as far as may be, resemble grass in its most perfect state, is worth much less if not made until after that period. There are but
BUTTER MAKING. few exceptions to this rule ; among these are the Kentucky blue grass, the June grass and some cities under the name of “Goshen,”' &c., and very
Not one pound in five of the butter sold in our others, which furnish but a light amount of stem little "country butter,” is fit for human use. and are most valuable for their leaves. They Butter makers should remember these few short continue growing through the summer, and
rules : hence may stand far past the flowering age beneficially
The newer and sweeter the cream, the sweeter Those who advise cutting bay when the seed and higher flavored will be the butter. is fully formed, bring forward as an argument The air must be fresh and pure in the room or in favor of the practice, the fact that hay made cellar where the milk is kept. from ripe grass yields the greatest amount of ex- The cream should not remain on the milk ove tract when boiled, and must therefore contain thirty-six hours. most nutriment, but it is now shown that the Keep the cream in tin pails or stone pots, inboiling very imperfectly imitates the process of to which put a spoonful of salt at the beginning, digestion, and both analysis, and experiment then stir the cream lightly each morning and evewith the living animal, confirm the fact that the ning; this will keep the cream from mouldering best hay is that made from grass cut and proper- or souring. ly cured when nearest the point of blossoming. Churn as often as once a week, and as much
The process of curing which shall most per- oftener as circumstances will permit. Upon fectly retain the nutritive properties present in
churning, add the cream upon all the milk in the the plant, is the best process. In drying herbs
dairy. for medicinal and culinary uses, the experience of many centuries teaches, that drying in the shade
Use nearly an ounce of salt to a pound of but
ter. is the only way to secure, to its fullest extent, the desired object. In making bay this cannot
Work the butter over twice, to free it from the be entirely accomplished, but the plan which buttermilk and brine, before lumping and packfollows it most closely, that of curing in the ing. swath and cock, is a good and safe one-advan- Be certain that it is entirely free from every tageous also, as requiring less exposure to inju- particle of buttermilk or coagulated milk, and it ry from rain than any other.
will keep sweet forever. In Scotland, a syphon is Clover hay and coarse herd's grass especially, sometimes used to separate the milk from the need to be cured in this way, as when dry, many cream, instead of skimming the pans.-Exleaves and blossoms drop off' and are lost by the change.
For the New England Farmer. a greater capacity to endure beating, thus gradITEMS FROM IOWA, &c.
uating mercy, after all.
Your May number has something to say about MR. EDITOR :-My last items to you were of climates, &c., and I have always found, in all January 21st, and up to that date we had weather places, that the thrifty had a plenty to do at all as remarkable for mildness, as it has been re- seasons ; if not hauling and cutting wood, pitchmarkable for its severity, the remainder of the ing hay, &c. The different climates have differwinter. Our spring is about three weeks later ent products that demand attention in winterthan that of the previous year. We had frag- preparing tobacco for market, ginning cotton, ments of snow in April. We have had two co-hulling rice, making sugar and molasses, and pious rains this spring, and the ground is tol- preparing the ground for the next crop. This, I erably well saturated.
presume, was calculated for a busy world, and a Winter wheat never looked more promising little experience suggests that the comforts of here, and from reports, I judge the crop is un- climate are more nearly equalized than is geneusually promising throughout the western States. rally supposed. Southern winters are generally Probably there has been an unusual quantity of delightful; but even there, where there is no spring wheat sown. Judging from present indi- piercing cold, the system is sometimes chilled, cations, there is every hope that there will be an shivering and torpid. If the South has delightabundance of food at lower prices than the present. ful winters, the North has delightful summers.
There is now a fair promise of a good crop of In all warm climates, noxious insects have a fruit, of every description. Even peaches, in longer season of multiplication, and, without exsome locations, promise a feast. Since the above perience, you can hardly, appreciate the absence was written, we have had two severe frosts, on of musquetoes, fleas, gauze-winged feas, &c., &c. the 8th and 9th of May, which, perhaps, have a feverish patient never longed for a cooling taken a few facts from my calculations on fruit. draught more than I have, in a warm climate, However, of that I may report hereafter. for one summer night's rest, such as I have had
Corn is one of our staple crops in fact, it is in New England climate, such as you all genethe reliable crop, failing last year as an excep- rally have refreshing sleep. tion. The mode of cultivation of corn here may It is said that Zeuxis, the celebrated painter of be new to some of your new subscribers. Plow- Athens, when required to paint a model of beauty, ing is usually done with horses—a good span chose six of the handsomest ladies of the city, plowing about two acres per day. It is then that he might select the peculiar beauty of each furrowed off with a small plow, about three and to combine in one Helen. If we could select the a half to four feet between furrows, then crossed desired portions of the year of a half a dozen with furrows at right angles. The corn is dropped climates to make one, even then we would probaat the crossings, and usually covered with a hoe, bly croak a little, by dint of habit. And if one though frequently with a horse and shovel plow, climate alone possessed all the advantages, that or some other similar implement. When the alone would be inhabited, and we would quarrel corn becomes large enough to be worked, it is for elbow room. plowed both ways of the rows until about the "A Reader,” who reviewed the Monthly for first of July, then the corn is left to its own care, March, expressed a desire for a few more items and wheat harvest demands the attention of "all from “Nemo," before “the shakes should carry hands.” Seldom is a hoe in a corn-field after him from gay to grave, and never bring him back planting. A man and a horse can usually "tend” again." "The shakes!” What terror in that from twenty to thirty acres of corn, usually yield- word! “Distance lends” magnitude to the word. ing from forty to sixty bushels per acre. Åbout When you are right among the shakes,” they September, corn enough for fodder for stock is are a mere trifle—a bad dream-nothing after it cut and put in shock; the remainder remains in is over. It is only freezing a little too cold, and the field and is “shucked” at leisure, from No- thawing a little too hot-a little periodic variety, vember to January. A two horse wagon passes that can be stopped when you are tired of it. along the rows, and the corn, as it is shucked,” From ten to twenty grains of quinine, taken after is thrown into the wagon and conveyed to the the dream is past, is sure death on the shakes, corn-crib, which is frequently nothing but a rail- only they are a leetle hydra-like. I ought to pen. Sod ground is seldom planted to corn. know, "I'm experienced. I've tried it on myThe same ground is frequently planted year after self a hundred times, and it never failed. I keep year in corn, without manuring. Let no one quinine "constantly on hand," and begin to like suppose that there are no weeds in the virgin it. No Maine law against my bitters. soil. It is full of them--more rampant than in Burlington, Iowa, May 25, 1855. NEMO. New England, and would destroy any corn crop if not sul dued. Better culture would raise more corn, but it is a question whether it would pay
HOEING IN DRY WEATHER. at past prices.
Experience has fully established the fact that It would amuse a Yankee teamster to see a corn, and other crops, are essentially benefited western man drive an ox team, sitting, usually, by hoeing in dry weather, but the reason wby, or on the wagon, with a long lash and a cracker at-tħe manner how it is done, is not so generally tached to a long pole, wielded with both hands, understood. That moisture is formed by stirring almost constantly lashing and cracking his team, the dry particles of earth and changing their relaccompanied by a generous expenditure of breath, ative positions, is generally admitted. and often trotting his unloaded team like stage Water is composed of oxygen and nitrogen. horses. Oxen are presumed to be less deserving These substances are also contained in different mercy than horses—perhaps because they have proportions, in the earth and atmosphere, and are, to some extent, formed by the action of dif- reel, and it became clogged in going a few feet; ferent particles of earthy matter upon each other, it was cleared and tried again and again, as at when brought into contact, as done by hoeing: first, but with no better success. The Ketchum Water acts as a solvent of other substances, and machine was then tried and worked well, giving holds them in solution so that they can be taken decided satisfaction to those present. One of up by the roots, and made to nourish the growing Manny's machines was then tried, with the reel plant. This is the reason why it is best to sow attached, but with no better success.
It was or plant seeds as soon as possible after the land then frankly acknowledged by the agent that the has been plowed or harrowed. The different par- machine would not work in such grass in its ticles of matter coming together, form new rela- present construction. The Ketchum machine tions and produce a chemical action, during which was purchased by me at this last trial for the use heat is evolved, and oxygen and hydrogen are of the alms-house farm, in this city. The last generated and caused to unite, and form water, trial, above named, was on the 29th of June, last which, with other substances, act upon the seeds past. Earl C. Briggs, Keeper of Alms-House. and produces germination, and gives to the new- New Bedford, July 5, 1855. born plant a vigorous start into existence. After the soil has remained quiet for some time, these substances having exhausted their energy, by
For the New England Farmer. neutralizing the powers of each other, the plant DOES THE CURCULIO PUNCTURE THE having absorbed all the elements of nutrition within reach of its roots, it growth becomes re
APPLE ? tarded, and can only be restored by renewing the It certainly does. I have repeatedly caught it chemical action. This can be done by applying in the very act, as for several years I have been some compost manure, or by hoeing or stirring watching with much anxiety the operations of this the earth, so as to bring different particles into insect upon my own fruit, consisting of some contact with each other and forming new com- scattered old trees, a few in the garden, and an binations, and consequently, thus producing a orchard set out in 1850. And I have often exfurther supply of nutritious matter. Corn, that pressed my fears that unless there is some check is hoed every two or three weeks, will come to upon the operations of the curculio, it will soon maturity sooner, produce more, and be better be as difficult in my section to raise either apples filled on the cob, than it will when treated in the or peaches as it now is to raise plums. For the usual way. We would recommend to our far- last six years, nearly every apple of the few gathmers to select two or three rows in the field, and ered from my scattered trees has been more or hoe it regularly once in two or three weeks, and less deformed by the punctures of the curculio, in the fall inform us of the results of their exper- Even the fruit of an unusually sour and crabbed iments.--Anon.
"Native” has been as badly used as the more val
uable varieties. Indeed, I noticed last year, For the New England Farmer. what I thought a little strange,--that the fairTRIAL OF MOWING MACHINES.
skinned Porter grafted into an old tree with sev
eral other varieties, was much less hacked than GENTLEMEN : Having seen an article in your the other kinds. My young trees have borne a paper, copied from the Telegraph, giving an ac- very little fruit for three years past, but I saw count of a trial of mowing machines at Dedham, nothing of the curculio among them until last and which report seems to convey the idea that year, and then in but two or three trees. This Manny's machine was generally considered the year I believe their marks are to be seen on every best, and learning from an eye-witness that the tree that has set any fruit. I have spent considgrass was very light, I write to give my brother- erable time in jarring the scamps upon a sheet, as farmers the result of my experiments with it. recommended in case of plums, and have had the
My first trial was in clover, a portion of which satisfaction of grinding scores of them between was lodged, with much old stubble at the bottom; the thumb and finger. the machine became clogged in going a few rods. The statement of Mr. Wyman agrees perfectly It was then cleared and tried again and again, with my observation of the effects of this insect until I became satisfied that it would not work upon the apple. But as it “stings” my peaches
as well as apples, I should not expect any great I then informed the agent for selling, of whom advantage from cutting down the apple trees and I had previously purchased it, and requested him setting out peach trees in their place, as he proto inform the company that the machine would poses, now that the curculio has possession of the not work in such grass. 1 then took of the agent ground. for selling the Ketchum machine, one of his on As to remedies or preventives, I have not a trial; tried it the same day, in the same grass, word of encouragement, except by reference to and it worked to my entire satisfaction—it cut the early promise that man was to have dominion the grass close and smooth. After this, I was in "over every creeping thing that creepeth upon formed by the agent for selling the Manny ma- the earth,' and to a faint hope that man” may chine that by attaching the reel to the machine, yet perceive that his mission” is rather to subit would work well, and to my satisfaction. due the earth than his fellows.
The mayor, some of the aldermen, and several A neighbor who succeeds in raising large crops practical farmers, had an invitation, and were of plums informs me that he has tried all such present, to witness the second trial of the two prescriptions for the soil, as salt, lime, ashes, &c., machines, which was in an old meadow, that cut and found them utterly inefficacious for the deabout two tons on an average per acre. struction of the curculio, and that he now de
The Manny machine was first tried without the pends mainly upon his thumb and fingers. Last
in such grass.
year I cooped a hen and brood of chickens under the noble destiny of man. His “Wall Street" an apple tree in the garden ; but I jarred upon is the field of noble toil and honest gain. His is the sheet as many curculios from that tree, as not the interest of usury, not an insidious specufrom the others without the chickens.
lating scheme to entrap his neighbors, and bring Winchester, July, 1855.
their children to want. No "fancy stocks” are
jobbed at his farm. He deals in a substance, For the New England Farmer.
wrought out by the plow and the sickle. His
“broker's office" is the leanto and the sheepCITY AND COUNTRY LIFE. fold, where the fleece is nurtured and matured MR. EDITOR :—Real life in city or country can for honest humanity, not to impoverish and only be measured by actual residence and posi- starve his neighbor by fleecing his pockets. tive experience. While a city life presents its
In stating the case, it is without desire of exdaily changing phases, its Babel tongues, its con- aggeration, or to overdraw the picture. Whatfused, fierce commotion-country life leads on to ever deductions may be made, let the candid inquiet, sweetened with the genial breeze, far quirer decide what is the difference between away from the great cess-pools of vice, the mind city and country life. rallies with new hope and contentment in its
Brooklyn, L. I., June 16. allotted home. r Why this itching for city life? Is it for
FARMERS' MEETING AT HILLSriches, so easily gained, ani so suddenly lost? Is it the millinery and fancy trappings of life
BOROUGH BRIDGE. that so fascinate us? Is it to witness beggars by The President being absent, Col. Hiram Monscores who are sure to make their professional roe, of Hillsborough, one of the Vice Presidents, calls about breakfast time? Is it to be jostled took the chair. The meeting was organized by by the multitude, the thunder of carriages, dust, choosing Brooks Shattuck, of Bedford, Secretary smoke and confusion, that we so love? Is it to pro tern. meet with better, or more chaste society? Is it The Chairman announced the subject for disto improve and elevate our morals? Is it because cussion to be, The Winter Management of Stock, we are beset with less danger? Is it the safer and having been appointed to open the discussion, playhouse for our children? Is it that less of he proceeded to remark that he considered the thieves, burglars, lewd and lascivious nature, rearing and management of Stock of great imporshall meet us at every corner ? Where will such tance to the farmers of the county. The kind of like questions end?
stock kept, the care, food and manner of feeding, In this mass of all nations, in this multitude, should claim his attention ; thought cattle should with and without occupations, we are overwhelmed be fed at regular intervals—considered that roots with the one idea—how do they all live ?" were of great benefit to cattle, fed in connection
But not to penetrate city life any longer, let with dry hay; that roots however should be fed us look through the bars and see what there is regularly through the feeding season ; had obinviting in country life.
served that when he had fed them a part of the The larch tree in the forest—the sweet bloom winter, and then discontinued them, cattle seemed of the orchard, the clover-head that sweetens the to derive little good from them; he would proair, the bird that sings us to sleep at evening, portion the daily quantity so that it should be and awakens us in the grey of the morning, the equal through the feeding season, “babbling brook,” the waving wheat-field, the He had experimented on two heifers, giving to farmer's new hay, the vernal breeze with its one good hay, and to the other a few carrots in balm of a thousand flowers," how they en- connection with the hay. In the spring the one chant the uncaged bird when thrown from the that had the carrots had made more Aesh and meshes of city confinement.
was much the best through the next season. There, we meet no "fashionable" silken trails, Mr. Monroe usually lets his cattle out at 9 or sweeping clean the side-ways, to be trodden upon 10 o'clock A. M., and ties up again at 2-feeds by dirty boots, (a daily occurrence in Broad- all his fodder in the barn except some that is very way.)
poor. There, the little girls wend their way to school Mr. Charles Gates, of Antrim, said that in orin comely attire, perchance to worry a butterfly, der to get a good animal, the foundation must be or disturb the Quaker Grasshopper” in his laid the first year ; he had been successful in rear-. dusty nook. What rural, charming, child-like ing calves without milk, by giving one-third barsports, compared with her little ragged sister, ley to two-thirds oatmeal made into a porridge ; whose city occupation in rainy days is to stand calves fed upon this had made as much growth as with bare, beef-red feet, ankle deep in cold mud, upon milk. sweeping the cross-walks for gentlemen's clean Mr. Gates thought much benefit was derived boots, and as they pass she says, reaching out her from cutting the fodder fed to cattle ; he had kept hand with an upward, imploring look, please give a horse through the winter on oat straw and hay me a penny, sir,” and too often, is the cold, cut and well mixed together, the nett cost of heartless response "get out of my way.” Are which did not exceed ten dollars, exclusive of the there no tears for this ragged child?
labor of preparing the food, and of feeding it [ While the merchant madly or even cautiously out. pursues his work of gain, 95 per cent. of his We did not understand whether Mr. Gates adnumber fail of success. Not so with the far- ded meal of any kind to his straw and hay; but mer,--he rarely fails; inspired with the breeze conclude they get a dusting from the meal bag. that waves his corn and freshens his soul with James Walker, Esq., of Belford, remarked hope, satisfied with moderate gains, he dignifies that he had paid much attenti in to the rearing
and crossing of stock, and like Mr. Gates, would to them came up accidentally a pumpkin which lay the foundation for a good animal during the likewise bore well; he saved some of the squash first year; this he would do by giving the light- seeds, and planted them a year ago last spring, er part of the milk, or that which remains after they came up in appearance summer squashes; the milkmaid has taken a portion.
some came up squashes and some bore a fruit reMr. Walker expressed the opinion that the sembling in part a squash, about half as large as parsnip was much the best root to feed out to a pumpkin. He planted the seed from these last stock ; that cattle should be tended regularly spring, and the product was diminutive in size and treated kindly; that bedding down at night and poor in quality. Hence he contended that added to their comfort; he disliked to have his different kinds of vegetables of the same species, cattle remain out late in the afternoon.
producing fruit from the blossom should not be Mr. Walker presented to the meeting a speci- planted near each other, especially if intended men of the parsnip that he raises; they were of for seed, lest the product should become worse mammoth size and length, and indicate that instead of better. friend Walker has taken advantage of the quite
Remarks were made by Messrs. Prichard, of recent discovery that we farmers have a farm Deering, Morse, of Francestown, and Shattuck under a farm.
of Bedford. B. F. Cutter, of Pelham, said that he had not On motion the thanks of the Society were prepaid much attention to the raising of stock; but sented to Mr. Cutter for his address, and a copy from reading and observation, he was convinced requested for the press. that much improvement had been made in rela
Brooks SHATTUCK, Sec. pro lem. tion to the kind kept, to food and general treatment; thought kind treatment of much impor
For the New England Farmer. tance, and placed much stress on regular feeding. Some milkmen in his vicinity were in the habit
CUTTING OF GRASS. of keeping their cows in the barn through the Mr. Editor :- I this morning heard a converentire day, and thought that by so doing they sation between two of my neighbors, practical, obtained more milk than where their cows re- thinking men, a brief sketch of which I will enmained out a portion of the day.
deavor to give ; perhaps it may induce others to Mr. Morris, of Hillsborough, remarked that think on the subject. Says A to B, “When shall although he was not a farmer, yet he had em- you commence cutting your grass ?". B replies, ployed oxen and horses on heavy stone teams, Next week, I think ; my grass has thickened up and was satisfied that cattle would do more work much of late, and now promises quite a fair crop, and stand it better fed on cut feed, with meal ad- of more than a ton to the acre.
Says A, "How ded, than when fed on dry hay, with the meal much have you ?” B replies, "Something over given separately. He was acquainted in Caledo- fifty acres of upland mowing, besides runs and nia County, Vermont, and had noticed there the meadows.” Says A, “Why don't you get one of cross of the Devon with the best native, as excel- the mowing machines, now so much spoken of, by lent milch cows; he had also noticed that farm- means of which more than half the expense of ers in the upper part of the State, were in the cutting can be saved ?” Says B, "I have been habit of letting their cattle (young?), remain in thinking of this, but am not fully satisfied that the yards during the night, having sheds for them it would be to me any saving worthy of notice. to go under in stormy weather.
In the first place, I shall have to expend between At this point in the discussion it was voted to three and four hundred dollars to obtain a maadjourn until 2 o'clock.
cbine, and a team to work it, as I have but one On meeting after the adjournment the discus- horse, the wear and tear of which, with the insion was profitably continued until 3 o'clock, terest on the cost, cannot be estimated less than when the chairman introduced to the meeting fifty dollars a year—a sum about equal to oneB. F. Cutter, of Pelham, who gave a very in- half the whole expense of gathering in my crop. structive and practical address on Fruit Culture. I have generally found, when I have a fair gang
After the address, Mr. Wallace, of Bedford, of hands, that I can get into my barn as many suggested by way of inquiry, whether the graft- tons of hay in the month of July, as they perform ing of different kinds of fruit near each other, or days' labor, so that it does not cost me more than the grafting of good fruit near the common stock, two dollars a ton to get my hay. Then there is did not cause a deterioration in the quality of the so much uncertainty about the working of these fruit. He inferred that this might be the case machines, and the kind of machine to be prefrom the fact that the different kinds of the same ferred, that I have concluded to wait until the species would mix through the blossom. All had committees, who are investigating the matter, are no doubt observed this peculiarity in the mixture ready to report. How much more will then be of different kinds of corn; the same was equally known that can be relied on, will depend sometrue in regard to every other vegetable, some will thing upon the practical knowledge of the commix at greater distances than others. Botanists mittee themselves. I do not think much of the have given one instance at least where the pollen opinions of gentlemen, clad in kid gloves, of the had been carried twenty-five miles. Though he value of farm implements. As to all the labors doubted the accuracy of this statement, it was an of the farm, I much prefer the conclusions of unquestionable fact that different kinds of vege- those who have been accustomed to labor with tables of the same species or genus would mix. their own hands.” Mr. Wallace stated à fact that came under his
July 4, 1855. own observation. Two years ago last spring, he planted some summer squash seeds which came 3 Keep your implements always in order. Reup and flourished, producing abundantly; near member the proverb, “a stitch in time saves nine."