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the day time, thus virtually saying to him :.“ my amounts of rent are payable in wheat, or a cash dear little fellow, I value your services, and will do equivalent, on the first of January each year ; and all I can for your comfort.”.
With a proper appreciation for his services, and as two parties are deeply interested in the price, it care for his preservation, the toad will become quite is probably the most reliably correct of any record domesticated, and will continue his valuable work, that can be obtained. The list commences in 1793, for years, simply for his “board and lodging." when the price was 75 cents a bushel—only five Those who wantonly destroy the toad, should be times in the sixty-one years wheat has been $2 or classed with those who kill harmless and useful birds.
upward, per bushel, while it was seventeen times at
Only Some years ago a family in Braceville, Trumbull $1 or under—twice at seventy-five cents. county, observed one day, in the hall of the house, a once in thirty-seven years, that is since 1817, to wit large toad, leaping along in an orderly and moder- in 1837, has it reached $2. The average price for ate way towards the dining-room door. It entered the whole period is $1 38. For the last 30 years the room and took a circuit around, then stationed itself between the door and a window, and sat there
it is $1 25. all day; whenever a fly came near enough he would catch it, and as this was quite often, the work of ex
ECONOMIC CULTIVATION. termination went on bravely; sometimes he would We have repeatedly seated ourselves with the inspring up a foot or more for a fly upon the wall. tent of writing upon the best mode of cultivating At sundown he went out to enjoy the refreshing the various crops, and almost as often have we actucoolness of the evening, and probably the society of ally had our attention turned to and written upon his kindred. The next day, to the surprise of the some other topic. The reason is this: No one, family, he came in and took the same place by the except the favored few who have all the means at door, and so continued to do during the whole sum- command needful in carrying out their plans of mer. The family whose premises were so uncere- farm operations, can do hálf as well as they know moniously occupied, being aware of the useful and how to do. Their land is poor, and they have not harmless nature of their visitor, and being curious the means of enriching it. Tell a man
a purse to learn its habits, allowed it to remain. Thus the full of gold is only an inch beyond his utmost reach, toad carried on the war against the flies, until au- and you do him no good but to excite feelings of tumn, when they, having become greatly reduced in discontent and envy, and even lead him to forego numbers, and it being difficult for him any longer certain improvements which are within his reach, to obtain supplies by forage, he concluded to go into because they pay so little compared with what he is “winter quarters.” Immediately on the opening of really anxious but unable to do. Poverty is a territhe spring campaign, however, he was at his old post. ble burden, and nowhere is it felt more than among His message to the flies, as near as can be ascertain- intelligent farmers. ed, was, “ Come, and I'll take you ;" they came, Notwithstanding these difficulties, we would now were seen, and were swallowed. The enemy being urge this class of farmers, first, to expend their immensely numerous, the war was carried on in the labor and their fertilizers upon a much smaller same way, and in the same place, for six years, the quantity of land than is usually done. Instead of toad meinwhile having grown strong and increased planting five acres of corn, plant two, or even one ; in stature, and having regularly spent every night and plow and cultivate this small field to the entire in skylarking.
neglect, if need be, of other acres. If those lie falHe was cool and prompt in action, and moreover low it will be useful to the soil, and at least no a very slippery antagonist; whenever anything was money will be wasted upon them. said to him by any person passing his stand, his We say to such farmers, in the second place, you eyes would twinkle in a very pleasant way. The can do more than you have done in the preparation only weapon he ever used was his tongue, which of various composts. There are very few farmers was very long and rough. The human tongue is who can not double and treble the quantity and value known to be an exceedingly formidable weapon, but of these necessary means of restoring vigor to wornno one has been known to be swallowed outright by out and barren soils. By diminishing the extent its means, though a great many have been taken in. of surface under cultivation, and by proper industry
Sometimes a fly would light within a foot of in preparing composts, there is scarcely a farm in toady, and sit rubbing its miraculous little feet with the country that can not be made to produce its great delight apparently, when the toad, imitating sixty, and seventy, and eighty bushels of corn to the the notorious Jeffreys, would “give him a lick with acre. And even though one acre only is brought the rough side of his tongue," and the poor fly up to this desirable condition, a series of years will would be condemned and executed instantly. suffice to bring the whole farm to a high state of
In one respect, however, the immortal Jeffreys cultivation. It only small fields are made thus prohad the advantage of the toad, for he could "smell ductive, the hopes and courage of the farmer will a puritan a mile off,” he said, while the toad had no be thereby excited, and he will stand up manfully sense of smell apparently, but was in point of prac- among men, and tell of his success as well as they.
We would not advise farmers of limited means to tice all tongue.- Ohio Farmer.
buy guano nor phosphates at anything like their
present prices. Pay your poorer neighbor his six THE PRICE OF WHEAT.—Hunt's Merchants' or eight shillings a day (if you cannot exchange Magazine publishes a table of the price of wheat at
work with him) to help you collect leaves from the Albany, on the first day of January for sixty-one after it is tolerably dry, peat or marl from the bog';
forest, mud from the meadow, carting the latter only years. It is from the minutes kept at the office of and if you can buy barn-yard manures, mix them the Van Rensselaer Manor, at Albany, where large with turfs, sods, roots, weeds, dirty straw, spoilt hay,
chips that are unfit to burn; and if you are conve- the animal sweats freely, the skin being tender is niently situated for it, get sea-weeds from the sea-scalded, and then galled. shore, oyster shells, old bones, horns, etc., etc. Now, prevention is better than cure. A cooling Dead animals are of great value. The offal from application, that will toughen the skin before use, a slaughter-house, worthless scraps of hides, BONES, and prevent inflammatory action when used, is what etc., etc., should be used only with large quantities is needed for the work horse. From long expeof common soil, or of some other solvent. Not one rience, I have found these results to follow the use in a hundred turns to the best account the contents of spirits saturated with alum. I keep a bottle of of privies, hog-pens, soap-suds, and other kinds of alum and whiskey in the stable, and bathe the part waste.
pressed by the hames, or breast-collar, and also the Pardon us for asking why will you tax yourselves back, for several days, before the horses commence so severely by neglecting any of these modes of im- their spring work, and also along through the seaproving your lands? It may be only such neglect son occasionally, when there is special danger of that keeps you in poverty; and though you enter scalding the breast. I have thus passed entire seaupon the work with many painful doubts in rela- sons, employing constantly not less than five horse tion to the result, we will assure you against loss teams in farming uses, and have not lost the service from any such operations, if conducted with tolerable of a horse a single day, for years together, on acdiscretion.
count of sore back or breast. This remedy will enNow is the time to commence this system of able a sore to heal, although the animal continues in operation for the next year. On every leisure day, constant use. let the time be occupied in these preparatory labors. Now the remedy I have seen most frequently and Every hour thus spent is worth something, and will highly recommended is the application of white lead, tend to fill your purse at the time of harvest. in some form or other, to the injured part. I have
Almost all farmers sadly neglect their barn-yard at an early period tried this remedy-have used it manures. Were these properly cared for, their when I knew nothing better—but dislike it much. value, as a whole, would be more than double. It answers the purpose, I acknowledge,-makes a
Having thus suggested the means by which man- hard, tough scab or incrustation on the sore, likely ures may be provided, the next inquiry is, how and to terminate in a white spot, if the hair ever grows. where shall they be used ? Perhaps we are unable But I consider this tanning the skin into leather, to give the information that many would desire, for while on the horse's carcass, to be a tough business, reasons suggested in the last number. Perhaps you to say the least.—Wool Grower. have an enclosure that for many years produced very large crops, and you just looked on and watched your opportunity to take from it the most you
IRON SETTEES FOR PIAZZAS AND could get, returning nothing to it. It may be that
GARDENS. it is so situated that it is almost able to take care of itself, like much of the interval on the Connecticut, which is annually enriched by being overflowed. If this is so, we should labor to hasten this process of improvement, and should do all in our power to get this soil back into the condition of a fertile field. When this is accomplished, take the next promising lot, leaving the more desperate cases to the last. When you plow your clayey grounds, fill in, without stint, a sandy compost. If the field is sandy, plow in a clay compost. This need not be a costly job, but generally is practicable for the poorest farmer. If you have a boggy meadow, a thorough The first engraving represents a fancy pattern ditching will be a part of the process necessary in Settee for Piazzas; there are a variety of sizes and reclaiming it, while the material thus thrown out is exactly what some other soil most needs. Compen- patterns, some very heavy and rich; the second, sations are not found only in the structures of ani- represents a Rustic Settee for gardens; there are mals, but they occur in almost every farm the world two sizes, designed for two or three persons. These over.—The Plough, Loom and Anvil.
Settees are for sale by Ruggles, Nourse, Mason &
Co., Quincy Hall. GALLS ON HORSES. MR. EDITOR: I have noticed lately in several agricultural papers remedies suggested for galls on horses. Canal horses are more cruelly galled than horses in any other service. Generally they lie idle during the winter season. To a considerable extent, also, the horses of the farmer are but little used during the winter, especially when more than one span is employed on the farm. Ordinarily a single pair is well fed on grain so as to do the chief portion of the winter work, and the rest are kept at a cheaper rate, and do little or no work until spring. The result is, the breast and back of horses thus
Butter is selling in different parts of Ohio at idle become tender, and when the hard work of from 10 to 13 cents; cheese 6 to 8 cents; and eggs spring commences, and the weather is warm and 8 to 10 cents.
For the New England Farmer.
non; and he kept up a frequent and systematic corWASHINGTON AS AN AGRICULTURIST. respondence with his superintendent, giving the BY FREDERICK HOLBROOK.
most particular directions about the farming, and We might almost say that the wealth of our lan- requiring, in return, full and regular reports of opguage has been exhausted, in the many efforts erations, of the condition of the laborers and the which have been made delineating those qualities of stock, the products raised, expenses incurred, and goodness and greatness which formed the character other matters of interest. of Washington; and yet we all feel that his merits
At the close of the war, and immediately on reand virtues have not been overstated, that he is the signing his commission in the army, he returned to peculiar ornament of human nature, and by univer- Mount Vernon, with the determination to pass the sal consent, “the father of his country.” He has remainder of life in rural occupations and enjoyperhaps been most commonly viewed in the light of ments. He at once engaged most zealously in the his military and civil services; but an examination improvement of his farming and his breeds of do of his habits and sentiments as connected with farm- mestic animals; in fitting up the farm-buildings ; ing, whether in a public or private character, shows adorning the grounds around the mansion-house him in quite another light, and in this view we feel with trees and shrubs, and by laying out tasteful that he is entitled to the peculiar regard of the ag- walks ; arranging anew the vegetable garden ; ricultural community.
pruning and training the orchards with his own A friend recently sent me a volume of Washing-hands; replenishing the orchards, gardens and ton's letters to Sir John Sinclair, of England,—the green-houses with new and rare varieties of trees, perusal of which led me to realize more fully than vegetables, shrubs, and flowering plants, procured ever before the great predilections of their illustri- in this and foreign countries. Through his corresous author for the pursuits of agriculture, and his pondents in Great Britain, he obtained skilful garpractical acquaintance with its principles ; and in- deners and farmers to assist him ; also through those duced me to examine other publications within correspondents came new and desirable field and reach, which disclose his connection with the sub- other seeds, farm implements and tools for conductject. The volume of letters to Sinclair contains ing his operations—the country being then too about fifty pages in quarto or letter-sheet form, the young to furnish such helps; also, from the same contents being engraved from the original letters, source, the works of the best British writers on agso as to be an exact fac simile of Washington's riculture, which he attentively studied, drawing handwriting. They represent a very round, full and from them such principles as could be advantalegible hand, read with entire ease at first sight. geously applied in his farming, and which his emiThe letters are models of a good epistolary style of nently sagacious mind knew how to draw out and composition, expressing the views of the author reduce to practice. It was his habit to rise early, with eminent propriety, discrimination and sound despatch necessary letters before breakfast, and sense, and disclosing an intimate knowledge of the that meal finished, to mount his horse and ride over subjects discussed. They are particularly honora- the farms, giving directions for the operations of ble to the author, as coming from him while chief the day. He kept a diary for several years, in magistrate of the United States, at a time when which was noted the kind and quantity of work everything connected with the administration of the done each day on the farms; the times of planting government was new and untried, and to be wrought or sowing the fields; of gathering the crops; the out and established without the aid of precedent, expenses of cultivating, and the product of each making his public labors most arduous and inces- crop, with the balance for or against each field in a sant; and when most other public men would have given year; and every other circumstance which found no time for such a correspondence, or would would enable him to draw useful conclusions about perhaps have deemed the subjects discussed be the details of cultivation and to enlarge his knowlneath their notice.
edge of farming by experience. He engaged in corWhen Washington assumed command of the ar-respondence upon agricultural topics with men in my, he committed the care of his estates to a rela- this country and Great Britain, distinguished by tive in whom he reposed special confidence. He their knowledge of such matters, as well as entergave full and minute directions for the conduct of tained many such at his house; and his thoughts the farming, taking away with him drawings and never flowed more enthusiastically, nor his pen more charts of each farm and subdivided field, and leav- forcibly and practically, than when writing on these ing duplicates with his superintendent, so that in fu- subjects
, speaking of his fondness for agricultural ture correspondence particular references might be pursuits
, and of their claims not only upon the inmade to any portions of the estates, and be readily telligent citizen, but upon the statesman and patriot. understood by both parties. In the midst of the In these, to him, delightful occupations, he fondly most stirring and eventful scenes of the war, his hoped to pass the remnant of his life. Writing to mind constantly reverted to his farms at Mount Ver- Lafayette during this period, he remarks :—“I am be
NEW ENGLAND FARMER.
come a private citizen on the banks of the Potomac ; ing them down when in blossom, and sowing wheat and under the shadow of my own vine and my own on the land in the fall. fig-tree, free from the bustle of a camp, and the busy Washington's agricultural correspondence during scenes of public life, I am solacing myself with those the period of retirement after the close of the war tranquil enjoyments, of which the soldier, who is is very interesting, and shows the ardor with which ever in pursuit of fame, the statesman, whose watch- he engaged in farming. My limits will not allow ful days and sleepless nights are spǝnt in devising me to go much into this view of him, but I canschemes to promote the welfare of his own, per- not forbear showing a little of it. haps the ruin of other countries, as if this globe In a letter to a friend, Sept. 20, 1785, he rewere insufficient for us all, and the courtier, who is marks, “that he has long been convinced that the always watching the countenance of his prince, in bed of the Potomac before his door contains an inhopes of catching a gracious smile, can have very exhaustible fund of manure ; and that if he could little conception. I have not only retired from all adopt an easy, simple and expeditious method of public employments, but I am retiring within my- raising and taking it to the land, it might be conself, and shall bc able to view the solitary walk, and verted to useful purposes.” He then inquires with tread the paths of private life, with a heartfelt satis- particularity about a machine recently invented, faction. Envious of none, I am determined to be which his friend knows all about, and which he pleased with all; and this, my dear friend, being the thinks may be adapted to his purpose for raising order of my march, I will move gently down the the mud into scows, in which it could be floated to stream of life, until I sleep with my fathers." the shore.
The Mount Vernon estates consisted of five He frequently corresponds with Arthur Young, farms—Mansion House Farm; Union Farm ; Dogue
of England, who had kindly offered to supply him Run Farm; Muddy Hole Farm, and River Farm ;
with men for his farming and gardening, with cat-containing in all over 3500 acres of arable land, tle, implements and tools, seeds and books, or anybesides large tracts of woodland. Washington em-thing else that might contribute to his wants and ployed his talent as a practical surveyor in dividing
his rural amusements. Washington often remarks these farms into regular fields, which were all num
to his correspondent, upon the satisfaction he de bered, and their area of acres ascertained.
rives from his pursuits at Mount Vernon, and genField-books were prepared, in which with his own
erally requests seeds, books and implements to be sent hands, were placed nicely-drawn plans and charts of to him. In one letter he orders two plows of the the farms and their subdivision into fields. He care- most approved construction, and suitable for two fully studied a rotation of crops best adapted to his horses, and remarks that he has been using the lands, and varying on the different farms and fields Rotherham patent plow from England, and likes it of a farm, to suit their respective peculiarities of soil;
much; he also orders a great variety of seeds, and and by various practical trials and observation of re-inquires for suitable English and Scotch farmers to sults, at length established a system of cropping manage his laborers and stock at Mount Vernon ; which was adhered to, with but slight variations, also desires from Mr. Young a plan of the most through life. Tables were prepared of the rotation complete and useful farm-yard, comprehending of crops to be practiced on each field, and showing barns and every appurtenance with which he is fawhat particular crop was to be cultivated on a given miliar. In a subsequent letter acknowledging refield for years ahead; underneath the table of crops, ceipt of the articles ordered, he remarks "that was another stating the probable average time neces- the plows have been tried and are satisfactory, and sary for plowing, harrowing, planting and sowing, the that the plan of a farm-yard and buildings sent is cost of after cultivation, of harvesting; then below an excellent one, and he is already preparing mate an estimate of the probable average product, and the rials to build agreeable the plan.” He further proceeds above the cost of each crop; and a note at remarks upon the need of improvement in the the foot of the page, explained briefly wherein that farming in Virginia, and thinks that the system particular rotation of crops was best adapted to the of husbandry which has been found so beneficial in field on which it was practiced. He availed himself of Great Britain, and which must have been greatly every means at command for increasing the quantity promoted by Mr. Young's “Annals of Agriculture,” of manures, by raising rich mud from the bed of is gaining ground around him; and states that creeks running through the estates, by digging mud there are several, among whom he classes himself, from the swamps and marshy places, by the gather- who are endeavoring to get into a regular and sysing of leaves and all waste vegetable substances, car- tematic course of manuring and cropping, and hopes rying the materials to the yards and pens to be that in a few years more they will “make a more mingled with the manure. He also experimented respectable figure as farmers than they have hitherwith various green crops, plowed under for fertiliz- to done." ing the land, and established the practice of plow- To Wm. Strickland, of England, he remarks : ing in two crops of buckwheat in one season, turn-“The agriculture of this country is indeed low; and
the primary cause of its being so is, that instead of ings, care of tools and carts, preparations of maimproving a little ground well, we attempt too nures, and every minutiæ of farming. I would much and do it ill. half, a third, or even a fourth like to give a sketch of one or more of these mas of what we mangle, well wrought and properly terly productions, but want of space forbids. Sufdressed, would produce more than the whole under fice it to say, that they sess to my mind very our system of management.
great interest, coming from such a source, and when In a letter to Sir John Sinclair, the drift of the writer was surrounded by such circumstances, which is to show what improvements may be made and engaged in such public labors. The like of in stock in this country by proper care and feeding, them, considering all these things, cannot be found he states that after the Peace of Paris in 1783, and elsewhere. his return to farming, he paid particular attention As previously remarked, it was during the eight to the improvement of his sheep, (of which he usu- years Washington held the office of President, that ally kept from seven to eight hundred;) that by his correspondence with Sir John Sinclair was conthis attention, at the shearing of 1789, the fleeces ducted. The correspondence commenced soon afhad increased from 24 lbs. to the average quantity ter the establishment of the British Board of Agriof 54 lbs. of wool—a fleece of which, promiscuously culture, in which enterprise Sinclair was a princitaken, he sent to Arthur Young, who put it into the pal actor. The correspondence dwelt largely on hands of manufacturers for examination, and they the operations of the British Board, on the mporpronounced it equal in quality to the Kentish wool. tant results flowing and to flow therefrom to Great He then goes on to cite instances of greatly in- Britain and all other countries. Washington's mind creased weight of beef cattle, by means of attention at once caught the enthusiasm of Sinclair and his to breeding and to pastures.
associates, in Board, and he corresponded with When called to assume the office of President of some of the leading agriculturists in this country, the United States, he frequently alludes in corres- urging them to furnish reports to the Board on pondence to the conflict his mind endured in decid- several important subjects. His mind was so much ing to leave his delightful employments at Mount interested in the promotion of agriculture by pubVernon, to launch again upon the labors and anxie- lic patronage, believing that it would add greatly ties of public life. In his Inaugural Speech to Con- to the wealth and happiness of any nation, that he gress; he feelingly says: “I was summoned by my recommended the subject to the consideration of country, whose voice I can never hear but with ven- Congress. Many of us are familiar with his memeration and love, from a retreat which I had chosen orable words on that subject, admire his foresight with the fondest predilections, and in my flattering and patriotism in framing them ; but wonder at hopes, with an immutable decision, as the asylum of the apathy with which they have ever bee regardmy declining years; a retreat which was rendered ed by our legislators, from the time they were utevery day more necessary as well as more dear to tered to the present moment. Many of us believe me, by the addition of habit to inclination, and of that an establishment by Congress such as he confrequent interruptions in my health to the gradual templated, with but a very moderate appropriation, waste committed on it by time."
as compared with many that have been given to On leaving Mount Vernon, to enter upon the du- much less worthy objects, would have proved of ties of chief magistrate of the country, he again great and lasting value to the country. However, consigned his estates to the care of a superinten- what the general government has neglected to do, dent, leaving with the latter duplicates of his vari- in this regard, several of the States separately are ous plans, charts and tables, and very full written doing, and the benefits flowing therefrom are quite directions for the management of the farming. apparent, proving beyond doubt the correctness of During the whole period of his absence on these Washington's views. public duties, he required from his manager, regu
In one of these letters to Sinclair, Washington relarly once a week, a full report of proceedings and marks :-“I could not omit so favorable an opporof the condition of everything; also a weekly me- tunity, as the departure of Mr. Stickland affords teorological table, showing the state of the ther-me, of presenting my best respects to you; and my mometer each day, the direction of the wind, and sincere thanks for the views of agriculture in the state of the weather, by which, among other things, different countries of Great Britain, which you have he might form a correct judgment of the labors had the goodness to send me—and for the Diploperformed on the farms compared with the oppor- ma (received by the hands of Mr. Day) admitting tunities afforded by the season. These reports were me a foreign honorary member of the Board of regularly answered by the President, his replies Agriculture. For this testimony of the attention often filling two or three sheets of paper, and in of that body, and for the honor it has conferred op the course of the year embracing remarks upon me, I have a high sense. From the first intimaevery field and every crop, every branch of labor, tion you were pleased to give me of this Instituthe stock of the farm, repairs of fences and build-Ition, I conceived the most favorable ideas of its