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the volume as useful for this purpose. Looking Fruit.-Notice of fine apples from Canada. at the references under this word in the Index, New mode of grafting suckers of Plum, with a my first thought was that justice had not been recommendation of the Shad Bush as stocks for done to the Farmer, as there are references to on-the pear. In the Farmer for May, 1853, is an ly nineteen pages, while the subject is discussed article by Mr. Goodrich, of Burlington, Vt., which in nearer one hundred different places, all of to my mind conclusively demonstrates the fact which, it is true, may be in the index, but placed that the "whole family of thorns, mountain ash, under so many heads, as to be liable to be over- and shadberry" are utterly worthless for pearlooked, by one who has but a single evening to stocks. Has "Far East" read that article, and study manures. The objection to this system of what Mr. Burt says to the same effect, page 204, classification, that it requires much repetition, is same volume? How to manage "Cuttings of in my mind far outweighed by the fact of its con- Fruit Trees." To manure "The Blackberry." Two articles on "Grapes." Winchester, Dec., 1854.
"Notice."-Hereafter we are to have no advertisements in the Farmer, and it it to be stitched! in a neat cover. Thank you, Mr. Publisher, for that; it will keep our numbers clean, inside and out, for binder.
IMPORTATION OF ENGLISH CATTLE
"Maturing Plants."-Commencement of a reThe importations into the country have become ply to a criticism on an article with this heading quite frequent and important. A few years ago that was published some time since in the Farm- the taste ran in a different direction, and blood
As there is quite a scientific "snap" to these horses were all the go. Priam, Glencoe, Monarticles, we shall read them carefully, and under-arch, and horses of that stamp, were purchased stand them if we can. in England at enormous prices-15,000 or 16,"Is Farming Respectable?"-Well, now, that 000 dollars being paid for a single animal; but a is right to the "pint." If it is not respectable, fondness for racing has diminished, not only in old Massachusetts is a real know-nothing, for the Northern but also in Southern States, and electing a farmer Lieut. Governor. the importation of well-bred cattle, sheep and "Guano"-Experiments in Orford, N. H., hogs, has been pursued with more ardor. Whofrom which it is inferred that "those who covered ever will compare our common native sheep with or applied it while wet, received benefit; those the improved breeds, will see at once an immense who used it dry, had little." difference between them, and yet the care, atten"Inquiry and Observation," must excite in eve- tion and expense required to raise the former, is ry reader a determination to look closer into the no more than for those of higher grade. One is things about him, and to think deeper and more an ornament to lawns, an object of interest; the reverently. other almost a disgrace to the poorest farms.
But I must pass over the articles-"A Good The profit which attends the raising of higher Plow," "Agricultural Value of Railroads," "New breeds is far greater, and it ever increases the System of Preserving Meat," a chapter on "Feed-pleasure derived from farming to have the stock ing Animals," "Wheat Trade" of England, and of a superior quality.
several others, to ask the attention of all con- In a late celebration attended by breeders of cerned to the suggestions on "Fair Premiums." fine sheep, it was stated that those from the United To award a premium on agricultural implements States were the purchasers in the English marto the Railroad Company that transported them kets of the best animals. The influence of preto the place of exhibition, would probably sur-vious importations, and of those going on, must prise everybody; yet what superior claim has the be extensively felt in the production of fine wool mere dealer in such articles? in the United States, and the manufacture of ex"Improved Windmills."-A few such dry sum-cellent woolen fabrics. The vast extent of grazmers as the last, will make a demand for wind- ing land we possess in the northern and middle mills or some other pumping power. States, makes the production of wool one of the most important objects of industry. The Southern States, except on a few of the mountains, are
"Forest Trees."-Two articles on saving and sowing the seeds of forest trees. "United States Cattle Show."-Full account of not suited for this business. The entire coast is proceedings and Premiums. flat and sandy, from Virginia to Texas, and from
"Grass Land-Grass Seed," "What Boston has the shore to the mountain region, for the width done for Agriculture,' ," "Fall Plowing," "Gyp- of 100 to 200 miles. Over this extensive surface sum," "Emery's Saw Mill," and "Best Method there is no pasturage for animals, which are fed of Getting Corn and Hay" on wet land, bring us on fodder and imported hay. The mountain reto an account of the wonderful effects of "Deep gion south of Virginia affords some pasturage, Plowing and Plastering" in Michigan. There is which enterprising citizens are engaged in deso great difference between the soil of Michigan voting to the raising of sheep. They prefer breeds and of Massachusetts, that an experiment in one from Spain, owing to their supposed adaptedness State may be of little value as a guide in the oth- to a warm climate. It was supposed that IlliI have seen herdsgrass growing rank and tall nois, which has a level lay of the land, was not from the earth thrown up in digging a well in suited to this purpose; but it was ascertained Michigan, while that grass grew but poorly, if at that sheep which had reached their growth in the all, in the surface soil that would yield fifteen or Eastern States, advanced materially in size and twenty bushels of wheat per acre without ma- weight from being introduced to rich pastures on nure. And plaster has an effect there very differ- the prairies. The wool became coarser, but it ent from what it has here. Why and how it is increased in quantity.
I do not know, and therefore will not undertakel This important interest is now under full way
in most of the States which are adapted to the dinary way, at from $80 to $120 per acre, or at purpose, and it will make a great impression $40 per ton, while he claims that his machine, upon the prosperity of the country. It is, how- which requires but one horse power, with two ever, in the breed of fine cattle that we are likely men, will do the same work within at least from most to excel. Gentlemen having country-ceats two to three days, at the rate of one ton per day. have shown a laudable desire to import the best Mr. C. has taken measures to secure a patent. stock, on the principle that a few good animals, Bolton, Vt., Dec., 1854. J. R. JEWELL. in a country where labor is dear, are better than numerous poor ones, and that animals of fine
CYCLE OF GOOD AND BAD CROPS. shape and color are objects of interest in their lawns. The county of Westchester, especially,
The article given below, from a recent number has become eminent for its numerous and superior of the Scotsman, will be read with interest by breeds of imported stock. Among the earliest every inquiring, investigating farmer. The theimportations into that county were some noble ories advanced are new, and as yet are only cattle from Holland. They were beautiful in theories, but we must confess they have some shape, large, and yood milkers. These have been plausibility. It will be seen that for thirty-seven crossed with the Durham, and a breed known as years past, there have been successive periods of Dutch and Durham is scattered over the county. four and five years of alternate good and bad Old Mr. Bathgate, who lives there, and who has crops, and that science sheds a glimmering ray of been engaged in this business for half a century, light upon the cause of these periodic variations. speaks of them as being among the best for milk. It will also be seen, that, if the theory proposed ing. Stock of the Alderney, Ayrshire and Devon prove a correct one, we have just entered upon a breeds, have been imported by other gentlemen ; four or five years course of poor crops generally but importations of the Durham have been most over the globe ; and consequently a season of cornumerous, and, where the pasturage is good, they responding high prices. The article is as follows: are considered the best stock, not only for the The “uncertainty of the weather" has been a dairy, but also for the shambles. Col. Morris, subject of complaint to the husbandman from the president of the State Agricultural Society, time immemorial. Science has shown, however who resides there, has been very active in the that law and order prevail in many phenomena business of importing good stock into the country. once deemed to be under the blind dominion of His sales of cattle have attracted a great con- chance, and ingenious men have indulged the course of people, and large prices have been paid. hope that a key might yet be found to the irreg
It would, no doubt, very much advance the ularity of the seasons-not that we shall be able interest which gentlemen feel in this subject, if to prognosticate whether any particular day or annual sales were made of improved stock, at week will be foul or fair, but that we may have some convenient locality near the city, open for rational grounds for expecting a good season or a all sellers. They need some mode of disposing bad one, or a series of good or bad seasons. Inof choice animals which will attract competition, telligent farmers generally believe that a course and enable them to dispose of their surplus stock of abundant crops is pretty sure to be followed without disadvantage. In England, the most by a course of deficient ones; but whether the useful of the nobility have for years been engaged cycle of good and bad crops is of a determinate or in attempts to in prove the breed of cattle. in a variable length, and if determinate, how many which a degree of perfection has been reached years are required to complete it, are points upon that can hardly be excelled. They look upon which opinions differ widely, and certainty is fine stock as the best ornaments of their grounds. perhaps despaired of. Many citizens of public spirit in the United A paper read a few days ago by M. Becquerel States have imitated this excellent example, and to the Academy of Sciences, on the culture of conferred very great benefit upon the country by wheat in France, supplies statistical facts of some their intelligence and zeal in this service.-N. Y. value bearing on this subject. They show that Jour. of Com.
there is a periodicity in the r. currence of good
and bad harvests ; that fire or " years of abundFor the New England Farmer.
ance, and five or six of scarcity, follow each other
pretty regularly. From want of capital and enMACHINE FOR PEELING WILLOW. terprise, and good means of internal communicaMr. Brown :—Those of your numerous readers tion, the French are more dependent on their own who are engaged, or contemplate engaging in the harvests than we are in this country, and the cultivation of the basket willow, will be pleased to difference between a good and a bad year telling learn that there is a machine for peeling the wil- more strongly on their markets, serves better to low. Mr. GEORGE F. Colby, of Jamesville, Vt., the test the iniluence of the seasons. M. Becquerel inventor, has had a machine made by wbich its quotes from Count Hugo the followirg table of merits have been fully tested ; and all who have the average price of wheat for all France : witnessed its operation, agree that it does the
Shillings work to perfection and with the greatest facility,
1816 to 1821-period of scarcity. and believe it to be one of the greatest labor- 1822 to 1827-period of abundance.......15.80 saving machines of the age. This, I believe, is 1828 to 1832-period of scarcity. the first machine ever invented for the purpose,
1833 to 1837-period of abundance.......16,16
1838 to 1842-mixed period... either in this or the old country, and must add 1813 to 1817-period of scarcity. vastly to the cultivation of the article in this 1848 to 1852—period of abundance.......16,68 country. Mr. C., who has been successfully en- We arrive at a similar result by comparing the gaged in the cultivation of the willow for several imports and exports of wheat, and taking the years, estimates the cost of peeling, in the or- excess of the one over the other :
Francs per hect. .23,66
per qr. 545, 5d. 36s. 4d. 50s. 70. 378. 2d. 463. 8d. 593. Od. 383. 40.
Hectolitres. periods of scarcity and plenty, which experience has forced upon the attention of our farmers. It is true that the spots of the sun cover but a very small portion of his surface at any time, but the decrement of heat in a bad year is also small compared with the whole quantity which the earth receives from the sun; and it is not improbable that, besides causing a direct loss of light and heat proportioned to their size, spots when abundant may indicate a general enfeeblement of the heating and illuminating power of the whole surface of the
Scarcity. ... 1816 to 1821... Excess of Imports... 6.247,000
1822 to 1827.
1835 to 1842
66 66 66
. 1843 to 1847
1848 to 1852... 66
The hectolitre (264 gallons wine measure,) contains 22 imperial gallons, or three hectolitres are a trifle more than a quarter, (480 lbs.) It will be observed that the importation of wheat in France, in years of scarcity, is very small when compared with ours. Thus, in the period of 1843 to 1847, while wheat averaged 59s.-a very high price in The progress of science is constantly adding to that country-the whole imports in the five years our knowledge of the latent ties which connect the were only 20,161,000 hectolitres, from which, de- most distant parts of nature. Those minute deviducting 1,164,000 of exports, there remained for ations from the normal position of the magnetic consumption only 18,697,000, or 6,400,000 qrs. needle, called its diurnal variation, were discovIn the period of scarcity, from 1816 to 1821, when ered a hundred years ago, and gave plain indicathe price was 543. 5d., the imports were only 6,tions of solar influence. It was only known with247,000 hectolitres in six years, or about 345,000 in these few years that these variations were themqrs. annually. selves subject to variation-were greater in some years than in others-and that another class of
The five years from 1847 to 1852 were years of abundance both in France and Britain. Supposing, phenomena, called "magnetic storms," sudden and then, that the change takes place quinquennially, seemingly unaccountable disturbances of the neewe should now be at the commencement of a peri- these are periodical also. To use the words of dle, disclosed themselves. It is now found that od of scarcity, and that the present year fulfils this character in manifest from the state of the markets Colonel Sabine, "there is a periodical variation or on both sides of the Channel. The French average diurnal variation, and the magnitude and frequeninequality affecting alike the magnitude of the for the first two weeks of November, as given in the Moniteur a few days ago, was 29.97 per hect., cy of the disturbances of storms, and the cycle or or 68. 11d. per qr.-a famine price in France; period of the inequality appears to extend about and the British average for the whole of Novem- ten of our years, the maximum and minimum being ber was 719. 1d., making rather severe dearth. It separated by an interval of about five years." is, therefore, a question of some importance, wheth- Perhaps by-and-by the hopes and prospects of the er we are to regard the present deficient crop as a husbandman may be read in the vibrations of the pure "casualty," an evil which an opposite casual-compass.
ty the next year's abundance may redeem, or as
the first of a series of bad crops. In our opinion,
the hypothesis of a five years' cycle, embracing the
latter conclusion, though not established beyond TO PROMOTE THE HEALTH OF CATTLE, challenge, has a sufficient probability to render it Mix occasionally one part of salt with four, five worthy of entering into the calculations of farmers, or six parts of wood ashes, and give the mixture to corn merchants, contractors for public works, and different kinds of stock, summer and winter. It even ministers of state. promotes their appetites and tends to keep them
A hypothesis offered to explain anomalous or in a healthy condition. It is said to be good against seemingly discordant physical facts is more readily bots in horses, murrain in cattle, and rot in sheep.. accepted when we trace in it the operation of some Horse-radish root is valuable for cattle. It crephysical cause. In the Scotsman of the 6th of ates an appetite, and is good for various diseases.. September, 1845, we gave an account of a me- Some give it to any animal that is unwell. It is moir published by Schwabe, a German astronomer, good for oxen troubled with the heat. If animals. on the spots of the sun, in which he maintained will not eat it voluntarily, cut it up fine and mix it their periodicity, that they increased for a certain with potatoes or meal.
term, then diminished for an equal term, and that Feed all animals regularly. They not only look the interval between the maximum and minimum for their food at the usual time, but the stomach was about five years, so that the cycle was comple- indicates the want at the stated period. Thereted in about ten. This conclusion rested on the fore feed morning, noon and evening, as near the observations of 18 years, which (as Colonel Sabine same time as possible.
informed the British Association at Belfast) have Guard against the wide and injurious extremes been since extended to twenty-six years, and with of satiating with excess and starving with want. the same result. Now, as the light and heat of the Food should be of a suitable quality, and proporsun are obviously essential to the success of grain tioned to the growth and fattening of animals, to crops, it occurred to Gautier, a French or Swiss their production in young, and milk, and to their man of science, to compare Schwabe's cycle of labor or exercise, Animals that labor need far the solar spots with the results of the harvests in more food, and that which is far more nutritious, France, as shown by the price of corn; and he than those that are idle.
found that, taking the years in groups, to eliminate In dry time see that the animals have a good accidental influences, those in which the sun had supply of pure water. When the fountains are few or no spots coincided with years of abundance, low, they drink the drainings of fountains, streams, and those in which the spots were numerous with and passages of water, which are unwholesome. years of scarcity. We have here, then, a glimpse If barns and stables are very tight and warm, of a physical cause to account for these alternating ventilate in mild weather, even in winter.
BY HENRY F. FRENCH.
For the New England Farmer, ticles. Horace Greeley was never more puzzled OTHER PEOPLES' BUSINESS. by the balance of trade, than were we at this intel
ligence, and, for the moment, we were inclined to There is an old saying, that half the people in lay aside our free trade notions, and go in for a tarthe world bave no idea how the other half live.iff on corn and pigs, to be established by the New Perbaps we should not get far out of the way, were Hampshire General Court, for protection against we to say, that half the world have very little idea Massachusetts and New York; for the evidence how they live themselves !
showed that we are open to encroachments in both Everybody knows how the minister lives—that directions, the flour and corn coming in, sometimes he has a salary of so many dollars, upon which he by way of Ogdensburg, N. Y., and the pork from must live, and in respectable style, such as may do Boston. However, those who buy, must, in the credit to his parishioners, who of course do not long run, pay, or they cannot get trusted, and as want to be disgraced in their character for liberali- these towns gave every outward sign of prosperity, ty, by having his coat out at the elbows. Every- we proceed to inquire how they got their money to body knows how most men who have salaries live— pay with. We found several persons engaged in just up to their incomes, and hard work at that. making shoes. They are generally traders, or, as But every body does not know how much it costs we call them, store-keepers. They buy the stock, a farmer to live, and least of all does the farmer cut it, and send it out to be filted. This is done by have any idea of how much he really expends, not women principally, and consists in binding and in money, but in money's worth, of those articles sewing the upper part of the shoe preparatory to for which others pay money. It is very easy, again, putting on the sole. After fitting they are returned to learn how much is produced of the great staple to the store, and again sent out to be made, or have articles of export, as of cotton, and of those pro- the sole put on, and are again returned, and are duced on large plantations, as sugar and rice. The finished and packed away in boxes, called cases, article hay, which is of far more value than the and are ready for market. cotton crop, is hardly named as a great staple.-- It was proved that about two hundred and eightyThe annual growth of live stock is stated at a eight thousand dollars worth of shoes are made valore of forty millions of dollars above that of the yearly, in these two towns—in this less than a hun. cotton crop, while the sugar crop—maple sugar dredth part of New Hampshire, and that not less and all—is not a tenth part the value of the annual than forty per cent. of this amount, or one hundred crop of wheat. So with regard to the amount pro- and fifteen thousand dollars, is paid for the labor. duced by the labor at home of men, women and This is nearly thirty dollars for every person, from children, not connected with farm labor, though the baby of a day old to that venerable individual performed by farmers and their families. called the oldest inbabitant"_every person, sick
This train of thought was suggested by some and well, lame and lazy, poor and rich ! facts which came under observation a few days Now, we see how those towns buy thirty thouago. Upon a hearing before the road commission- sand dollars worth of grain and flour a year, besides ers of Rockingham county, on a petition to lay out consuming their own produce! Yet these, as has a new highway in the towns of Candia and Deer- been said, are farming towns, and although just field, it became necessary to investigate the busi- now their dairies are small, and their farming ness of those towns, to ascertain what occasion they operations not extensive, yet they have the land had for more roads to market. The facts, which behind them, and nobody can be their master. If will be given, were stated by witnesses under oath, the price for shoes does not suit them, there is no and were not controverted. Both the towns named need of a strike for higher wages-no need of mobs are usually called mere agricultural towns. Both and violence. They are independent, because they together, they have about thirty-five hundred in can turn to their mother earth, whose beautiful habitants, and pay just eight dollars eighty-two bosom is bared for their support. There is a dancents of every thousand dollars of our State tax, gerous element in all large manufacturing establishor in other words, in wealth, they compose less than ments, in all factory towns and villages. God nine one-thousandths of the value of the State of grant it may never work out, in this country, what New Hampshire. The first remarkable develop- has bappened in England and elsewhere abroad. ment was, that this agricultural community of the The danger is that wealth, associated wealth, two towns is every year buying and paying for two may crush out individual independence. In home thousand barrels of flour and seven thousand bushels manufactures, like this alluded to, there can be, for of Indian corn and meal, and about seventy bar- the reasons suggested, no such danger. rels of salt pork! These facts appeared by the And, by the way, there is fair opportunity to test way-bills upon the railroad, and were verified by the accuracy of the census tables, to some extent, traders of the towns, who bought and sold the ar-by the facts before us. The census of 1850 gives
the value of home manufactures," for this county more, or better, or newer varieties of trees; conas $36,330; nor do we find any other item under sequently he urged that the business should be which this matter of labor on shoes at home can evil day was more visible in the horizon. perseveringly continued until the dawning of the be comprehended in the census tables. Now the What has been the result? A sale of 40,000 population of county is set down, in the same apples trees and 7,000 of other fruits, during the census, at 49,194, and if the "home manufactures" planting season of last year, and the prospect for of the rest of the county are in the same propor- planted 500, have increased 1,000, and some of the next equally good. The very men who had tion to the population as those of Candia and Deer- them have doubled that tenfold; and yet the marfield, they would amount to about one million six ket is now better than it was ever before, for all the hundred thousand, instead of the thirty-six thousand choice varieties of the product of orchard, vinedollars credited to us! The former amount is un- yard, or garden. The market is not glutted, nor can it be while millions of mouths continually wadoubtedly much nearer to the truth than the latter for the luscious fruits which contrast so advantater. Whatever the result might be, on investiga-geously with the sour crabs, "five to a pint," which tion, it is certain that the towns upon which the filled the market twenty years ago. The market calculations are based are not generally reputed to caunot be glutted with such fruit as the Newtown be engaged in manufactures above the average of Pippins, Roxbury russets, Rhode Island greenings, Baldwins, Bellefleur, Swaar, Domine, and a great their neighbors. variety of other excellent winter keeping apples; while the luxury-loving mouths of old England are within two weeks, (we have done counting distan
It might be well for gentlemen at the South and West, who wonder how the people can live in New England, to inquire enough into our affairs to re-ces by miles,) of the fruit-bearing hills of New England. Nay, not only New England and New lieve themselves of any unhappiness on our ac-York, but the ever bearing trees of the rich plains count. It might be well, also, when the next cen- of that once far away western wild, known in our sus is taken, to have it done in such a manner as boyhood as New Connecticut. But still the marto furnish some indication, at least, of the resources ket is not glutted, nor will it be, though all Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, Illinois and Wisconsin, shall of New England, as well as the rest of the country. pour in their golden treasures of golden pippins There seems to have been no attempt to ascertain from their unbounded plains of the richest fruit the manufactures of any part of the United States, bearing land the world ever saw, while that same except of "home-made" articles, and what that world full of people possess the taste they now do for choice, delicious fruits. item includes is not very manifest.
Our advice, therefore, is, as it has always been, In this view, we have something to do with "oth- to every man who owns an acre of land-plant trees. er people's busines."
Exeter, N. H. Dec. 12, 1854.
Don't be afraid of overstocking the market with any kind of fruit, except such as your fathers used to grow, and some of you still perpetuate; because the refined and improved tastes of the world demand, and will have, if it is procurable, the best that can be grown.
Since writing the above, we have met with the following item, illustrative of our remarks upon the fruit trade:
ORCHARDS, APPLES, AND THE
"David, I am going to quit the nursery business. In twenty-one years fruit will be a drug in New Fruit Trade of Oswego-New York Apple WoYork city. Why, everybody is setting out orchards. men.-It is estimated that nearly $40,000 will be Just look around this neighborhood. There is dea- circulated in this county this autumn, by speculacon Jones has just set out 500 trees; Tom Smith tors in fruit. Some 20,000 barrels of apples have 400, and his brother Jim will have 1000 next already been purchased, and many of them shipped spring, and soon, at that rate, all over the country; to New York. They were Spitzbergens and Greengrafted fruit, too, none of it for cider. Now what ings, and the price to the growers has averaged do you suppose is to become of all these apples? from $1 to $1.50 per barrel. The fruit of the enI tell you what it is, David, we must wind up the tire county has been bought up, one firm in this nursery business, or we shall break flat. Every-city alone having contracted for about 8000 barrels body is going crazy about fruit. Everybody will of winter apples. Some of them which were bought grow it, but nobody buy it, a few years hence." for ten shillings, have already been sold in New
This prognostication was made more than twen-York for $3.00.
ty years ago, by a sensible man engaged in prop- An energetic and skilful business woman, who agating choice fruits for sale, in Central New York, keeps a fruit stall in Fulton Market, was in town and no doubt the speaker honestly believed the the other day, and bought 1000 barrels of apples, days of the nurseryman were well nigh numbered. giving her check for the amount. She has made Brother David, however, was of a different opin- her fortune in the business, and will no doubt make ion. He did not believe it was so easy to overstock $500 out of the operation. She bought a few barthe market with such fruit as no other than Amer-rels of choice pears here, at $11 per barrel. She ican soil and climate can produce. He did not be- will sell the same in New York for double the monlieve ere twenty years' time would elapse, every-ey. We cannot but recommend to the farmers to body would have an orchard, the products of which bestow more attention upon fruit-growing. It will would be so unsalable, and the business so unprofi t all times produce a golden harvest.—Osweyo table, the owner could have no desire to plant' Journal.