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utility :—and the more I have seen and reflected utes doubly to the increase of improvement, by on the plan since, the more convinced I am of its stimulating to enterprise and experiment, and by importance, in a rational point of view, not only to drawing to a common centre the results everywhere Great Britain, but to all other countries."
of individual skill and observation, and spreading Under date of July 20th, 1794, he writes to Sin- them thence over the whole nation. Experience clair as follows :—“I know of no pursuit in which accordingly has shown that they are very cheap inmore real and important service can be rendered to struments of immense national benefits.” any country, than by improving its agriculture—its Washington often remarks to Sinclair that agbreeds of useful animals—and other branches of a riculture has ever been his favorite pursuit, regrets husbandman's cares ;-nor can I conceive any plan that the duties of his public station do not allow more conducive to this end than the one you have him to pay that attention to it that he could wish, introduced for bringing into view the actual state of and expresses an earnest longing for the time to them in all parts of the Kingdom ; by which good arrive when he may return to Mount Vernon, and and bad habits are exhibited in a manner too plain engage in “these most agreeable and useful occuto be misconceived, for the accounts given to the pations.” On retiring from his public office, in the British Board appear, in general, to be drawn up in spring of 1797, he returned to his estates on the a masterly manner, affording a fund of information Potomac, and engaged with renewed pleasure in useful in political economy-serviceable in all coun- farming. Writing to Mr. Stickland soon after his tries."
retirement to private life, he says :—“At no period Again, under date Dec. 10, 1796, he says :—“A have I been more closely employed than now, in few months more, say the 3d of March next, repairing the ravages of an eight years' absence. (1797,) and the scenes of my political life will Engaging workmen of different sorts, providing close, and leave me in the shades of retirement; and looking after them, together with the necessary when, if a few years are allowed me to enjoy it attention to my farms, have occupied all my time (many I cannot expect, being upon the verge of since I have been at home. For the detailed acsixty-five,) and health is continued to me, I shall counts of your observations on the husbandry of pursue with pleasure and edification the fruits of these United States, and your reflections thereon, the exertions of the British Board for the improve- I feel myself much obliged, and shall at all times ment of agriculture ; and shall have leisure, I be thankful for any suggestions on agricultural trust, to realize some of the useful discoveries which subjects which you may find leisure and inclination have been made in the science of husbandry. Un- to favor me with, as the remainder of my life, til the above period shall have arrived, and par- which in the common course of things, now in my ticularly during the present session of Congress, sixty-sixth year, cannot be of long continuance, which commenced the 5th instant, I can give but will be devoted wholly to rural and agricultural little attention to matters out of the line of my im- pursuits.” mediate avocations. I did not, however, omit the And so for the brief period allotted him after occasion, at the opening of the session, to call the this final retirement, was that life spent. Only four attention of that body to the importance of agricul- days previous to his death, he made out a new and ture."
elaborate plan for the management of his farms, reThe following extract from his Speech to Con- vising and improving upon such former modes of gress, Dec. 5, 1796, contains his remarks alluded cultivation as appeared to him to need it, making to above :
new tables of rotation and of estimates of labor, "It will not be doubted that with reference either products, &c. A sketch of these interesting docuto individual or national welfare. Agriculture is of ments cannot be given in this necessarily limited primary importance. In proportion as nations ad- article. vance in population and other circumstances of I close with the brief expression of a wish that maturity, this truth becomes more apparent, and our statesmen might copy largely from the examrenders the cultivation of the soil more and more ple of Washington, catching something of his an object of public patronage. Institutions for earnest solicitude for the advancement of the agpromoting it grow up, supported by the public ricultural interests of the country, and not allowing purse ; and to what object can it be dedicated with mere political theories, or considerations of party, greater propriety? Among the means which have to hinder them from efforts to promote those inbeen employed to this end, none have been attend- terests. ed with greater success than the establishment of Brattleboro', July 10, 1855. Boards, composed of proper characters, charged with collecting and diffusing information, and en- EARLY TOMATOES.—Mr. GEORGE W. WHITE, of abled by premiums, and small pecuniary aid, to North Cambridge, left with us, July 21st, a box of encourage and assist a spirit of discovery and im- tomatoes, well grown and fully ripe, which he provement. This species of establishment contrib- raised in the open air. He informs us that last
BY JOHN GOLDSBURY.
year, when the season was more forward, he sold a holding the labors and productions of one's own quantity as early as July 12th. The variety he hands—in overcoming difficulties, and in arriving at cultivates came from the French seed, imported
certain desirable results. But, on the contrary, two or three years since, and they are prolific as renders a man truly miserable. Hear the language
idleness leads to poverty and wretchedness, and well as early bearers.
of Solomon upon this point, who has given us a
glowing description of the idle man : "I went by For the New England Parmer.
the field of the slothful, and by the vineyard of the
man void of understanding; and lo, it was all grown DESIGN AND USEFULNESS OF LABOR. over with thorns, and nettles had covered the face
thereof, and the stone-wall thereof was broken down. From the earliest authentic history of our race, Then I saw, and considered it well; I looked upon we learn that man was doomed to till the ground, it
, and received instruction. Yet a little sleep, a litand to gain his subsistence by the sweat of his tle slumber, a little folding of the hands to sleep: brow. This judicial sentence was pronounced upon so shall thy poverty come as one that travelleth, him in consequence of his disobedience in partaking and thy want as an armed man. of the forbidden fruit. Man was placed in the
The industrious farmer, perhaps, takes more satgarden of Eden to dress it and to keep it;" “but isfaction than any other man. His employment of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil” he gives symmetry and strength to his frame, energy was forbidden to eat. But man disobeyed his to his character, buoyancy to his spirits, and expanMaker; he partook of the forbidden fruit, and the sion to all his faculties. He is Nature's true noblevery ground was cursed for his sake. “Therefore, man. This he manifests by his industry and persethe Lord God sent him forth from the garden of verance, no less, than by his noble character, his Eden, to till the ground, from whence he was taken. pure thoughts, his sound reasoning, and his practiSo he drove out the man."
cal good sense. For, though he has been turned Whether the whole race of man could or would out of the beautiful garden of Eden and of innohave lived on the earth, through all ages, and, at the cence, yet he has not been dwarfed, either in his same time, have complied with the command to “be mental or his physical powers. He is still a man, fruitful and multiply, and replenish the earth and possessing all the faculties and powers of a man: subdue it,” without any labor in cultivating and nor yet has he been doomed to cultivate a barren subduing the ground, and rendering it fruitful, is a waste or a sandy desert, but a soil naturally rich, question which admits of some discussion, and on fruitful and productive, where, by his labor and dilwhich we do not propose to enter. But it would igence, he may make “the wilderness and solitary be well for us to inquire a little into the design and place flourish and blossom as the rose.” And he usefulness of man's doom in being obliged to culti- has made "the wilderness and solitary place” provate the earth in order to gain a subsistence. And ductive of all the comforts, the conveniences, the here, if we only stop to consider the nature, design necessaries and the luxuries of life. and reasonableness of his employment, or the nat
When we look around us, even in our own land, ural effects of his labors on his character, his use- and mark the progress of agriculture and the mefulness and his happiness, we shall be led to con-chanic arts, of science, literature and general intelliclude that, however wicked man may have been in gence,—when we see the cities and thriving towns disobeying his Maker, God has dealt with him in with which New England is filled, and reflect how great mercy, benevolence and kindness, and made rapidly the forest has given way to cultivated fields, the very labors to which he was doomed the step- and cultivated fields to busy and prosperous towns, ping-stones to his virtue and happiness.
we can hardly realize, that, in less than a hundred No one will deny that labor is an honest and hon- and fifty years, all this change has been effected, orable employment. It is honest, because it is that a howling wilderness has been converted into a right, and because God has required it. For the fruitful field, occupied and cultivated by many milsame reason, it is honorable. It has nothing in its lions of virtuous, intelligent, enterprising and happy nature that is dishonest or dishonorable—nothing inhabitants. that is mean, degrading, disgraceful or derogatory; Labor, then, is a necessary, a useful, and a virtubut, on the contrary, it has much that is ennobling, ous employment. God himself has shown it to be elevating and praiseworthy. Nor was it the design such, not only by requiring it of man, but by his of God, in imposing labor upon man, to degrade own labors in creating the world. According to the him, or to require him to perform a service which Bible, God labored six days, in the work of creais beneath the dignity of his character. It was not tion, which he would not have done, had labor been to degrade man, but to lift him up and make him a dishonorable or useless. From the very represenman, that he was sent forth to labor. The labor tations of the Bible, therefore,—from the example imposed upon him was a reasonable service—such of God in creating the world and all things therein, as "God had a right to impose, and as man was from all that we know of the character of God, and bound in duty to perform. All that was required of his design in requiring labor of man, we infer of man was to labor for his own good as well as the wise design and the great usefulness of labor. that of others to gain his living by his labor. It Warwick, 1855. was, therefore, not only an honest and honorable employment, but a useful one—such as conduces to REMARKS.-In a former article by this writer, health, prosperity and happincss.
the name was printed Goldsmith, when it should The laboring man, whether he be a farmer, a have been Goldsbury. mechanic, a manufacturer, a tradesman, or a professional man, is the truly happy man. It is the
The mother of Horace Greely died at very nature of labor to impart happiness to all its Wayne, Erie county, Penn., on the 27th of July. votaries. There is a real satisfaction of mind in be- The father of Mr. Greely is still living.
BY JOHN GOLDSBURY.
For the New England Farmer. Agriculture, both in Greece and Rome, was held ANTIQUITY AND DIGNITY OF AGRI. in much higher estimation than commerce, or CULTURE
any of the mechanic arts. The fields were chiefly possessed by respectable citizens. Many noblemen
lived upon their own lands, and made the cultivaAgriculture was one of the earliest and most tion and improvement of them a special study; common pursuits of man: tilling the ground and the ornamenting of their estates constituted an imtending herds and flocks were among the first and portant part of their luxury. The grain chiefly culmost general occupations; and the knowledge, re- tivated was wheat, but of various kinds ; such as lating to these subjects, was the first acquired and corn, barley, oats, &c. The breeding of cattle was the most extensive. Almost all the ancient hea- an object of attention; chiefly, oxen, horses, sheep then nations ascribe the invention and introduc- and goats. Much care was also bestowed on bees. tion of agriculture in their country to some divini- Trees, also, both forest, fruit and ornamental, rety or deified sovereign. With some nations, the ceived their share of attention. Both nations were cultivation of the soil was the most common occu- acquainted with most of the various methods now pation; with others, the raising of cattle; and with practiced for propagating the different species and others, hunting and fishing. Compared with other varieties of fruit ; but the culture of the vine finalmodes of subsistence, agriculture has an important ly took the precedence of all other cultivation. advantage in promoting various arts, because it
These nations, Greece and Rome, had various compels men to renounce a wandering life, and set- gods and goddesses whom they regarded and wortle in fixed, permanent abodes ; thus it increases shipped as the patrons of agriculture, the protecthe demand for conveniences, and furnishes an oc- tors of fields, of fruits, and of flowers, and the decasion for inventions, which may help to facilitate fenders of limits. Among these were Terminus, and carry to perfection the culture of the soil.
the god of boundaries, whose peculiar province it Agriculture was, from the beginning, an honora- was to mark the limits of landed property, and to ble employment among the Romans. Patricians guard and protect them; Priapus, the god of and the most distinguished citizens engaged in it. fields, of cultivated grounds and gardens; VertumCincinnatus was laboring in his fields, when informed nus, the god of fruit trees, and his wife, Pomona, of his election to the dictatorship. Regulus asked the goddess of fruits and gardens ; Flora and Chloleave to retire from the senate to cultivate a little ris, the goddesses of blossoms and flowers; Ferofarm, suffering from neglect. This attention to the nia, the goddess of fruits, nurseries and groves ; actual cultivation of the lands, by the ablest and Pales, the goddess of pasturage and the feeding of best informed men, occasioned an advancement in tlocks; Bubona, the goddess of oxen ; Segelia, the the art of agriculture, such as the Greeks never at- goddess of seed planted in the earth ; Hippona, tained. There were, however, numerous works the goddess of horses ; Collina, the goddess of the written in Greek on this subject. Varro mentions hills; Vallonia, the goddess of the valleys ; Runabout fifty authors. But whatever might have been cina, the goddess of weeding; Volusia, the godwritten by the Greeks, the Romans were not, in dess of the growing corn; Mellona, the goddess of this branch, mere imitators or borrowers. The max- honey ; Occator, the god of harrowing; Stercutius, ims and precepts, which are given by the Roman the god of manuring; and Pilumnus, the god of writers, were drawn from the experiments and ob- kneading and baking bread. Besides these, they had servations of the Romans themselves. Their prin- a great goddess by the name of Ceres, to whom they ciples are not extensively applicable to modern ag- ascribed the discovery of agriculture, and all subsericulture; yet their writings abound in useful hints quent improvements in husbandry. She is said to and remarks, and have always been regarded as cu- have first taught men to cultivate grain, and to inrious and interesting compositions. Virgil's Geor-struct them in all the labors pertaining to it. She gics may properly be adverted to as illustrating the travelled from country to country, and imparted agriculture of the Romans.
her favors to all lands by giving instruction in agriAgriculture was also held in high estimation culture and the use of the plow. And she associated among the Greeks. It was their most common pur- Triptolemus with her, as a companion of her travels, suit and means of living. The boundaries of their and sent him over the earth, to teach husbandry, and fields were marked by stones, which served to guard thereby raised him to the rank of a god. To the the cultivators against mutual encroachments. The foregoing gods and goddesses, the Greeks and Roculture of the vine and of trees was also an object mans offered in sacrifice at stated times, not only of attention. The raising of cattle was a common fruits and flowers, but some of the richest producemployment, and a principal source of wealth. tions of the earth. These employments were not considered in any way degrading or ignoble, but were exercised by TALL HERD'S GRASS.-We saw the other day, persons of eminence and even by princes. From in the office of S. B. PHINXEY, Esq., Editor of the the writings of Hesiod, it is evident that agricul- Barnstable Patriot, some herd's grass upwards of 6 ture was, at an early period, a subject of practical feet high, a fair specimen of several acres grown upon interest among the Greeks; yet the art does not appear to have been carried to very great perfec- a swamp which he had reclaimed. Friend Phinney, tion in any of the States. The soil of Attica was throw your editorial quill into the fire, and your more favorable to the production of the grape, olive, commission as Collector of the port of Barnstable, and fig, than of grain. The exportation of corn to the sharks of Barnstable Bay, and let your gewas prohibited. If corn-dealers combined to raise nius work in its natural way. Herd’s grass six feet the price, they were liable to capital punishment. In order to avoid a scarcity of corn, public grana
and one inch high by the acre, to say nothing of ries were kept, under the direction of purveyors the ten acres of yellow pines now ten to fifteen feet and receivers.
high, the seeds of which he sowed some ten years
ago! What a pity that he who can change the face has set, say twenty-four hours or more, according to of nature at will, and make the earth teem with the quality of the mortar; and are then removed its richest productions, should cramp his genius ov
and reset, and all the foregoing operations repeated
until the walls of the building are completed. The er a “political item,” or over a dozen "light-houses.” windows and door-frames are made and set in the Why, anybody can write an editorial, or see that same manner as they are for brick buildings; over Uncle Sam's revenue is duly collected ; but who can the doors and windows is put a wood or stone lintel turn an ugly swamp inside out, and clothe it with to hold the pressure of the wall until it is dry. perennial beauty and herd's grass six feet and one around the windows and doors to have them perma
Care is to be taken in placing all of the stone inch high! He must have taken his pattern from nently fixed in their places, so as to form a solid some of those ugly customers, called sword-fish, jam. The flooring timbers are placed and anchored who perforate ships' bottoms with their noses six into the walls in the same manner as they are in feet and one inch long !
brick buildings. As this kind of wall is somewhat uneven for the reception of the flooring timbers, a
piece of scantling, say 24 by 6 inches, should be For the New England Farmer. placed and levelled upon the walls, and be firmly
bedded with mortar to receive the joists and other STONE HOUSES.
flooring timbers. Seeing an inquiry of a “Subscriber” from War- This method accords with that practiced by Dr. wick in relation to gravel houses, I have ventured C. F. Ramsdell, formerly of Springfield, but now to indite the following, respecting a method of of South Brookfield, in constructing buildings of building with common stone and mortar used here stone. The Doctor has had some experience in this in one instance, and which has also been successful- mode of building, and would be very glad to comly used elsewhere. To many the method may not municate with any one upon this subject. The sand be new; but still it is to some, and deserves notice for his mortar he prefers to be coarse and filled as being an attempt to solve the great problem so with small gravel stone, the largest of which should often proposed by men of moderate and humble not exceed the size of a kidney bean. Into his means, "how can we build substantially and cheap- mortar in a very thin state, when well mixed, he ly.”. Our forests are fast disappearing ; and thor-puts larger stone of various sizes. The laying of ough, substantial, well-built wood houses, will now his walls he does in the same manner as before rank among those of the first cost. True, we can stated. For his larger stone he takes any field or even now build quite cheap with wood, provided we whatever kind of good building stones are most are content to accept a building which is really easy to be obtained, which are of a suitable size for cheap in all particulars. But with such structures his walls. Flat stone are always to be preferred, no man of sterling mind is at all satisfied. The but by a due admixture of round and flat stone a house built in an unsubstantial manner does the very strong wall may thus be built. For success with possessor little or no good in adding to his real this kind of wall one precaution is of the first imhappiness here ; nay, it may do him positive moral portance, and that is in laying, the materials should harm, if not physical; for it may lower his estimate be so disposed in the walls, as to make the same enof the good, the noble, and the true ; although it may tirely solid, and at the same time have every indishield him and his in a measure from the elements. vidual stone entirely coated with the mortar.
Last year, (1854) a stone machine shop, 400 feet The thickness of the walls should be proportioned long, 40 feet wide and two stories high, with walls to the size of the building and the height and num21 inches thick, was built here of a kind of slate in ber of stories. For ordinary dwellings, two stories the following manner. The entire mass of stone high, the Doctor thinks 14 inches for the cellar, blasted from the ledge was carried to the building, 12 inches for the first story, and 10 inches for the the nature of the ledge being such that a very large second story, to be about that which is required for portion of the stone obtained by blasting was in strength and durability. All inside chimneys would small pieces ; into the mortar, which was made of be best built with brick. Those in the outside lime and coarse sand, were put, and intimately walls might be carried with the same materials of mixed with it, all the small chips and fragments. the walls. All the larger stone were reserved for the process The outside of these houses may be finished with of filling in. The walls were made by filling the a kind of mortar-finish called stucco. This finish has mortar into boxes, made by placing plank outside been quite successfully used for many years in vaand inside of the wall
, a distance apart of the de- rious parts of our country. It is made of common sired thickness of the wall. These plank are kept lime and hydraulic cement, together with some in their places by plumb, straight edges of sufficient chemicals used in coloring the surface after it is strength placed and fastened upon the outside of partly dry; this makes a fine and durable covering the plank. When the planks have been thus prop- and finish: and withal, is tasty in appearance, it beerly disposed in their places to a height of three or ing blocked off in imitation of large stones, and four feet above the foundation, the mortar, in a very may be so shaded as to represent any of the sandplastic state, is brought from the mortar-bed in stones or granite, to suit the fancy of the propriehods, and poured into the space between the
If a nicer and more expensive finish is desired planks. Into this soft, yielding mass were disposed than the stucco, this wall is well adapted to receive all of the larger stones in such a manner as to make the mastic finish, which is made of dry sand and the wall one solid mass of mortar and stone. These linseed oil, together with some other drying mateprocesses of alternately filling with mortar and lar- rials. The doors and windows may be ornamented ger stone are repeated until the mould is full.
with terra cotta or iron projecting caps if desired; The mould or planks forming the wall are al- and all the appendages of verandahs and projecting lowed to remain upon the walls until the mortar
cornices, and ornamental observatories, may appro- ness, even if the inside plastering were done upon priately have a place upon these structures. the walls.
To prevent any injurious effects arising from. Upon the authority of Dr. Ramsdell, the cost of dampness on account of the absorption and reten- these structures finished upon the outside with stuction of moisture by the walls, against all the out- co in a plain manner, is not far from the cost of side wall, upon the inside there should be furring, common wood dwellings, or from $1,25 to $1,50 *done as is done in many brick buildings, and for the per square yard of the wall all finished. This price,
Where oil mastic is used, the inside however, must vary some with the price of the lime plastering might be rendered directly upon the in particular vicinities, and with the facility with walls, as the mastic, from its very nature, would which the sand and other materials could be obprevent the absorption of moisture. And some ex- tained.
P. BALL. press a positive opinion that where the stucco is Worcester, 1855. used, no injurious effects would arise from damp-|
We here present a farm house of the simplest the floor of the main house; the pitch of the roof and most unpretending kind, suitable for a farm of being the same. Beyond this is a building 32 by twenty, fifty, or an hundred acres. Buildings some- 24 feet, with 10 feet posts, partitioned off into a what in this style are not unfrequently seen in the swill-room, piggery, workshop, and wagon-house, New England States, and in New York; and the and a like roof with the others. A light, rustic plan is in fact suggested, although not copied, from porch, 12 by 18 feet, with lattice work, is placed on some farm houses which we have known there, with the front of the house, and another at the side door, improvements and additions of our own.
over which vines, by way of drapery, may run; thus This house may be built either of stone, brick or combining that sheltered, comfortable and homewood. The style is rather rustic than otherwise, like expression so desirable in a rural dwelling: and intended to be altogether plain, yet agreeable The chimney is carried out in three separate flues, in outward appearance, and of quite convenient ar- sufficiently marked by the partitions above the roof
. rangement. The body of this house is 40 by 30 The windows are hooded, or sheltered, to protect feet on the ground, and 12 feet high, to the plates them from the weather, and fitted with simple slidfor the roof; the lower rooms nine feet high; the ing sashes, with 7 by 9 or 8 by 10 glass. Outer roof intended for a pitch of 35°—but, by an error blinds may be added, if required; but it is usually in the drawing, made less—thus affording very tol-better to have these inside, as they are no ornament erable chamber room in the roof story. The L, or to the outside of the building, are liable to be drirrear projection, containing the wash-room and wood- en back and forth by the wind, even if fastenings house, juts out two feet from the side of the house are used, and in any event are little better than a to which it is attached, with posts 74 feet high above continual annoyance.