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kitchen, is a sink, with a waste pipe passing out through the wall. At the further corner a door opens into a snug bedroom 9 by 8 feet, lighted by
a window in rear; and adjoining this is a side entry W.H. 16X14. PIC 16X12 leading from the end door, 9 by 6 feet in area; thus
making every room in the house accessible at once from the kitchen, and giving the greatest possible
convenience in both living and house-work. W. S. 16XIO SWILL 16x12
The roof story is partitioned into convenient-sized bedrooms; the ceiling running down the pitch of the roof to within two feet of the floor, unless they
are cut short by inner partitions, as they are in the The front door, over which
largest chamber, to give closets. The open area in
the centre, at the head of the stairs, is lighted by a is a single sash-light across, opens into a hall or entry 9
small gable window inserted in the roof, at the rear,
and serves as a lumber room; or, if necessary, a by 7 feet, from which a door
bed may occupy a part of it. opens on either side into a sitting-room and parlor, each
In rear of the main dwelling is a building 44 by
W.H. 30x16 16 by 15 feet, lighted by a
16 feet, occupied as a wash-room and wood-house. double, plain window, at the
The wash-room floor is let down eight inches below
the kitchen, and is 16 by 14 feet, in area, lighted ends, and a single two-sash window in front. Between
by a window on each side, with a chimney, in which the entrance door and stove
is set a boiler, and fireplace, if desired, and a sink in are in each room a small
the corner adjoining. This room is 7 feet in pantry or closet for dishes,
height. A door passes from this wash-room into
the wood-house, which is 30 by 16 feet, open in or otherwise, as may be re
front, with a water-closet in the further corner. quired. The chimney stands
The cellar is 76 feet in height—and is the whole size of the house, laid with good stone wall, in
lime mortar, with a flight of steps leading outside, B. 9x8
in rear of the kitchen, and two or more sash-light
windows at the ends. If not in a loose, gravelly, E. 9x6
or sandy soil
, the cellar should be kept dry by a drain leading out on to lower ground.
The building beyond, and adjoining the wood
house, contains a swill house 16 by 12 feet, with a S.R. 16x15
window in one end; a chimney and boiler in one
corner, with storage for swill barrels, grain, meal, 7x9
potatoes, &c., for feeding the pigs, which are in the adjoining pen of same size, with feeding trough,
place for sleeping, &c., and having a window in one PORCH
end and a door in the rear, leading to a yard.
Adjoining these, in front, is a workshop and toolhouse, 16 by 10 feet, with a window at the end, and an entrance door near the wood house. In this is a joiner’s work-bench, a chest of working
tools, such as saw, hammers, augers, &c., &c., necin the centre of the house, with a separate flue essary for repairing implements, doing little rough for each front room, into which a thimble is in- jobs, or other wood work, &c., which every farmer serted to receive the stovepipes by which they ought to do for himself; and also storing his hoes, are warmed; and from the inner side of these axes, shovels, hammers, and other small farm imrooms each has a 'door passing to the kitchen, or plements. In this room he will find abundant chief living room. This last apartment is 22 by 15 rainy-day, employment in repairing his utensils of feet, with a broad fireplace containing a crane, hooks various kinds, making his beehives, hencoops, &c., and trammel, if required, and a spacious family ov- &c. Next to this is the wagon-house, 16 by 14 en-affording those homely and primitive comforts feet, with broad doors at the end, and harness pegs still so dear to many of us who are not ready to around the walls. concede that all the virtues of the present day are The posts of this building are 10 feet high; the combined in a “perfection cooking stove,” and a rooms eight feet high, and a low chamber over"patent” heater; although there is a chance for head for storing lumber, grain, and other articles, these last, if they should be adopted into the peace- as may be required. Altogether, these several ful atmosphere of this kitchen.
apartments make a very complete and desirable On one side of the kitchen, in rear of the stairs, accommodation to a man with the property and ocis a bedroom, 9 by 8 feet, with a window in one cupation for which it is intended. corner. Adjoining that, is a buttery, dairy-room, or
On one side and adjoining the house, should be closet, 9 by 6 feet, also having a window. At the the garden, the clothes-yard, and the bee-house, inner end of the stairway is the cellar passage ; at which last should always stand in full sight, and the outer end is the chamber passage, landing above facing the most frequented room-say the kitchen in the highest part of the roof story. Opposite the-that they can be seen daily during the swarming chamber stairs is a door leading to the wash-room. season, as those performing household duties may Between the two windows, on the rear side of the keep them in view.Allen's Rurul Architecture.
EXTRACTS AND REPLIES. ported that in one neighborhood many birds were
killed by the hail. The hailstones were as large as APHIDES, OR PLANT LICE. MR. FARMER :—Your correspondent "J. D.” of
hens' eggs, and it is said some were seen seven
inches in circumference; but I cannot vouch for the Exeter, N. H., inquires how he can destroy Aphi
truth of it. des or plant lice. Some dozen years since they were here very destructive to young trees, but they July 11, 1855.
Weather very hot; mercury 87° in the shade.
L. VARNEY. have since nearly disappeared. Whale oil soap is what few farmers have—and common soap or soap
HORSE POWER—APPLES. suds, when applied so strong as to kill the trees, will not injure them.
MR. NOURSE :— Sir, — Will you inform me The only effectual remedy I have ever applied is through your paper, what would be the cost of a strong tobacco water; this will kill the insects small threshing machine that could be worked by without injuring the trees. It is easily applied by horse-power
. (a.) dipping the limbs in the water, or by sponging
I have a small mill for grinding corn which is them; any piece of old quilt or cotton batting will worked by horses ; could I get a machine to be answer for a sponge.
worked by the same power that carries the mill ? (6.) The wife of Professor Thompson, an enthusiastic
Also, will you please to inform me what will prehorticulturist, and one who has raised more young
vent the stinging of apples, causing them to drop
DANIEL CHILDS. trees than any other lady in this town, told me she off while very small. (c.) had been perfectly successful in ridding her trees of
Cotuit Port, 1855. the whole tribe of aphides by using water in which REMARKS.—(a.) Thresher, separator and fixpotatoes :)
s-had been boiled ; this she preferred to to-tures complete, with a 24 inch cylinder, $37,00 ; bacco water, as it discolored nothing in its applica- size larger, $40,00. Set of India rubber belts, and tion.
C. GOODRICH. Burlington, Vt., July 20, 1855.
other extras, $5,00.
(b.) The same power that carries your mill may TALL RYE—AND THE CROPS.
be applied to the thresher. MR. EDITOR :-Your paper of June 16th speaks (c.) Apples fall from two causes—mostly from of some tall rye raised in Farmington, Iowa, which the egg deposited in the blossom, where the worm is measured six feet in length; one of my neighbors hatched and passes into the apple itself. Another has a lot of rye growing, which stands six feet and a quarter high; Mr. James Hall has a number of cause is, that the apple is perforated by the curculio, acres of noble-looking rye, some of which measures and an egg deposited under the skin where it is six feet and a half in length.
hatched and the worm passes into the apple. If Crops generally look very well, though the you will devise a remedy, you may consider your weather has been rather wet for some pieces of
fortune as made. corn.
A SUBSCRIBER. Newport, N. H., July 11, 1855.
MR. EDITOR :- I wish to inquire what will cure MR. EDITOR :- I wish to know if there is any
collar biles. I have a mare afflicted with them so way to eradicate skunk cabbage. I have a maple- that I am unable to work her at all. They are small swamp, which contains a great deal of this plant, biles, which come out in great numbers under the and I am desirous of removing it entirely. Any in- collar and on the back.
C. C. formation which you can give will be acceptable to
Springfield, July, 1855.
A SUBSCRIBER. REMARKS.—Your mare has at some time, probREMARKS.—Where you cannot plow, pull it up ably, been heated and then fed highly with grain, when it is just gone out of blossom. Persist in and the blood has contracted humors which show this course for two or three years, and you will themselves whenever the skin is chafed or becomes greatly check, if not eradicate it. A piece of the root hot. Careful feeding, with careful usage, will be the an inch in length will grow at first, but cannot re- best remedy. Let her have a run of five or six tain much vitality for any length of time if de- weeks in a good pasture where the grass iš sweet, prived of the friendly offices of the leaves. Or, dig if you can possibly spare her. it up with a spade in May, and then as often as the leaves get to be 8 or 10 inches long.
HOW TO KILL PLANT LICE.
Make a wash of soft soap, cow manure, and waCROPS—REAPERS—HAIL-STORM. ter, and wash the trunks and large limbs with it. The prospect for an abundant harvest is very Then for two or three mornings when the dew is good in every section of Canada West.
on, sprinkle with ashes. This, with me, has effectuSeveral reaping machines have been purchased ally destroyed the small green lice on my trees. for use in this vicinity, and will soon be in operation.
A. BROWN. Grass is the lightest crop: A very destructive hail storm passed through this
TO KILL PASTURE BRAKES. county on the 13th inst., doing much damage to Mow them closely in dry weather, and rake the crops in some places. It went in a vein about half brakes off at once so as to expose the roots as much a mile wide. More than one hundred panes of as possible, or put on ashes pretty freely, and it glass were broken in one house, and a great many will kill them.
S. F. acres of grain were entirely destroyed. It is re-l Houghtonsville, Vt.
BILES ON THE HORSE.
DISEASED PEAR TREES.
For the New England Farmer. Asa G. SHELDON, Esq., of Wilmington, a gentle
SMALL POTATOES. man whose observation is as keen as his judgment
MR. EDITOR:- In the fewest words I will anis sound, brought us a potato-stalk which had been awer and explain to your correspondent, “S. P.” (I entered by a worm an inch long, with a copper-col- hope I am addressing my own sex.) ored head and twelve legs. The entrance was made My communication upon “Small Potatoes,” touchnear the root, and he had gone up the centre of the ing his supposed errors, he thinks “a tissue of sevstem some six or eight inches, eating clean as he This long whip reaches others as well as myself,
eral fallacies, common to reasoning on agriculture.” went all the pulpy part of the stem.
who have the temerity to express an opinion upon Who is he, and how much mischief does he do ? this subject.
I said there was but one right way in farming, however much practice might vary.
I still main
tain the correctness of the principle. He says, “to I am much troubled with a disease in my pear follow this, is a prolific source of trouble.” I would trees, and do not know what it is. Some call it ask why?' I will admit there are more ways than sunblight, others say it is caused by frost. After one, yet one general standard supposed and praclosing
several trees, I have saved others by shaving ticed as right is adopted. off all the affected bark. I hope some of your correspondents will tell me what the trouble is, and delicate peaches, pears, &c.; will you hand-pick or
There are two ways to gather your winter apples, how I shall remedy it.
PETER WAIT. shake off? Two roads lead to the mill; is there any Danvers, July, 1855.
choice? Would you employ a bungler or a good
farrier to shoe your horse? In surgery, in fact in Crops of all kinds look well. Hay is coming in all practice, the right way has its single interpretabetter than last year.
tion, while the wrong way might be the result of Middlebury, Vr.
ignorance or stupidity. If "all nature is against" the one right way, it is no paradox that square is
round or perpendicular is horizontal. For the New England Farmer.
Your correspondent recommended “small pota"THE OTHER PLACE.”
toes” as seed, and illustrated by two strong exam"You can't own all the land that joins you,” is a ples. He said the native tuber was “small," but a saying old and sure, yet how few Yankee farmers "large growth was artificial. He again says, “large seem to believe it. If the mania for owing land in tubers and cabbage heads are of artificial growth.” large quantities could be exchanged for a mania for Nature gives but one principle, vested in the germiowning good land, and good cattle
, New England nating power of the seed, according to its size and would thrive without agricultural papers; but as
functions. This is its law-man applies his skill that good time coming is not likely to be forth- equally, large and small is the natural or real, not coming soon without assistance, all good farmers the artificial result. I hope this will not be considwill look to the press, that corrector of popular
ered as “one hypothesis to prove another,” or a opinion, as their deliverer.
"theoretical speculation.” But to return to my text, which I think will need "Grain is not potatoes,” says "S. P.” Another no explanation, for who has not heard of the term ? man says, “a chestnut horse is not a horse-chestIn some parts of Massachusetts, no farmer is con- nut.” All very true—but which has most affinity ? sidered forehanded, or, should say, considers In their cultivation and uses, there is certainly a
Mr. himself so, until he owns an adjoining farm, which friendly alliance between grain and potatoes. generally takes the name of the other place.” Editor, this may be a profitless discussion ; it is That this acquisition is the beginning of trouble I certainly beyond an arms-length battle, the combatwill not say, but that in most cases it brings more ants being strangers and far apart. My object has trouble and perplexity than profit or comfort, I will been to state to farmers my own positive experiunhesitatingly avow. That this is necessarily the ence and the practice of others. case, I do not say, but generally, when a man adds This morning a large farmer laughed at the idea one hundred acres 10 the two-hundred acres of of planting small potatoes; he says two to four land already acquired, he has little idea of employ- vines in a hill from large potatoes two feet apart, is ing any more help on the farm, and certrinly not full enough. On this point I am convinced it is the in the house, nor does he think of keeping better one right way. cows and improving his stock ; his mind is too much The flat farms of Flatland and Flatbush are loadoccupied with number; he is thinking of the num- ed with potatoes, corn, winter wheat, rye and grass ber of acres he will own, the number of acres he —wheat and rye, very full. Many square miles will have to mow over, and the number of cows checked off with rail fences, indicate that one king he will keep. Quality has so little to do with his farmer directs the whole : not a stone to jar your calculations, it would be hard to make him believe wheels, or a fruit tree (save now and then a cherry) that the profit from two acres, well cultivated, amid all the luxury. Neat white houses, Dutchy in would be more than the profit from three acres shape and trimmings, such as solid shutters, painted with the same expense and labor applied that the black with strap hinges, &c., all presenting a great two acres received. On this point I feel inclined contrast to the farm vicinity of Boston. Weather to differ with him, and if I am in error, I trust has been bad for haymakers--also much wheat is some correspondent of the Farmer will set me down. aright.
YEOMAN, Pardon the length—will be more brief in future, Brookfield, July, 1855.
Brooklyn, L. I., July 14.
For the New England Farmer. lead was at first ground in. Spirits of turpentine MOWING MACHINES.
should be thc principal fluid used to mix the paint,
Japan being added in small quantity as a dryer. Many experiments have demonstrated that an The first coat, or “priming,” should be mixed with acre of grass can readily be cut by one of these ma- linseed oil alone, being well rubbed down when dry, chines in forty minutes. Such was the fact in the with sand paper. Two coats should afterwards be experiment at Salem, July 16, when one team cutput on with the turpentine alone, the last coat being a quarter of an acre in ten minutes; and other rather the thickest. teams in less time, as reported.
To make a very handsome white finish, for parlors Of this I had some doubts, until this morning, I and other nice rooms, after putting the paint on saw a well trained team of horses, under the direc- very carefully, Gum Demar varnish should be put tion of a skilful driver, pass around a lot of herds- on over all. This makes a beautiful gloss, and grass, 12 rods by 30, and so continue to go round keeps the paint of a brilliant white all the time. and round, until the whole was laid completely flat, Should the paint become dirty, it can be washed off in less than two hours. The machine used was as easily as a pane of glass, using nothing but warm Ketchum's, with latest improvements, and the crop water, as strong soap destroys the varnish. Every of more than one ton to the acre, was spread as house-builder desiring a permanent, brilliant white even as I ever witnessed. After such operations, finish to his rooms, should use this varnish. It anoft repeated, no one can doubt that machines of swers a very good purpose to mix it in with the last this character are destined to come into general use. coat of paint, making a much handsomer finish than Suppose a machine to cut a swarth one-quarter when not used at all
, but much the best way is to of a rod in width, it will readily be seen that a team give the entire work a coat of the varnish after the will have to move only two miles, to complete an painting is finished and partially dry, acre. Or suppose it to cut a swarth one yard in Kitchens should be painted a light slate or lead width, then it will have to move less than three miles color, made by mixing a small quantity of lampto complete an acre. There are few teams that will black with the white lead ; particularly the doors, not do either of these, without urging. I cannot mantel-pieces and wash-boards. The floors of porchdoubt that machines will, ere long, be so construct- es and kitchens may be painted with the same maed, that one horse will do this work with ease, when terial, or they will look pleasant and cheerful if yelskilfully directed; and then one-half of the hardest low ochre is used, ground up with linseed oil and labor of the man, will be changed from the shoul-Japan. ders of the man to the shoulders of the beast, for
In putting on green paint, slate color should first whose use this fodder is gathered.
be used as a priming, two coats of the green being Salem, July 27, 1855.
added afterward. Paris green makes the brightest P.S.- I say nothing of the operations of other color, and must be ground in oil, adding Japan as a varieties of machines, such as Manny's and Russell's, dryer. Chrome green makes the deepest and most because my purpose is to speak only of what I have permanent color, and white lead is used to temper myself witnessed. But if rumor is to be credited, the paint to the proper hue.—Ohio Farmer and some of these, when in order, have done quite as
Horticulturist. well as Ketchum's. Like the use of the plow, much will depend upon the team and the driver. I am
For the New England Farmer. not unmindful, that it has been known for many
RAPE, OR COLE PLANT. years that grass could be thus cut: still
, so true is it, that cultivators of the soil are slow in introducing RESPECTED EDITOR :-In reading your valuable new modes of operation, that many of the best im- paper of June 30th, I noticed that "A. B." of Sudplements now in use have had a hard struggle be- bury, Mass., made an attempt to cultivate the rape fore they came into general favor. Who would now or cole plant, which proved unsuccessful, which may consent to dispense with cast iron in the structure be attributed to the season of sowing, which should of the plow ?. Still, who does not remember how have been done in the fall. its first introduction was ridiculed ?
Having been anxious myself to obtain some vegetable oil which might be used as a substitute for
the unwholesome fat of the swine for culinary purPAINT FOR HOUSES.
poses, I have made some investigation concerning We recently published a few directions on this the various kinds of vegetable oils, and find that subject, which seem to us important. One who rape seed produces a very beautiful, inert and pleasseems to be versed in the subject, as a practical ant oil, which is greatly admired and much used by painter, makes other suggestions, in the Indiana the French, taking the place of lard in the kitchen. Farmer, which we are disposed to endorse. He says : A Frenchman who had used an abundance of the oil, “It is no easy matter for some painters who pre- and from whom I obtained the most of my informatend to considerable experience in their art, to paint tion, assured me that one bushel of the seed would the interior of a house in a proper manner. White produce three gallons of oil. Of this I have no lead and oil, mixed as for outside use, will dry, it other proof than his statement, but am confident is true, and preserve the wood-work; but before from expressing a few seeds that they are very three months, the paint will become almost yellow, productive of oil. I have been entertaining hopes and have exactly the appearance of being smoked. that some one would make an attempt and give This is not the case with external painting, because the result of his experiment to the public. the light and air bleach the paint precisely as it In the fall of 1898, I procured a small quantity does linen or cotton cloth when exposed in a similar of seed, which I kept until the next year, and way.
sowed about the first of September; it came up, To paint white in the interior of a house, very lit- grew well, and made a good head or top before cold tle linseed oil should be used, except what the whitel weather came on. I let it remain in the ground
P. A. F.
until the next spring, when the plants started and have been discussed the manual operations of the grew very finely, producing nearly a peck of very farm; the plowing, planting, haying, draining, subfine seed, which was matured by the last of June. soiling, and nature of the soils ; and, although I found it to be very productive, but as there was no mill for making oil in this region, I did not at- much may well be said upon each of these fruitful tempt to cultivate any more, but think it may be topics, we shall not occupy space with more thai. cultivated to advantage with the following precau- a casual reference to any of them. tions. All who are acquainted with the turnip class It was once supposed that the profits of the or family, know it to be a biennial plant, requiring farm, and the beauty of the homestead, depended two seasons to mature the seed. It is so with rape, and it must be sowed in the fall, in season to make upon the hands, alone. That error has had its day, good root and top, and if the roots or plants are wrought its evil and departed, we trust, never to rewell covered with snow during winter, and not suf- tuin. A better opinion now prevails, that labor, fered to freeze and thaw in the spring, they will to be profitable, must be guided by intelligence, produce a good crop of seed. Those who are fond of greens can get a good
and it is of the importance of that intelligence that supply early in spring, without detriment to the
we propose to speak. plants, if they do not pick off the centre stalk. If
On the rugged mountains and beautifully.sweep«A. B.” will try again and sow in the fall, he will, ing vales of New England—on the broad prairies of undoubtedly, meet with good success.
the West, and the sunny acres of the South, the Shaker Village, N. H., July 9.
same causes are operating against an earnest and
hearty love of rural life, and its occupations. WHY IS THE FARMER DISCONTENTED? We assume the fact, that great discontent exists in
We propose to discuss the question propounded relation to that life; that young men and young above, in three or four articles, from time to time, women are dissatisfied with the employments of the and quoting pretty freely from addresses which we farm, and are seeking in speculative schemes that have delivered before lyceums and at agricultural aliment for the mind, which they have failed to fairs.
find in rural occupations, and a quiet home. There is an instinctive desire in the breast of If we can suggest a remedy for this evil, we shall most persons to leave the noise and confusion of deem it of more importance than to throw new crowded places, and retire at some time to the light on the common business of the fields, and the peaceful village and the quiet of rural life. The barn, or to enforce any principle of vegetable or tradesman and artizan, weary of their confinement, animal existence. long for a wider field of action, while the merehant, Large numbers commence farming, without harassed by the exposure of his property to the other capital than their own physical force, directed fickle elements, and the danger to those who go by their native good sense. They succeed in esdown to the sea in ships, sees in the distance the tablishing a pleasant home, and in educating and evening of his days embellished by the comforts rearing a family, through long and patient indusclustering around a home in the country. Others try, and careful economy; and this is the manner possess the taste for a home on the farm from in which those engaged in mercantile affairs, who early youth, and when separated from it, are ever have become wealthy, have acquired that wealth ; elevating the old roof-tree and the happy haunts by unintermitted effort, both in acquiring and savof childhood above all the pomp and glitter of ing. And the cases are somewhat rare, where the cities, and the trappings of fashionable life. young farmer of good health and habits, fails of
For us, the farm has ever had this charm, and establishing an attractive home, and acquiring a its implements are familiar to our hands, and the competence; while it has been ascertained that opinions we express have been formed on the farm, out of every one hundred who have entered upon while engaged in its labors and enjoying its pleas- mercantile pursuits in the largest city of New Eng
We look back to its renovated precincts land, upwards of ninety have failed. The startling with as much tender solicitude as does the gradu- but well authenticated fact, should have an influate to his beloved alma mater, and live over ourence on young men embarking in business, and youth again in the recollection of its delightful la- upon young women, too, about making alliances bors, scenes and recreations. But since those times, which can only end with life; for they are equally great changes have taken place in the modes of interested in the welfare and happiness of the famcultivating the soil, as in most of the business men ily. pursue.
Farm work requires a capital in coin, in talents, Facilities in printing and publishing have kept and in muscle and sinew, as well as in merchandizpace wish other improvements of the age. The ex-ing and navigating the ships of commerce. When act experiments of the scholar, the accurate obser- this capital is invested, farm-work is no more a lavation of the farmer, dissertations, pamphlets and bor of drudgery than any other—it is not half so newspapers have been multiplied without number, much so. If this be drudgery, what shall we call through the magic power of the press. In these the confinement of the law-office and the court