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ears, wherever I have been, and I have been in AGRICULTURAL EXHIBITIONS-1855. most of the counties of the adjoining States of Maine and New Hampshire,) I have seen no suffi- Alabama....
Montgomery, Oct. 23, 24, 25, 26. cient reason to vary this opinion. Essex.
Sherbrook, Sept. 11, 12, 13, 14. June, 1855.
. Coburg, Oct. 9, 10, 11, 12 .Hartford, Oct. 9, 10, 11, 12.
....London, Oct. 23, 24, 25. For the New England Parmer. Georgia..
. Atalanta, Sept. 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15.
Chicago, Oct. 9, 10, 11, 12 FARM WAGES AND LABOR.
..Indianapolis, Oct. 17, 18, 19. Iowa....
Fairfield, Oct. 10. MR. EDITOR :- A writer in the last number of Kentucky..
.Paris, Sept. 25, 26, 27, 28. Maryland...
Last week in October. the monthly Farmer finds himself much troubled Michigan....
.Detroit, Oct. 2, 3, 4, 5. on acconnt of the high wages which farm laborers Missouri.
... Boonville, Oct. 2, 3, 4, 5. are receiving. I shall attempt to show that good New Jersey....
.Manchester, Sept. 12, 13, 14.
...Camden, Sept. 19, 20, 21. workmen receive no more than a fair equivalent for New York...
...Elmira, Oct. 2, 3, 4, 5. their labor; if farmers wish to employ idle, igno
.Oct. 16, 17, 18, 19. Ohio...
..Columbus, Sept. 18, 19, 20, 21. rant, bigoted laborers, they may do so, and it will Pennsylvania......... ... ...Harrisburg, commencing Sept. 25. continue to be difficult to obtain others. The for- Rhode Island.. ......Providence, Sept. 11, 12, 13, 14, 15.
Tennessee... eigner when he first arrives, may be hired for small Vermont..
.Nashville, first week in October,
.Rutland, Sept. 11, 12, 13. wages, yet he is dear "help;' but after he has Virginia.
...Richmond. learned the ways of the country, he demands and Western Virginia............Wheeling Island, Sept. 26, 27, 28. obtains as high wages as the Yankee. Much of the
COUNTY SHOWS IN MASSACHUSETTS.
Barnstable. farm labor is performed by machinery, and less Berkshire.
..Barnstable, Oct. 10.
.....Pittsfield, Oct. 3, 4. hand labor is needed now than formerly, and more Bristol..
.New Bedford, Sept. 27, 27.
Essex. intelligent labor is required. The farm workman
...Lawrence, Sept. 26, 27. Franklin.
.. Greenfield, Oct. 3, 4. labors more hours than almost any other, and he is Hampden..
...Springfield, Oct. 3, 4. much exposed to the weather. İt appears to me Hampshire...
..Amherst, Oct. 10, 11. that the condition of the farm laborer, working 14 Hampshire, Franklin and Hampden.. Northampton, Oct. 10. 11.
.Great Barrington, Sept. 28, 27. or 16 hours per diem, for $14 or $15 per month, Middlesex...
.Concord, Sept. 26.
Middlesex South.. does not compare very well with that of the me
.Framingham, Sept. 19, 20. Norfolk..
...Dedham, Sept. 26, 27. chanic, working ten or eleven hours, for $1,50 or Plymouth
...Bridgewater, Oct. 3, 4. $2 per diem. Working "by the month” wears out
..Worcester, Sept. 26, 27.
Worcester North.. the strength and constitution, so that no man with Worcester West...
...........Fitchburg, Sept. 19.
..Barre, Sept. 20. average health can expect to hold out longer than
TOWN FAIRS. to the age of thirty-five or forty years.
..Tuesday, Sept. 25.
Leominster... Then farm labor is not constant employment, for
.Wednesday, Sept. 26.
MISCELLANEOUS. after the farmer has gathered in the products of the Cheshire County, N. H...
..Keene, Sept. 19, 20. soil, he does not require any extra help until it is Grafton County, N. H... .....Wentworth, Sept. 21, 22. time to prepare the ground for another crop ; conse- Mass. Society for Promoting Agriculture... Worcester, Sept. 27.
... Nashua, Oct. 2, 3. quently, there is, during the winter, but little em- Rockingham County, N. H....
..Keene, Sept. 27. ployment to be had.
Sullivan County, N. H...
..Sept. 26. There is so much exposure in farming that young
United States Agricultural Society..Boston, Oct. 23, 24, 25, 26. men who commence at the age of twenty-one, without any property, and with the intention of getting An acre of land contains 43,560 square feet, 4,840
HOW MUCH MANURE DO WE USE ON AN ACRE? a living by working on a farm, and who have an average fortune, usually end a short life as poor as have used guano, it is said 300 pounds is sufficient
square yards, or 160 square rods. By those who they began it. According to the doctrine laid down by "E. G. L.," wages ought to be low when pro ounce avordupois to the square yard. A cubic yard
to manure an acre; 3028 lbs. would just give one duce is high; that is, the farmer cannot pay so high of highly concentrated manure, like night soil
, wages when corn is $1,25 per bushel, as he can when it is only 75 cts. How is this?
would, if evenly and properly spread, manure an acre Nothing has been said about that numerous about 1,400 lbs ; a cubic foot not far from 50 lbs.
very well. A cubic yard of long manure will weigh class called day laborers, men having large families
A cord contains 128 cubic feet; a cord and a quarto support, and who are compelled to get their living by working out by the day on farms. Employ, If liquid manure be used it would take 170 bbls.
ter would give about a cubic foot to the square rod. ment is far from being constant with them, and their condition is, if possible, worse than that of the
to give one gill to a square foot upon an acre, which mechanic or the laborer for manufacturing compa- heads. It would be quite useful if farmers would
would be equal to about 50 pipes or large hogsnies, for they have great reason to hope that by at- be a little more specific as to the amount of manure tending to their business they may get promoted ; but the farm laborer can have no such hope; at the
applied. age of twenty-one he is in his prime, and commands
How TO MAKE A HORSE CARRY HIS TAIL as high wages then as ever, and considering the STRAIGHT. I had a very fine colt, that carried his short period in which farm labor is really in de tail on one side and was continually throwing it over mand, I think that laborers in that business ought the driving line, when to cure him of this habit, I to command the best of pay.
braided a loop in his tail and tied it with a string to South Hadley, Aug., 1855.
the trace on the same side on which he carried it, REMARKS. — We cannot agree with all that when I would let him up a little gradually on the
and when he found it was tied, he would pull on it, "E. N.” says in this article, but are quite willing sitting until at length he came to carry his tail perthat he shall have a fair hearing.
|fectly straight.-Boston Cultivator.
EXTRACTS AND REPLIES. 12 inches high. We do not believe in the alternate DRAINING-TRANSPLANTING-WALL-BUILDINGOLD PASTURES—WHEAT CROP.
(c.) If you mean to have a stone wall remain MR. EDITOR :-For a few years in my "teens" I where you place it, and stand the test of frost and "worked out” on a farm, after which I followed shoe- time, dig a trench three feet wide and two deep, making for a living ; this proving a detriment to my and fill it with small stones, if you have them in health, I studied, and have practiced, in the winter, abundance. If not, the depth may be less. A wall for several years, as a profession, the science of
well-built on such a foundation, will stand a hunPhrenology. I have had a desire for agriculture for
dred several years, and two years since bought a farm of years. over 100 acres, and in summer, after a six months (d.) Pastures may be greatly improved in the tour—from October, each year, lecturing, on the manner you suggest ; but whether that is the best above science—I do the most of the work on my way, or not, we are not able to say. Pastures often cleared land (60 acres) with my own hands, and love it well
. ì am healthy and happy. I should fail for want of seed, even when the soil is in pretty like to ask about a thousand questions through the good condition. Farmer, and perhaps shall, in the course of a year. (e.) If the land intended for wheat is sward, it
1st. I have a “swale," or swampy piece, of 7 or 8 would not be best to disturb it in the spring, beacres, that bears upon an average about two tons
cause it would be very expensive to break and pulper acre of hay, when cleared and some of it has been mowed for forty years—but it is quite wet. verize the sods which were turned under the preWould it be best to underdrain it, or cut a deep, vious autumn. Plow with a light, one-horse plow, open ditch, or just cut a shallow channel to give or work with a cultivator as deep as you can, withcourse to the surplus water? (a.) Some such ground out reversing the sods. in last summer's drought dried up so that the grass was killed for quite a distance from such a deep
RYE—WEEDS. ditch. Query: Does not such kind of ground re
FRIEND BROWN :- I wish to inquire through the quire much water to make it productive ?
New England Farmer what is the best time for 2d. Is the fall a proper time to set out native seedling apple trees, of five years growth from the it? I have lime, plaster and compost. Will rye
sowing rye, and what manures are best adapted for seed? (5.) Will such trees, set out in the fall, and do well, two or three crops in succession, on the others of the same kind, set out in the following
same ground? spring, bear alternate years, as some assert? I doubt the correctness of the theory.
What will, if anything, kill a weed known here
by the name of Jacob's Ladder? I have tried 3d. Is it the better plan to level the ground where stone wall is to be laid, or should the ground light on the subject will oblige many young far
every thing I can think of, but to no effect. Any remain unbroken? Some say that if the surface is
mers, and I presume old ones, too. disturbed, it will heave more than if left unbroken. (cc)
Petersburg, Aug. 6, 1855. 4th. Is the best way to improve the feed in old REMARKS.—To ensure a good crop of rye, it hilly pastures, to harrow them in the fall thorough- should be got in as early as the middle of August ; ly, and sow timothy and clover on them at the it will then have time to make strong roots, and time? (d.)
will resist the effects of winter much better than Lastly, should ground broken up in the fall be plowed again in the spring, for a wheat crop? (e.) when the roots are young, tender and feeble. The
Answers to the above, through the Farmer, would kind of manure best adapted to the crop, depends much oblige your subscriber,
in a great measure upon the kind of soil upon which Glover, Vt., 1855. BENJAMIN BRUNNING.
the crop is placed. On the light, sandy soils upon REMARKS.—(a.) Good meadow lands may be in- which rye is usually grown, a good compost of meajured by draining too much. The quality of the dow muck and barn manure would probably be land itself must determine how low the water must better than lime, plaster, or any of the common be reduced below the surface. On compact, heavy stimulants, such as guano and superphosphate. If meadows, the water may be drawn lower than on the meadow muck had been mixed with lime, those that are light and porous. Some meadows thrown into a heap, and remained a year, it would of the latter class are so exceedingly light that when be still better for it. the water is drained from them for the depth of Nothing short of never-tiring perseverance will 18 or 20 inches, they will burn, on taking fire, like destroy some of the weeds which infest the farm. stacks of peat, and be rendered nearly worthless. Several years since a patch of chiccory made its ap
Examine with care those parts of the meadow, pearance in one of our mowing fields, and was along the edge of the upland, where good grasses promptly dug up with a spade, but soon appeared grow luxuriantly, and see by digging what the state again. That process was repeated six or eight of moisture is there at various seasons of the year, times, but still it grew. It was then cut off just as this may afford suggestions which will be of ser- below the surface, and a handful of salt applied to vice to your operations.
the bleeding wound, but this did not kill them. (b.) Yes. Set them soon after the leaves have This summer they were allowed to grow until the fallen, and throw the earth about their stems 8 to seed bolls began to form and then they were
W. R. S.
pulled up, some of them requiring the strength of ent season. I am no alarmist, nor have I
distwo men to accomplish it. To-day they have broad, position to increase the price of this almost necessaluxuriant leaves, and are growing as vigorously as ry article of food. In proof of this, I will say, that
within a week, I have known a contract to supply ever. Now, friend “S.,” if you will tell us how to one hundred bushels of potatoes of prime quality, destroy chiccory plants, we will offset such service as taken from the field, at forty cents per
bushel. by informing you how to kill “Jacob's Ladder.” Aug. 14, 1855.
than last year.
HOW TO USE MUCK.
UNITED STATES AGRICULTURAL Will you give me the best way of using muck on
SOCIETY. my land ? My farm is situated on a rising piece of land, and is mostly sandy loam. I have just com- We call attention to the following Circular, menced farming for myself, and hope to be, some- which will make known the objects of the Society, time, a practical and thorough tiller of the soil.- and hope all who are interested in the noble art of Crops for the most part are back ward in this section of the country, but are growing fast, and look Agriculture—and who is not—will make this Expromising; the hay crop seems more abundant hibition a personal matter, and give it all the influ
JAMES F. BUTLER. ence in his power to render it, in all its departMonmouth, Aug., 1855.
ments, superior to any enterprise of this kind which REMARKS.—After the muck has been dug one has ever taken place in this country. There are year, mix it with ashes or lime, and use it in that none, whatever business or profession they may be way on your sandy loams. The best use of muck, engaged in, but may be benefited, directly or indihowever, is as an absorbent. Always keep a good rectly, in the success of such an Exhibition. Not stock near your manure heap, and as the droppings only the best Stock may be presented, but we see of the leanto are thrown down, cover them with the no objection to exhibiting farm implements, specimuck once each day; no labor that you perform mens of fruits, grains, bees and bee-hives, preserved will pay you better than this. You not only get fruits, and everything else having immediate referthe addition of the muck, but it absorbs the volatile ence to the farm. We do not know that it is congases of the manure, and lays them up for future templated that anything beside Stock shall be in
troduced, but suggest, and earnestly desire, that
other articles may be allowed a place for ExhibiWINTER WHEAT.
tion, even if no premium is offered on them. GENT. :-In your paper of Aug. 11, I find an ar
We trust that New England will do her whole ticle on “winter wheat, which contains information new to me; and, inasmuch as I have a good quan
duty in this noble enterprise. That the hills of tity of such land as is mentioned in said article, I Vermont and Berkshire, the valleys of the Connecfeel disposed to make a trial of the winter wheat, ticut, the Merrimack and the Penobscot, and the provided I can find the seed. Can you tell me plains of the Cape, will all send their products to where, and for what price, it can be had ? If so, by this grand gathering of the people, with the noble giving the information in your next paper, or as early thereafter as your convenience will admit, you
specimens of their industry and skill. will confer a great favor on a SUBSCRIBER. A GRAND NATIONAL EXHIBITION OF STOCKWinchendon, Aug. 14, 1855.
Horses, Cattle, Sheep and Swine-open to compeREMARKS.—Winter wheat may be found at the tition to all the States of the Union, and to the agricultural warehouses, and the price will be, pro- Agricultural Society in the City of Boston, Oct.
British Provinces, will be held by the United States bably, somewhere between $3 and $4 per bushel. 23d, 24th, 25th and 26th. Twenty Thousand Dol
lars have been guaranteed by patriotic gentlemen For the New England Farmer.
of Boston and its vicinity to defray the expenses ;
the City of Boston has generously granted to the POTATO CROP.
Society for present use, a fine public square of fifty MR. EDITOR :-An observing cultivator informs acres; and $10,000 will be offered in premiums in me, that since the late abundant rains, he has no- the various departments. ticed unmistakable indications of disease and decay The previous Exhibitions of this Society—at on the vines of his potatoes. Appearances, like Springfield, Mass., in 1853, and at Springfield, those in years past, when the potato was destroyed Ohio, in 1854—were eminently successful, and no by the rot. If this be true, and I know no reason efforts will be spared to render the present Show, to doubt, it is a fact worthy of notice, in several combining as it does the four great departments points of view—both as it will affect the supply of of FARMING STOCK, superior to its predecessors. this most useful article of food, and as it may The Premium List, with the Rules of the Exhibibe indicative of the cause of the malady that has tion, will be forwarded to all who will address the heretofore been so alarming.
President or Secretary, at Boston, to that effect. It Never has the prospect of potatoes been more is earnestly hoped that all breeders, and owners of encouraging than for a month past. The general Fine Stock, will feel it to be a duty, as it certainly is remark has been—"never did potatoes look better," for
their interest, to contribute to the Show. and “there is no indication of rot.” And further, The List of Entries, Exhibitors and Award of never have we known potatoes appear to better ad- Premiums, and all the proceedings of the Exhibivantage when brought upon the table than the pres- tion, will be published in the JOURNAL of the So
CIETY for 1855. Annual members of the Society, she gets either haggard and lanky, or round and who desire to receive the Journal, should remem- fat; her figure tumbles all of a heap; her ankles ber to renew their subscriptions.
give out, her feet spread and flatten; her elastic MARSHALL P. WILDER, President. step becomes a waddle; and her person altogether WM. S. KING, Secretary.
acquires the style of a cow. Brilliant eyes, on the Boston, Aug., 1855.
other hand, complexion to match, features retaining
the chiselled outline, a slim and smart figure, neatly Fay's Portable Hand-Power Hay, Cotton of walking or riding out at a good pace, and for a
turned ankles, finely-arched insteps, are the reward and Cider Press.
reasonable distance, every practicable day. And by This machine, the simplicity of which cannot be these means is preserved for many a year a contour, surpassed, has long been desired by the agricultu- the cut of which resembles that of the doe or the
rist. It is admirably gazelle. At no period of the year is any healthy
young woman, of whatever station, obliged to exadapted for pressing hay, change out-of-door recreation for in-door amnsecotton, hemp, wool, rags, ment, except when it hails, or rains, or snows, or pumice, linseed oil, &c., thunders or lightnings, or blows a hurricane. Are &c. Notwithstanding its there not furs? never mind the expense: the war small proportions and with Russia has not made them dearer than the
attendance of a simpering doctor. Are there not extraordinary lightness, muffs, and boas, and all sort of water-proof armor ? it is strong and effectual, Young ladies, take the advice of your elders, and, sufficiently so to press to as the old woman says, “ Get out!”-in all tolerany compactness requir-able weather. As to necessary in-door amusement, ed. It is so simple in its mind, it may also be made conducive to beauty by
being rendered in some degree intellectual. Intelconstruction and
ligence adds considerably to the lustre of the eyes,
that any person of ordi- which, without it, have only the glitter of glass beads, nary capacity will readily understand the mode of whilst the best-shaped and most splendidly-colored using it ; with common care, one machine will last face which they can be stuck in, resembles that of a a life-time; for convenience and strength, the frame- waxen dummy in a hair-dresser's shop. In order
, work is all secured together with joint bolts, only would do well to cultivate intelligence, to some ex
therefore, to attract admiration, ladies of fashion twelve of which are required to be removed, in ta- tent, by way of in-door amusement. Beauty may king apart for shipment, viz: four post bolts which be called a fading flower; but it is a flower that secure the top work to the bottom, and four bolts will fade very much the sooner for being taken inupon each side, which secure the end work to the doors for the winter like a geranium.- Water Cure
Journal. side joints; the doors being previously unshipped, you have the two end pieces, two side pieces, and CONVENIENT AND WHOLESOME FOOD.—A very bottom work, which are easily carried by hand.— cheap, convenient, and palatable dish may be preTwo persons will put the whole together in a few pared with the common pilot bread, which is a hard, minutes.
dry cracker, made of flour and water. These can The press being worked by hand power, can be be purchased by the barrel at a price but a little used advantageously in stormy weather, within
higher than flour, pound for pound, as they are
generally made by machinery, and the cost of makclosed doors, whereas in operating with horse pow-ing and baking is but trifling when it is done on a er, doors require to be more or less open. large scale. We see the price of pilot bread is
For sale by the patentee's agents, NOURSE & Co., quoted in this market at less than half a cent per No. 9 Commercial Street, Boston.
pound above good flour, and as they are nearly as dry as flour, they are about as nutritious. They
will keep longer than flour without deteriorating or LADY'S DEPARTMENT. becoming stale. They can be used in a variety of
ways, such as putting them into stews of meat, or OUT-OF-DOOR EXERCISE.
meat and potatoes; they improve " hash” materi
ally, and are a good substitute for “crust” in potEvery woman, every fashionable woman even, has pie, having the advantage of always being light and a heart at least considered as the organ of circula- wholesome. For an ordinary, every-day dish, put tion; and blood-vessels, on the healthy play of them into an oven after the bread is removed, or which depends the bloom of her face, and which into a stove oven, and let them dry thoroughly; will not play healthily without out-of-door exercise. then break them up and pour boiling water over She has also muscles and ligaments, which have to them, and add a little sast, and butter, cream or brace her up, hold her together, and keep her clean- milk. We know of no more easily prepared, more limbed, but will do nothing of the sort for long, wholesome, and more palatable dish than this, for unless they are maintained in proper tension by the the breakfast, supper, or even for the dinner-table. same means. Let her loll about all day in a close American Agriculturist. "muggy" house, instead of exerting herself for a due time in the fresh air, and she quickly begins to droop and look unwholesome. Soon her com
Afflictions are the same to the soul as the plow plexion fades or grows discolored, her features are
to the fallow ground, the pruning-knife to the vine, puffed or shrunken, her form either wastes or swells
, and the furnace to the gold.