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G. J. F.

For the New England Farmer. nary gravelly soil, measuring seven acres and one CHEMISTRY--No. 2.

hundred and twenty rods, which yielded two hun

dred and twenty-nine and a half bushels. It weighed TRANSFORMATION,

fifty-six pounds to the bushel. One hundred and As every species of growth and decay consists in fifty bushels of it were sold for $1,50 a bushel. the passage of water from one state to another, it may not be amiss to glance at some of these changes, as they present themselves to the student of

For the New England Farmer. nature. “All organized substances are composed LIME AND CANKER WORMS. mainly of but four elements, viz., carbon, hydrogen,

MR. EDITOR :-As no answer has appeared in oxygen and nitrogen.”— Youmans. These, acted upon by different agents , and under different cir- your paper, to the inquiry of "Verdant Farmer," in

relation to a remedy for the grubs, which are decumstances, go to make up, in the main, the sum total of the animal and vegetable world.

stroying whole fields of corn, &c., in his vicinity, I But let us look at vegetable growth. Every per- benefit of your numerous readers, the following ar

take the liberty of requesting you to insert, for the fect seed possesses in itself the rudiments of a new ticle taken from the Evening Transcript, giving an plant. “In some varieties it is so complete that the account of a remedy which has been very successmicroscope reveals its structure, root, stem and ful in destroying the canker worm, and which will leaves." - Youmans.

be found equally efficacious for the destruction of Encased in its coating, it awaits the action of external agents, viz., warmth, air and moisture. When grubs and worms of all kinds.

Most respectfully yours, &c. exposed to these, it awakes to life, absorbs water

Charlestown, Aug. 13th, 1855. and oxygen, swells in bulk, chemical action begins, carbonic acid is given off, its temperature rises, and

MURIATE OF LIME AND CANKER WORMS.- Mr. a new substance, (a kind of ferment,) is formed, Editor :-The ravages of the canker worm for the which possesses

the

power of changing starch into sugar or gum, thus supplying the necessities of the terest and inquiry, and I have devised many schemes

last few years have been to me a subject of deep inyoung plant. As soon as the germ appears, it first for the destruction of this rapidly increasing pest. takes root, and then the blade appears, and it be- While a resident of Cambridge, the experiments gins to provide for itself. Food in a liquid form is above alluded to were tried; but my removal to taken up by the roots, and is, by capillary attracțion, carried to the extreme of every branch and Lexington put a stop for the time being to all furleaf, there undergoing the change necessary to fit either or any of them would have succeeded. The

ther investigations, and I cannot judge how far it for food, for the growing plant, by being mixed canker worms had not as then reached Lexington, with carbonic acid absorbed from the air. And let it ever be remembered that the LEAF is the seat of hoped, that, as far as I was concerned, I had seen

or that part of it in which I resided, and I really this important change. The leaf is an organ of in, the last of them; but judge my horror, Mr. Editor, halation, digestion and respiration. Hales found when visiting my next neighbor's garden, to find his that a sunflower, weighing three pounds, exhaled thirty ounces of water in a day. The pores are sit- that spring from a nursery in Cambridge, covered

apple trees, which by the way had been purchased uated the under side of the leaf

, and are valve with my old enemies. They were even now going like in their actions, opening when the supply of into their winter quarters

, preparatory to a vigorous water is abundant, and closing when it is small

.

campaign in the coming spring. “They vary in size, on different kinds; upon the apple leaf it is said there are 24,000 to the square making some experiments with muriate of lime,

It so happened that during that season I had been inch.”—Gray. Oxygen is returned to the air by which my most esteemed friend, Mr. James Gould, plants, while they retain the carbon, thus purifying the manufacturer, had recommended to my notice the air ; for men and animals take oxygen from the air , and return carbonic acid, while plants take car- my most sanguine expectations; and the thought

as a fertilizer. As a manure, the muriate exceeded bonic acid and return oxygen; thus acting in uni- struck me while thus using it

, why will it not anson, keeping the air in nearly the same state. "An adult man exhales about 140 gallons of this gas per and destroying the canker worms ? By my direction

swer the double purpose of fertilizing the ground day.”Davy. The wind, too, plays, its part in this grand drama under the trees in question, was well covered with

therefore, the ground, to the extent of the branches of nature, by keeping the air in never-ceasing mo- this muriate of lime; late in the fall it was dug tion. But the most wonderful part of all this com- thoroughly in. The next season, not a canker worm plicated machinery, is the sun. He is the engine, so to speak, that moves the whole. Nothing could ed. Now is the time, Mr. Editor, for your readers

was to be found. The experiment had fully succeedcome to maturity, without the light and heat of the

to try the thing for themselves. I do not ask them king of day. How truly wonderful, that a few

to put faith in my experiment alone, for I am hapgases mingled with a very small proportion of mineral elements, should compose all the varied form py to add, that the same thing has been since tried,

both in England and in this country, and in every of life, vegetable and animal, that we see in our

case with perfect success. ever-changing world. But so it is, and these chan

The canker worms have now mostly gone into the ges are, to my mind at least, a very appropriate ground, and now, therefore, is the time to destroy theme of study.

S. TENNEY. West Poland, Me., Aug., 1855.

them. The experiment is well worth trying, for as a fertilizer alone, the muriate will pay three times

its cost. I shall give my plum trees the same dose, GREAT YIELD OF RYE.—The Salem Observer has and have no doubt but there too it will do its work. a specimen of rye raised this season upon the town

Yours truly,

WILLIAM PLUMER. farm of South Danvers, on a piece of land of ordi- Lexington, June 21, 1855.

manures.

For the New England Farmer.

IMPROVEMENTS. A NEW BUILDING MATERIAL. The investment of capital in permanent improveWe have just been shown a new building materi-ments, is much more common in England than in al, which promises, from its exceeding cheapness, this country. In the Mark-Lane Erpress of April beauty and apparent durability, to supplant entirely 10th, there is a report of a speech by Mr. Mechi the use of stone, brick or wood. This article is the invention of Mr. AMBROSE

of Tiptree Hall, in which that gentleman is repreFOSTER, of Portland, Wis., and by him patented. sented to have said, that he had, on a farm of one It may properly be termed artificial sand-stone, be-hundred and seventy acres, nearly or quite two ing composed of eleven parts common sand to one miles of iron pipe, for the distribution of liquid part dry slaked lime, which being thoroughly min

The apparatus for applying this manure, gled together, without the use of water, and subjected to a pressure of a hundred tons to the square

including a steam-engine, tanks, iron pipes and gutfoot (a pressure readily obtained by machinery) ta percha hose, cost him about twenty-one dollars produces a beautiful stone, with polished surfaces, per acre.

This investment he considers a profitawhich exposure to the atmosphere hardens, and ble one-yielding him larger returns than the same soon it becomes equal to granite for strength and amount of capital invested in public funds. He solidity, only becoming harder and more stone-like considers the application of liquid manure to lands by the action of the weather. These blocks may be made of any desired size and shape, from that of of all description, much more economical than that the common brick to a foot square, or may be of the solid excrements of animals. By this process formed triangular for corners of buildings, or curved of manurial irrigation, the excreta of the anifor chimneys and other purposes. Each block is mals produced to-day, were conveyed into the tanks pressed with a space for dead air, thereby rendering all walls made by them, both dry and warm.

to-morrow, conveyed immediately to the land, and No lathing

or plastering is needed, the walls being the soil saturated with it to the depth required ; perfectly smooth on either side, upon which paint whereas, when the solid matters were applied, the or paper may be laid, and present a better appear- cost of transportation, spreading, etc., not only ance than when laid upon plastering:

proved a matter of considerable expense, but there The press in which this material is to be manufactured, will be so small and light that it may

was also much time lost, oftentimes, in waiting for readily be taken to any spot where it is desired to rain to wash the fertilizing particles into the soil, erect a building-bringing the sand from the near- and then when it came, the quantity was not suffiest bank, and the lime from the nearest kiln, and cient to carry them to the required depth. The making any quantity of blocks desired, thus saving actual cost of applying the urine and other liquid the expense of handling and carting.

This article has been subjected to the severest matters made in his establishments—an equal distests and examinations by the most thorough, sci- tribution over all his fields being secured—did not entific and practical men, chemists and architects of exceed three cents per ton! His estimate of the New York city, and elsewhere, and pronounced by actual augmentation of produce, in consequence of them to be a perfectly safe and most valuable sub- this irrigating process, is that it amounts to more stitute for stone and brick. Of the cheapness of the material, none can

than double the outlay—or about one hundred per doubt when they remember how abundant sand is cent. Now why is it that our farmers who are by everywhere, and lime almost equally so. Of its du- no means deficient in enterprise in other matters, do rability and capability of resisting all external influ- not imitate their English friends in this great matences, there seems no doubt ; this, however, will be ter? Why do they, in view of such facts and exfurther determined by unerring experiments ; which if successful, will render it one of the greatest in- amples as these set before them in the speech of ventions of the age.

Mr. Mechi, still blindly persist in suffering the anAny information in regard to this article can be nual waste of the most valuable portions of their

from Messrs. J. H. Buck & Co., of Lebanon, manure, and this, too, while they are actually stunN. H., who are the manufacturers of the presses ning us with their dolorous and ceaseless complaints for making it; which we understand they will soon be in readiness to send to any part of the United against short crops and exhausted soils. Farmers States. They are also agents for the sale of patent

should reflect upon this subject. It is one of the rights for the States of Maine, New Hampshire, very first importance, and we trust will no longer Vermont and Massachusetts.

be treated with neglect. We can hardly conceive of a better boon to mankind, in a temporal view, than the discovery of a A FACT IN MANURING.—A person carrying some very cheap and inexhaustible material for construct- orange trees from China to the Prince of Wales ising their buildings, their houses, their homes; the land, when they had many hundred fruit on them, possession of which gives to life its chiefest pleasure expected a good crop the next year, but was utterand sweetest enjoyment. A home for all—that is ly disappointed: they produced but few. A Chia home in its most thrilling acceptation, and vice and nese, settled in the island, told him if he would have crime will have few devotees.

his trees bear, he must treat them as they were acLebanon, N. H., 1855.

customed to in China; and he described the follow

ing process for providing manure—“A cistern, so REMARKS.—Please send us a specimen of the lined and covered as to be air-tight, is half-filled manufactured material.

with animal matter, and to prevent bursting from

.

E. I.

the generation of air, a valve is fixed, which gives taste. Potash is derived from the ashes of land way with some difficulty, and lets no more gas es- vegetables ; soda from sea plants, and ammonia cape than is necessary: the longer the manure is from animal substances. kept the better, till four years, when it is in perfec Now, by these changes and combinations, all tion; it is taken out in the consistence nearly of plants and vegetables, as well as animals, are formed. jelly, and a small portion buried at the root of Thus, a stick of green wood is formed by the comevery orange tree—the result being an uncommon-bination of oxygen and hydrogen; the sap, or water, ly great yield.” A person hearing of the above fact, carbon, or coal; and the ashes, or earthly matter, and wishing to abridge the term of the preparation, are drawn from the earth. By burning it, the water thought that boiling animals to a jelly might have a is changed back into the two gases, and thrown off similar if not so strong an effect. Accordingly, he into the atmosphere. You have the coal, or carbon boiled several puppies, and applied the jelly to the left. This, though apparently dry, still contains roots of a sterile fig-tree; the benefit was very great water in the shape of oxygen and hydrogen disunit-the tree from that time for several years bearing ed, and in a solid dry form. Burn the carbon, or in profusion. Hints of this kind are well worth coal, and the balance of the oxygen and hydrogen preserving, for though an English farmer may nei- is driven off, and the remains are earth. Analyse ther have the apparatus of the Chinese, nor puppies these ashes, and we shall find all of the fifteen eleenough to become an object of attention, yet the ments, except the gasses, which have escaped into reduction of manure to a mucilaginous state ought the atmosphere. To ascertain the amount of gas perhaps to be carried further than it is.

in a stick of wood, weigh the stick, then char it in a

pit, and weigh again ; then reduce it to ashes, and CHEMICAL COMBINATIONS.

weigh then. In the first operation, you get the

weight of the gases united in the sap, which are Every farmer should know enough of chemistry, thrown off; in the second, the weight of the gases to tell the combination that forms the different uncombined, existing in a solid state. So in lime, vegetable creations. Every plant and vegetable is which, united with carbonic acid, forms limestone. formed of the same substances, only united in differ- A bushel of limestone weighs 142 lbs.; burn it, and ent proportions. All, too, are formed of only it weighs only 75 lbs., showing that 97 lbs. of carfifteen elements. The names of these elements bonic acid and water have been thrown off; add 20 we have often given ; but as a valued subscriber lbs. of water to it, and it will crumble into a dry has asked us, “What is the best way for a farmer powder, weighing 93 lbs., showing that the change of limited means to acquire a knowledge of Agri- of 20 lbs of water into solid, dry substances, has cultural chemistry ?" we will repeat what we have been effected with a loss of only 2 lbs. often said, by recurring to the first principles of In analyzing the ashes of wood, we find what chemistry; and if our “subscriber," of Sullivan, earth is used in forming the plant, or tree. The will learn this lesson fully, he will be prepared to apple tree shows a large proportion of alkali and be his own teacher afterward, by experimental lime; the peach, iron; potatoes, potash ; wheat, training.

phosphate of lime; clover, lime; and the cranberry, The fifteen simple elements are oxygen, hydro- of potash. gen, nitrogen, chlorine, carbon, potash, soda, lime, When the farmer has got thus far, perfectly, he alumina, magesia, iron, manganese, silex, sulphur, knows what composes his crops, and that his apple and phosphorus.

trees need ashes; the peach, iron scales; potatoes, Some of these names may be better understood leached ashes ; wheat, bone meal; and clover, lime. by calling them differently. "Thus, to call chlorine, When he has completely learned this lesson, we muriatic acid ; carbon, coal, or the part of a thing will

, perhaps, give him another.Ohio Farmer. that will burn; alumina, clay; and silex, sand—they will, perhaps, be better understood. The other substances are probably understood by their chemi

BREAKING STEERS. cal names.

In breaking a pair of steers, first confine one of Now, by different combinations of these substan- them in a yard 14 to 18 feet square, high and ces, are all other substances formed. Thus, oxygen strong enough to hold him ; then enter the pen and nitrogen form the air we breathe; nitrogen and with a switch three or four feet long, and with your hydrogen combined form ammonia, or hartshorn; pockets filled, not “with rocks,” but with ears of chlorine and ammonia combined form sal ammoniac; corn, apples, carrots, &c. Tame the steer by feedoxygen and sulphur form sulphuric acid; sulphuricing him, and convince him that you mean no harm. acid and soda form glauber salts ; sulphuric acid Having done this, I introduce my business to him, and magnesia combined form epsom salts; sulphu- by getting him into a corner with as much gentle ric acid and alumina, or clay, form alum; sulphuric ness as possible. Here stroke him and pet him in acid and iron combined form green vitriol; sulphu- various ways, feeding him with a nubbin or two of ric acid and zinc combined form white vitriol ; sul- corn. phuric acid and lime combined form “plaster of Of course he must learn to haw,-80 I strike him Paris ;” oxygen and phosphorus combined form gently on the off ear with my switch, and after phosphoric acid ; phosphoric acid and lime combin- that with my back towards him, twist his tail, (a ed form bones, or phosphate of lime; oxygen and little twisting is better than more :) I conduct him carbon combined form carbonic acid, (so fatal in again to his corner and order him to whowhich rooms where burning coals are kept ;) carbonic from the force of circumstances he is compelled to acid and lime united form chalk, and" limestone, do. Thus I teach him to stand as well as haw, and called carbonate of lime; potash and aquafortis in a short time he will obey the command in any combined form saltpetre; soda and chlorine com- part of the pen. bined form common salt. Potash, soda and ammonia After sufficient practice in the pen, I let him out are called alkalis, as they possess a sharp, burning into a large yard, and then drive him with equal

success.

Here he becomes well accustomed to the energy, intelligence and docility, large lungs and Who, Haw, Gee, processes. But if he does not belly, with vigorous digestion, thus furnishing the prove sufficiently tractable I return him again to the means of engendering the greatest amount of physmall yard for further discipline. The other steer 1 sical force, from a given quantity of feed, and a long serve in the same way.

life, with continued health and energy. Preparatory to yoking, I drive them both into the These combinations are found but rarely, and we pen and exercise them together, making one stand assert, without fear of contradiction, that the course while the other comes up as if coming under the heretofore generally pursued in breeding, has well yoke, the whip being held out to represent the yoke. nigh obliteruted many of these leading characterisThen taking the bows out of the yoke, I lay it on tics of the genuine horses. their necks, taking care not to frighten them in the We occasionally find an animal, in nearly every operation, then put in the bows, and I have a yoke neighborhood, possessing these qualities in the largof oxen! But previous to yoking, drive them side est degree, and although of advanced age, they are by side in the large yard. While driving in the always ready for their rations, and are always relied large yard either single or double, use a whip 8 or upon with confidence, for the plow or the road. 10 feet long, and when driving both, put on a lash Of these noble specimens, of an almost by-gone two feet long.

race, all are ready to bear testimony that “Old CAUTIONS.—Keep cool! use caution for yourself Charley's” end of the double tree has never been and for your cattle. If they kick you, look out known to slacken, nor he to limp, complain of the next time, but don't return the compliment, for you colic, or refuse a feed; while many a scrub has sickare not to consider yourself on equal terms with ened at his side, or been turned out to grass with them. A little patting and rubbing is better. If spring knees, spavin, ringbone, sweney, windgalls

, you have not Christianity enough to return good for and cholic, " Old Charley" has kept the even tenor evil, don't undertake to break steers. I had rather of his way, has seen generations of badly bred nags break a pair of wild steers for $5 than a pair that come and go, from want of capacity to digest a has been injudiciously handled for $10.

hearty feed, or to endure the labor of the field and Be very careful not to overload them, and never road. drive them till they get out of breath. Many cat

Farmers should select these rare specimens, and tle are broken in spirit and constitution while young, study their formation and peculiarities with care, Indeed, very few know what a good, well-broke, and and practice upon the lessons thus obtained. well-fed, and well-tended pair of oxen can do. Nev

The very worst recommendation a breeding horse er whip, and never talk loud. The superiority of can possibly have, is that he possesses great height. this mode in economy of time, in ease of execution, If the horse had been made like the “Crane," for and in final results, will be apparent enough to any wading in search of food, or could be made useful one who trys it.-CHARLES H. WALKER, in Wool- to man for hunting ducks, or as a fruit ladder, then Grower.

it might be well to breed a few for these objects.

But, inasmuch as, for all the uses to which we put A SHORT CHAPTER ON HORSES.

the animal, long legs are a serious disadvantage,

rendering him liable to cripple up at an early age, We are very glad to be able to record the fact, (who ever saw a " leggy” horse fit for the road at that farmers are paying increased attention to the i5 or 20,) and being invariably coupled with other improvement of their horse stock. The stimulus serious imperfections, it is of the utmost importance, of "Agricultural reading,” and of minds of many that we steer clear of all animals for breeding purpersons, in regard to what is the proper stock for poses, both male and female, that show too much farmers to breed.

“ daylight.” Or, if under the apparent necessity of The wise breeder keeps control over the laws of breeding from a mare with this form, a sire should reproduction, by judicious selection of breeding be selected of the opposite extreme, and thus will animals; and crossing with an intelligent under the defect “ breed off” in the progeny. standing of what the cross will produce, in “ outline,” The proper horse for the farmer, (and a horse and in anatomical and physiological peculiarities. suitable for the farmer's use, is just the horse for He is a poor machinist indeed, who does not become all purposes,) is one of enduring constitution, round familiar with the requirements of an engine, an in the body, thick set, quick but not fiery, good economical expenditure of power in a given direc-sized joints, but not large boned, broad in the hips

, tion, and a poorer still, who does not familiarize deep in the quarter, strong in the loins, capacious himself with the tone, and elastic properties of in the chest, low upon the legs, and having a good metals, that he may select with reference to the hoof. Such a horse will be hardy, strong, and a dissimilar requirements of the several parts, and the good traveller, and always up to the collar and the combined

power to be expected by the whole. The feed bor. Let us ask the farmers, what proportion machinist aims to produce the greatest possible power of the horses that are kept through the country for in the smallest space, and with the least friction and breeders are of this description. fuel, in all of which he is consistent.

The horse that we have described as a “model," The art of breeding, being of equal, if not of greater importance, should be as carefully studied, back, to have sprung from high bred stock. He

will always be found, if his genealogy be traced and practised upon by th several prominent ends which should be sought in may not be great of size, but a trial of 15 or 20

years has proved to his owner, that he is possessed the rearing of horses ; his reputation will be on a of quality, unknown to the scrub. His muscles par with that of the well-informed machinist. An and joints are firm and powerful, and he moves outline, pleasing to the eye, a fine quality of muscle, with ease a load that staggers a scrub with flabby bone, and tendon, a large development of muscles, muscle, and loosely set joints, though he be of these combinations giving the greatest power in the

greater size.—Ohio Farmer. smallest space. Speed and elasticity of movement,

BY H. F. FRENCH.

For the New England Farmer. good deal of land, not only by covering it, but their LETTER FROM THE HOMESTEAD. rough points, and the fear which cattle have of

touching them in plowing, prevents working within

about two feet of the wall. It is a great labor which What kind of a Farm to choose, Hill or Plain-Use of Stone for

Fences-Apple Trees destroyed by Mice-Stone Fences best the crop will not repay, to dig up those spaces by for Pastures, Doubtful as to Fields--Stones a great Nuisance in Tillage, but convenient for Drains—Consolation for those hand, and so it generally happens that briars and who have hard Farms.

bushes occupy them, offending the good taste of all MY DEAR BROWN :—My sojourn a few weeks on beholders. Then again stone walls furnish excelthe Homestead shows what perhaps a thoughtful lent accommodations for vermin of all descriptions. man might know at any time, that there are some I remember that either DOWNING, or one of his things that may be better learned in an old place correspondents in the Horticulturist, said, that than on a new one. At Exeter I have wrought, in his neighborhood, people would as much fear mainly on new land, till I brought my farm, upon that their fruit trees would be eaten by giraffes, as which I offered to sell all the hay in 1848 for twelve by mice! But while the former animal is very dollars, to yield a crop which I sold this year, stand- rare in this region, it is quite common to find our ing, for $155, besides eight tons which was put in best apple trees, even of six inches diameter, entiremy barn. Most of it grew upon land where I had ly girdled by mice, if the trees stand near an old dug the stumps, cut the bushes, and sowed the wall. In an orchard on the Homestead here, we grass seed in autumn, without raising any hoed crop have replanted the row next the wall many times, or grain.

and now it is not more than half complete, because There is hardly a stone to throw at a dog on the once in a few years, some hungry mouse has crept fifty acres. The buildings are all new there, the out from the wall under the snow, and avoided trees all young, and everything in order. But here, starvation by gnawing the bark from a tree. I return to a different scene. Fifty-five years ago Many farmers in old times planted a row of apple this house was built, and the barn and the sheds. trees round their fields near the wall, but although All along during the century, from time to time, the trees grow better near a granite wall, than elsemy father, who was one of the progressive farmers where, for various reasons, yet the ravages of the of his day, though a lawyer of large practice, was mice, the difficulty of properly cultivating the trees improving his farm. My first impressions of farm- and of collecting the fruit, settle the question in faing, are made up of laying heavy stone walls and vor of regular orchards, rather than scattering trees. blasting rocks. This was the great feature of the On the whole, I think in most localities, especialfarm operations when I was a boy. To get a few ly where land is valuable, the balance of argument acres clear of stones, and well walled in, was the is not greatly, if at all, in favor of stone fences for great thing. What was undertaken, was done, in our fields. For a pasture, there is nothing so cheap, those days, and you have seen the smooth fields, and so convenient, so reliable, as a good stone wall. If the big wall, seven feet high, round the barn-yard, it falls down occasionally by the action of the frost, built of stones many of them of two tons weight you are pretty sure to find the materials close at each. It would make a cannon-proof fortification hand for repairs. If, therefore, one could have just about Sebastopol. Then the fifty-acre cow-pasture, stone enough to complete his walls round his pasand several larger pastures for the young cattle, tures, and a few spare ones for drains and the like, were all walled in, and everything made secure. and clean fields and gardens, it would be the pretti

Stones or no stones, that is the question. I have est farm in the world. But Providence does not so thought of it a good deal, as every man should, es- order things. While I have actually been obliged pecially if about to purchase a farm. “Commenta- to send to a neighbor's farm in Exeter to beg stones tors differ” upon this, as most other subjects. One enough to load a field roller, I should judge from man says he would not take the gift of a rocky the walls and fragments about the old place here, farm. He would have "easy land,” while another that the surface might be covered a foot thick if the does not exactly see how one can get along at all, stones were carefully spread again. And by the without stones in abundance, for walls and drains way, you remember how one Sunday this very and divers other uses. Having had for some years summer, one of my Devon cows, educated in my a farm of each kind under my charge, perhaps a smooth pasture at Exeter, was caught between two statement of the pros and cons may be useful to stones here in the pasture, ignorant as the poor some of our readers.

thing was of such traps, and how she nearly tore As to fences—a stone wall is doubtless the cheap- her foot off. I think you cannot have forgotten the est and most durable of all fences, and where stones profound deference with which I bowed to your suare constantly working up in your fields and must perior dignity, as being principal editor of the Farbe removed, no doubt this is the best use to make mer, and Lieutenant Governor, and stood by and of them. But the objections to stone fences around saw you bind up the lacerated foot with tar! The fields and gardens are numerous. They occupy a only wonder to me was, that there was a place in

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