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the pasture where there was room enough for a Less rain probably falls on the high ridges of this cow to get her foot between the stones! Perhaps, county, than in the river valleys, yet there is no however, such accidents are of too rare occurrence, land that endures a severe drought such as that of to form a serious objection to rocky pastures. last year, like the high rocky farms. These are
Stones are a great nuisance in plowing, in hoe- some of the considerations to be weighed in doing, in mowing, and indeed all other operations on ciding how to choose a farm, when about purchasthe land. On my Exeter place, we grind our shov-ing, and some of the sources of consolation, or reaels and hoes, and they hold their edges for weeks. sons for being discontented, which a man who lives We set the plow at one end of the field, and it runs on a hard farm may always find, according to his without stopping or breaking the furrow to the disposition. A morose, “sour-complexioned” man other. We grind our scythes, and they are only would be miserable in Paradise with Eve by his dulled by cutting the grass itself. Here, although side, while he of cheerful heart will bear his portion our fields are cleared, and the boys have picked of the burden laid upon father Adam, and earn his stones for a hundred years, every stroke with the bread by the sweat of his brow, and find content, hoe or shovel gives back the sound of a pebble on and create a happy home, even in a wilderness. the steel, and the implements are soon blunted.
H. F. F. We use nearly double the team in plowing, and Chester, N. H., Aug., 1855. the plow groans and labors constantly, as if passing through a stone heap, and every new breaking up
For the New England Farmer. of the sward brings to light a few loads more of the
DEEP AND SHOAL PLOWING. hidden rocks. Clear your field as you will in a stony region, some round pebble will rake your
MESSRS. EDITORS :—There is nothing which will scythe from point to heel, every swath, and occa
make such a lasting impression on the mind as what sionally the point of a fast rock will break such a bewilders and leads to error in practice. Relating our
we experience. Theory, like the ignis fatuus, often gap in the edge, as will send you groaning to the experiences, whether successful or otherwise, may grindstone. And as to mowing machines, the ef- prove useful by conveying instruction to the minds of fect of contact with stones with one of them is too those of less experience. Living in different States painful to be more than alluded to.
and working on land of various soils in different
locations, I have become so liberal-minded, that, In this view, decidedly, I don't like many stones like the anrious politician, I can join both parties, on a farm. I never felt the want of them in Exe- the one in favor of deep plowing as well as the one ter, except for drains. Our friend French, of Brain- in favor of shoal plowing. The success of the fartree, I understand, purchases tiles as being cheaper mer in plowing his fields depends much on his than the use of stones, though stones are abundant soil is clay and retentive of water, it looks reasonable
knowledge of the soil he is working on; if the subon his farm. If I could find good land free of that he might plow deep. If it is a hard iron pan stones, I should vastly prefer it to what is called land, which may be known by its iron-rusty color, stony land. For my drains in Exeter, I have under-draining is better than disturbing a poisonous made use of bushes, filling the drains, say a foot or
subsoil. If the subsoil is of a loose, sandy or gravtwo deep with bushes, and poles of an inch or two less large quantities of manure can be applied.
elly texture, shoal plowing would be preferable, unin diameter, covered with turf or old boards, and In the memorable year of 1816, in what is filled up with earth. They carry water well, and now the city of Lawrence, I engaged a neighbor to have answered a good purpose thus far, six or eight unite his team with mine to plow a barren elevated years. Still they are not sufficiently permanent ; ed with coarse gravel. I put the plow in up to the
piece of land, the subsoil a fine clay loam compoundand they furnish quite too good accommodations beam; my neighbor exclaimed, you will ruin your for moles and mice, “and such smali deer.” Stones land ; I said, Captain, I am in no apprehension of of almost any description are much better. making my land any worse, for it has borne nothing After all
, there is much to be said in favor of the but“ pussy grass” since it came into my possession. hard hill farms of this part of New Hampshire. only eatable corn raised in the town that year. The
The result was that Mr. J. How and myself had the The world does not produce finer apples than old next year I had 20 bushels of spring wheat at the Chester. They constitute the leading selling crop acre, and the succeeding year nearly three tons of of the town, as indeed of the county generally. hay on the same acre; all these crops from one On these hills, where we find a pan so hard that we
ordinary dressing of barn manure plowed in, and a use a crowbar in digging a post-hole
, and often find traordinary, but merely to show what an effect deer
little gypsum. I speak not of these crops being exstones enough to nearly fill it when dug, an apple plowing will have on some kinds of worn-out land tree is almost sure to live and thrive. Trees are that had previously been superficially plowed. rarely winter-killed on high and hard land. The frost On my present farm I have plowed deep on elestrikes neither so late in spring, nor so early in fall, vated red gravelly soil
, but with a different result
, and have come to the conclusion that converting as on the plains, so that we often see dahlias and such land to a forest is best for the credit of the tomatoes and such tender plants in full freshness soil as well as for the interest of the proprietor. I two weeks later here, than in the valleys around. have a field of 10 acres, low and level, which bears the drought equal to any other land ; part of it is They are so many reservoirs in which have been acfounded on a hard iron pan subsoil, which, when cumulating for centuries, the very materials that are exposed to the air, slakes into a coarse red sand very needed to renovate the light soils upon their borporous. I have found draining this land by ditch- ders. These soils, since the wood has been cut from ing has improved it, and that a superficial plowing is them, and they have been brought under cultivabetter than deeper.
All below the organic soil ap- tion, or used for pasturage, have been exposed to pears to be an inert iron colored sand, if not poison- the full action of the rain, which has dissolved and ous
, entirely destitute of any fertilizing principle, washed the salts and soluble humus into the low only fit to sustain the upper stratum, and the nigher grounds adjacent, where they are stored ready to I have applied the manure to the surface, the better be returned to the soil from which they were taken. my crops of potatoes, oats and grass have been. An inexhaustible supply is thus provided, ready to On the whole, I have concluded that the dispute be used over and over again by succeeding generaabout deep and shoal plowing will compare with tions of cultivators. Nature is thus furnishing mathat about the color of the chameleon. Every thing terials to ensure the fertility of the soil for all comrelating to success depends upon the situation and ing time. But nature will not apply it to the soil kind of soil we work upon, and the care and manner Man must do his part of the work. It is for him of doing the work; and every farmer must judge to apply the materials thus provided for him, to the from observation whether deep or shoal plowing soil which is most in need of it, or which his conve will afford him the best crops. For one, I am fully nience may lead him to cultivate. This he must persuaded that deep plowing in soils of certain com- learn to do at the proper time, and in the most binations, which am not chemist enough to define, economical way. is altogether best, and that with our scanty supply Nature is ever at work for man; but she does of manure, generally, shoal plowing in many loca- not do everything for him. She intends that he tions will better reward the farmer's expectation. should be a worker too. She provides for him, all Wilmington, 1855.
S. BROWN. the materials he needs, and points out to him the
deposits in which they are stored, and compels him
| by his wants and necessities, to bring them to light, For the New England Farmer. and apply them to use. Thus when he finds the PEAT FOR MANURE.
soil, by continued cultivation, so far exhausted that
it refuses longer to supply his wants, he is comPeat, muck and meadow mud consist largely of pelled to examine its composition, and see what it decomposed and decomposing vegetable matters, has lost, and inquire how it can be restored to that which have grown on the spot where they are found, state of fertility in which he found it when he first or been washed into their present localities from put it under cultivation. He compares his wornthe surrounding high lands. Being covered up and out field with a portion of virgin soil. He finds the excluded from the action of the atmosphere, decom- decayed vegetable matter, and some or all the salts, position goes on very slowly. In proper peat there have disappeared. The remedy then is obvious. is present more or less tannic acid, which preserves The vegetable matter, the staple food of living it from decomposition. In addition to the vegeta- plants, and the wanting salts, must be restored. But ble matter in peat and mud, there are present such where are these to be found ? This becomes the mineral elements as existed in the vegetables of subject of anxious inquiry. He notices that the which it is composed, and such as have been washed lighter and more soluble portions of his lands are from the neighboring soils. Of course there will be being constantly carried by the rains and melting found some difference in their composition, arising snows into the valleys and basins and lowlands, and from the nature of the surrounding soils. The min- that vast accumulations have here been made, and erals principally found in peat are silica, lime, mag- upon examining them, he finds the very elements nesia, iron and alumina. I find on record analy- which are wanting in the soil which he has been ses of about thirty samples of mud, and the average cultivating. Here then he has found the very thing of them gives 79 per cent. of vegetable matter, more he wants, the means of restoring to fertility his than half of which is in an insoluble state, that is, worn-out and exhausted land. His own industry not completely converted into humus, or but par- and ingenuity must do the rest. Here nature leaves tially decayed. One quality in peat and muck which him to work alone. She has provided the material adds greatly to its value, is its strong affinity for which he needs, and stored it up in vast deposits ammonia, which it absorbs with great avidity and within his reach. When man has cut off the forretains for the use of plants. Dried peat has an al-ests around his dwelling, and destroyed the fuel most unlimited power of absorbing and retaining upon the surface of the earth, he examines the howthis element so necessary to vegetation. When els of the earth, and there he finds vast store-houses peat is quickened by an admixture of substances of fuel provided for his wants, by the beneficent containing ammonia, it becomes one of the very hand of nature. But by his own ingenuity and labest fertilizers that can be applied to light, sandy bor he must bring it to the surface, and prepare it soils, and indeed to all soils that have been deprived for use. Thus it is with the fertilizing elements by cultivation, of vegetable matter, that was present which he has used up in the land from which he in them when they were first brought under the has drawn the means of sustaining his life. Beplow. It restores the very elements which they cause his land grows less and less productive by need.
continued cultivation, he need not fear that it will When we say a soil has been exhausted, we mean ultimately become barren, and cease to supply his that the vegetable and mineral elements on which wants. Nature, with far-reaching sight, has foreplants feed have been eaten out of them. Peat and seen this very emergency, and provided for it long mud abound in the ponds and swamps and mea- before his necessities led him to make the discovery, dows, and by the sides of the creeks that are so and now his own labor and skill must do the rest. liberally distributed throughout the eastern States. Concord, Aug. 10.
We have published, before, some account of this to justify it. Judging, however, from the specidelicious fruit. It is hardy, and a great bearer, and mens we have growing in our own garden, we hardis an important accession both as a dessert and for ly think the description overstated. The plants preserving.
may be purchased in this city of GEORGE DAVENThe account below is from the American Agri- PORT, Esq., 14 Commercial Street. culturist, and we publish it, with the accompanying
A year since we gave a somewhat full report engraving, not to endorse all that is said of it, be- (the first one published, we believe,) upon the cause we have not a personal knowledge sufficient claims, characteristics and value of the New-Rochelle Blackberry-called also the Lawton. We recommend even a heavy clay as best. It has recommended the plant as one worthy of general been thought that blackberries need shade; but cultivation, and our endorsement and remarks have those cultivated by Seymour & Co. are upon an been extensively copied by the press of this coun- open lot, and we found the best and richest berries try, and by some European Journals, and a very upon the top of the vines, where most exposed to general interest has been awakened. An evidence the sun. However, the fullest clusters of the larof this is found in the circumstance that, during this gest fruit, though not the sweetest, were partly shamonth, more than a hundred horticulturists and ded by the leaves. Mulching, or covering the soil others, from Boston, New York, Philadelphia, and with straw, leaves, salt hay, or some such substance, the cities and towns between these places, as well is doubtless good treatment for this, as for all simias from Concord, Albany, Newburg, Utica, Syracuse, lar plants. We should advise the selection of at and Rochester, have visited the grounds of Messrs. least a moderately good soil, deep plowing or spaGeo. Seymour & Co., of South Norwalk, Conn., in ding, with a coating of barn-yard manure or guano. response to their invitation for "all interested to When first set out they should be placed at about come and see the plant growing and bearing, and their natural depth, say 3 inches, in rows 6 to 10 taste the quality of the fruit."
feet apart, and the stems be cut down to within six These gentlemen have, we believe, the largest inches of the ground. area in the country (some five or six acres) devoted They may be set out in November or April, in to the cultivation of the genuine variety of this this latitude; at the South, in March. Probably plant. A part of this ground they use for raising November planting is preferable. If planted in auyoung plants, and a part was left to fruit this year tumn, it is better to cover them up till spring with for the purpose of showing it in bearing while in straw or litter. field culture. All who have examined the fruit We have spoken thus freely of this fruit, because have been surprised and delighted with the large we esteem it a valuable acquisition, and we desire to size of the berry, its deliciousness, and especially its see it distributed so extensively that it may soon beproductiveness. We visited this plot on Thursday come abundant in every market. It now sells readof last week, and from what we saw there, as well ily in New York for 25 to 20 cents per quart, while as at other times during the past year, we are ready we do not see why it may not be raised, with a fair to endorse all we stated a year ago.
profit, at 5 or 6 cents a quart. Once planted, it reThe plants especially devoted to fruiting were quires no more labor to cultivate it than the same set out two years ago-eight feet apart each way— area of corn, since the chief care required is to keep upon a rather poor, worn-out, hill-side soil, with no down the weeds and an excessive growth of young other previous preparation than plowing and an or-shoots : though all of these that can be raised for dinary coat of barn-yard manure. The only culti- some time to come will probably be in demand at vation since has been keeping down the weeds, and fair prices. The limited supply, and the high prithe application of about 400 lbs. per acre of Peru- ces heretofore asked, has been a bar to its general vian guano, which was sown broadcast last spring introduction; but several persons have a large numand worked in with a cultivator where the plants ber of growing vines which will be ready for sale were not spread out so much as to preclude the use the coming autumn, and we learn that the price is of this implement. The ground is now so thickly being considerably reduced. covered with loaded vines and young shoots that it A word of caution is necessary in reference to seis difficult to go over it.
curing genuine plants, carefully packed: for unprinSince the beginning of the month visitors have cipled and irresponsible peddlers and speculators had free access to about one-fourth of an acre, and will in this case--as in that of fruit trees-attempt though hundreds of quarts have been eaten or car- to palm off anything in the shape of a blackberry ried away, the whole vines on this plot seemed to vine, as the genuine New-Rochelle. If carefully be loaded with berries. Two canes in each hill packed, they may be carried safely to a considerawere allowed to fruit. We counted the berries on ble distance, provided always, that in taking up or some of the average-bearing canes or single stalks, setting out, the roots are never left exposed to wind and found from 500 to 1,000 ripe or growing ber- and sun. ries on each. The size of the fruit can hardly be appreciated by
Por the New England Parmer. those who have seen only the common varieties of TO MAKE BARREN QUINCE TREES blackberry. Of about the average size, 30 to 40 berries filled a pint basket; while of those a little
FRUITFUL above the medium, 20 to 25 berries did the same. MY DEAR SIR:— The complaint of your corresAn inch to an inch and a half may be set down as pondent, C. G. W., in the Farmer of Aug. 11, of the average diameter, though larger berries are the sterility of his quince trees, after a full bloomquite common.
ing, is by no means an unconimon one. I have There are two remarkable things about this vari- never been troubled with it, and have therefore had ety, viz: its few seeds and its richness of flavor, not- no personal experience in the matter, but have been withstanding its large size; and its steady bearing, credibly informed by those who have, that remorfor we learn that it has not failed to yield an abun- ing the earth from the principal branches of the dance of fruit every year since its cultivation, now roots, and puncturing through the bark with a fork, a dozen years or more.
(common table fork, or any sharp instrument, has It appears quite hardy, as it sustained very little proved efficacious in preventing a recurrence of the injury in the open field during the past severe win- blight which settles upon the blossom, and prevents ter. We noticed the tops of a few of last year's bearing. These punctures, as I understand it, must canes were slightly nipped by frost.
be so thick as to well scarify the bark, which, from It grows well even upon poor soil. We should their smallness, will soon heal over, and should be advise a moderately dry loam, but some cultivators given after the fall of the leaf in autumn, or in early,
"Far from all resorts of mirth
spring; When the puncturing operation is per-/instinctive feeling of dread, but a clear, undoubted formed, the earth is, of course, to be replaced over communication of facts. So among bees; the inthe roots. The above remedy seems to me very stant the queen dies, the sad event is made known plausible in theory, though it looks like a small and throughout the hive. No sound, perceptible to huinsignificant operation, (such, however, are often the man ear, is heard, but the antennæ move with surbest,) and for those who have cause for experiment- prising effect, and, as the result of a clear act of voing, it can be very easily tried, with the assurance lition. It is not a sensation, merely, nor an instincthat if no good results from it, no harm can follow. tive action, but it has all the signs of special pur
I have found sowing gypsum on fruit trees, when pose. How they speak, we know not; this only is in blossom, very beneficial in inducing the fruit to certain, that their language is not like that of the set. Sow when the leaves and blossoms are wet deaf and dumb, with whom signs represent letters with dew or a moderate rain. Its effects upon the or words. quince would probably be equally beneficial as on The cricket, even, is not without its note of utterpears, plums and apples, though we cannot speak ance, and although a purely mechanical sound, it with certainty on the matter
. Salt for quince trees has its sweetness and charm, so that Milton could I have found very beneficial. Apply over the roots speak of beingin March. Yours truly,
Save the cricket on the hearth."
of the elastic skin between its wings; and from the UNKNOWN TONGUES---LANGUAGE time when the Athenians wore golden cicada in OF ANIMALS.
their hair, to our days, when the cricket on the We make the following extracts from an article
hearth is the proverbial image of home comfort, its
simple note has been dear to the heart of man. The on this subject in Putnam for August:
true cricket, however, speaks only in the sunny time How easily spiders are made to know the voice of of love. The male begins in his hermit-cell
, as May their master, is familiar to all
, from many a sad pris- approaches, to produce a low, inward note of longoner's tale. When the great and brilliant Lauzun ing. As the sun rises higher, and summer advanwas held in captivity, his only joy and comfort was ces, his shrill song becomes louder, until he finds a friendly spider. She came at his call; she took the desired companion. Then he returns to his solher food from his finger, and well understood his itary life once more, and his voice dies away by deword of command. In vain did jailors and soldiers grees. Dean Swift has left us a humorous descriptry to deceive his tiny companion. She would not tion of the curious note of the death-watch beetle. obey their voices, and refused the tempting bait The little fellow. in his narrow cell, falls in love; from their hand. Here, then, was an ear not only, immediately he begins to thump his head against but a keen power of distinction. The despised lit- the ground, and uses such energy in his demonstratle animal listened with sweet affection, and knew tions that he leaves deep marks in the softer kinds how to discriminate between not unsimilar tones. of wood. The powerful stroke produces a loud So it was with the friend of the patriot, Quatermere sound, the infallible presage of death to superstitious d'Ijonville, who paid, with captivity, for the too ar- man, the soft music of love tô the female beetle. If dent love of his country. He also had tamed spi- other males are within hearing, they all join in the ders, and taught them to come at his call. For, concert with furious knocking, and such is their when the French invaded Holland, the prisoner jealousy or zeal to answer, that even the ticking of managed to send them a message, that the inunda- an innocent watch excites their wrath and their loudted and now impassable country would soon be est notes. frozen over so that they would be able to march over the ice-bridged swamps and lakes, for the spi- PRICES OF FLOUR FOR 20 YEARS. ders, true barometers as they are, had taught him IN THE MONTHS OF JANUARY, FEBRUARY, MARCH AND APRIL. to read, in their queer habits, the signs of approach
April. ing weather. The frost came, and with it the 1836,
7,373 7,50 French ; Holland was taken, and the lucky proph- 1835
8,25 et set free. The spiders, alas, were forgotten.
8,00 8,50 Even the "hateful toad” has been the captive's 1840 5,871
5,62) friend and companion, and shown itself endowed
6,12 6,25 with a fine ear and remarkable talents. They come 1843,
5,12) out of the dark night of their holes, when their self- 1844,
4,933 4,902 1845, 4,683 4,84% 4,814
4,75 chosen master's voice is heard. They take flies
4,66 4,56 4,76 4,62 from his hand; but what is the strangest of all, they 1847
5,12 7,00 7,12 7,62 actually learn to measure time; for more than one
6,00 well-authenticated instance speaks of their having 1850,
5,50 5,56 5,50 appeared only at stated times, when the jailor was 1851,
1852, absent and all was safe.
4,56 4,62 4,52
5,56 5,50 5,00 4,56 1854,
7,87 9,60 9,00 9,75 The language which animals speak, by means of 1855,
11,75 13,00 friction or concussion, is naturally the least known REMARKS.—The above were the prices at Albaof all. We see the eager ant rushing homeward to ny, we suppose, as we cut the above from the Jourtell the news of an invasion; she meets a friend, nal of the New York Agricultural Society. At their antennæ touch and play with each other, in rap- Boston, prices have ranged considerably higher id succession. The messenger returns, the latter conveys the news by the same means to others, until than the highest in this table, having in the course the whole army is informed. Here we see, not an of the last six months been as high, at retail, as $14.