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STUDY OF AGRICULTURE. tion. I know that what he then said about this apWe have inserted in the appropriate department in his high-wrought encomiums of this variety of

ple is a mistake. I therefore have less confidence of this paper, and shall transfer it to the columns of potato. I admit, that I have heard it highly exthe monthly Farmer, the advertisement of Prof. tolled by others, who had bought a few for seed, at Nash, in relation to a more thorough pursuit of extravagant prices, and were cultivating them with agriculture in Amherst College, thai, has yet been a view to get their money back again. How far

your Newton correspondent may be swayed by any afforded in New England. It is encouraging to no- such consideration, I have not the means of detertice this movement on the part of the Professor mining.

SOUTH DANVERS. and the College, as a way will now be opened to Sept. 15, 1855. pursue the subject with success. The particular attention of our young friend,

Pur the New England Parmer. “B. T. R.," of Newburg, Orange Co., N. Y., is HIGH PRICES OF FLOUR AND GRAIN. called to this advertisement, and the remarks which

MR. EDITOR :-In some of the papers I have nofollow. Prof. Nash says:

ticed of late movements by the citizens for supply“The young men will have access to the college ing themselves with the necessaries of life, by comlibrary and cabinets, the latter of which will be of binations in purchasing. This movement appears great value to them, as also to several able and to me as one worthy of all commendation, and easily most valuable courses of lectures. It is our pur- adopted by mechanics very generally, as well as by pose to attend these lectures with them, to bring to others. If there is any truth in the different newsthe recitation room the scientific facts there demon- paper statements for the past two months, there is strated, to dwell upon them in a way calculated to no good reason—not one-why the article of flour aid the memory in retaining them, and to point out, should command ten or thirteen dollars per barrel. more carefully than a rapid lecturer would be likely There cannot be any other reason, than that the arto do, their useful applications. With such aids as ticle is in the hands, and managed by speculators; the college offers, we think that, without boasting, and it is easy for the community to see how this is we may promise as rich privileges as can be en

done. It is a most shameful piece of imposition joyed anywhere.

upon the public-more particularly the laboring part ‘Lest there should be a lingering doubt of the

-to call it by no milder name. With the whole readiness of the college to extend its privileges as country-according to public accounts_overflowing above stated, we will here say, what we know to be with the staff of life, and to be obliged to pay 10 or true, that all the gentlemen connected with its In- 13 dollars a barrel for flour, is an anomaly and an struction--the President, Ex-President Hitchcock, outrageous imposition. I would say to the mechanand the entire Faculty—are moved by the most lib-ics and laboring class of the people, combine, let eral views in this matter. With no relaxation in combination meet combination—if this shameful the field of Classical and General Literature, they business of speculation in the very essentials of life deem that the facilities of the Institution for dif- cannot be stopped in any other way. You have the fusing useful science may be extended to young

means of relief partially, if not wholly, in your own men, who wish to attend for a less time than four hands, and do not fear no use it, even if you gain years, perhaps but a few months; and they are sin- but little thereby to your purses. Provided this specerely desirous of so extending them; and accord- cies of crime can be broken up, a great good will be ingly have made such arrangements that the stu- accomplished, not only to yourselves and families, dent of twelve, six, or even three months' attend- but to the community at large. The Union Stores ance, may enjoy as rich privileges for the time, as

which have been established throughout the differthose who prosecute a four years' course.”

ent towns in New England, within the past three years, have been a great benefit to the laboring

classes, there cannot be any questi in about it; thouFor the New England Farmer. sands and tens of thousands of dollars have been "STATE OF MAINE POTATO."

saved to your pockets within the above time, by

this class of stores. Why not a community, or a MR. EDITOR :-I am happy to find an endorser town, supply themselves, on the same principle, with for the State of Maine potato, so experienced, as flour and grain? You can do it

, and if judiciously your correspondent from Newton Centre” profess-managed, it is easily accomplished, and with little es to be, having cultivated the present season, as he trouble or expense to yourselves, except for the first says, “not less than seventy-five varieties." This is cost of the articles. In this movement, you would indeed a large experience, demanding much discrim- have the sympathy and good wishes of the larger ination in the different sorts. He expresses a doubt part of the people. This alone is a great deal. Let whether I have ever seen “the true State of Maine ten, twenty, fifty or a hundred families in a town potato.” It may be that I have not. My remark unite and put into a general fund for the purchase was not made so much on my own observation,-as of flour and grain. You can easily find a person to do on that of “the best observers"—such as the Presi- the rest of the work for you, and who will do it well, dent of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, too, for a very small commission. To say the least, who is not only a discriminating observer, but a this subject is worthy of more attention than it has most reliable man, in all respects—none more so received from this class of our people; if they know among us.

their power, they have not used it. “But I say unto If my recollection is right, a few years since, I you fear not,” try it, and note results. Even if you saw remarks from the same correspondent, speak- fail in the attempt, it will not be the first time peoing disparagingly of the “Eppes Sweeting," or ple have failed in a good cause, and perhaps some "Danvers Winter Sweet,” as unworthy of cultiva-/ wise and valuable lessons will be learned thereby.


"Be sure you are right-then fear not to go ahead,” harvesting of their corn for good reasons : for who and God bless you.

N. Q. T. does not know that corn so treated would result East Weymouth, Sept. 11th, 1855.

in the shrivelling of the grain in a great degree, and

consequently in the loss of its vitality? If “Ě. C. P.” THE FARMER'S LIFE FOR ME.

should cut up his popping corn in the manner he

speaks of, I rather think that the portion of his

corn that would "pop" would be small indeed, be Wealth may boast her hoarded treasures,

cause it would be deficient in that oleaginous subPride no joy like her's may see,

stance he so highly extols—the nutritive matter Dissipation vaunt her pleasures,

that forms the “unleavened bread." Yet the farmer's life is the life for me

The best way for farmers to manage their corn, With its freedom blest, which is usually done by the most of them, is

, From the stern unrest Of the crowded marts of life,

about the second week in September, when the With its rosy health,

tassels are dry and crumpy, to cut off the tops, What a mine of wealth !

and lay them in the hills so they will not touch the With its quiet unmarred by strife.

ground, then after having dried one or two days,

tie them up in small bundles, and stand them up Toil it hath, yet with it there is Sunlight of a willing mind,

firmly against the corn and let them stand for å

number of days if the weather will permit, and And the farmer's home so fair is, None a fairer e'er can find

then put away in the barn. The tops of corn seWith its glowing hearth,

cured in this way makes good feed for cows in the With its heartfelt mirth,

winter, and is no small item in their keeping. AlWhen the winter fire burns bright;

though it is valuable for the purpose of feeding 0, the farmer's cot

stock, it will not do for the sake of the stover to Is a cosy spot

sacrifice the corn, as no farmer will do that, unless In a chill December's night.

he goes on the principle of "robbing Peter to pay His are Summer's richest treasures,

Paul.” Every one that raises corn, will of course, All her wealth of fruit and flowers,

secure it as he can best, and as shall result in the All the intellectual pleasures

best good of the whole. J. UNDERWOOD. Of her bright instructive hours,

Lexington, Mass., 1855.
His the golden gleam

of the sunset beam,
And the mild majestic night ;

His the first soft ray

PROF. J. J. MAPES : Sir,—A constant and inof the rising day, And the dew-drops sheen and bright.

terested reader of the Working Farmer would be

pleascd to see appear in the columns of the SepFar from heartless Fashion's empire,

tember number, if possible, an article upon the Far from Mammon's haunts of sin,

Sweating of Apples, describing the process, &c. From the dens of Dissipation,

Also the best method of packing fruit for shipping. And the crowded city's din

Truly yours,

J. C. K.
He may safely rest,
0, how truly blest,

Dunstable, August 9th, 1855.
With the friends he holds most dear-
And the great world's noise

In reply to the above we would state, that the
Cannot mar his joys,

finer class of fruit should be gathered by hand, and In his calm, secluded sphere.

so placed in barrels, and not poured from a basket, Michigan Farmer. as every apple slightly indented will be sure to de

cay. When apples are intended for shipment, anFor the New England Farmer.

other process seems necessary.

Apples contain a large amount of water, part of HARVESTING CORN.

which should be got rid of, when intended for shipMR. EDITOR :-As the time is close at hand for ment, and this may be done without any alteration the farmer to be devising and adopting the best in the figure or appearance of the apple, provided method by which his corn crops may be secured in that they receive no indentations or bruises. the best manner and to the best advantage, I They must be placed in heaps, when a slight thought a few words written upon the subject sweating will occur, which will cause a portion of might not come amiss, and be acceptable too. the water to exude to their surfaces and dry off.

It is well known that there are many and vari- After a short time a second sweating will occur. ous ways pursued by farmers in harvesting this, his They should then be thoroughly dried, placed in most important crop; some take one way and some barrels by hand, and shipped. Apples so treated, another, and therefore it would be well to adopt if they arrive at their port of destination before the the best plan both as regards the grain and the sto-third sweating takes place, will be in perfect order; ver.

but if a single apple in a barrel be dented or bruised, In a communication in your paper of August 25, it will cause the whole to decay or partially decay, a writer, who signs himself “E. C. P.,” says, “all on ship-board. This third sweating usually occurs good farmers will cut up their corn directly after it in about six weeks after the second sweating. For is out of the milk, and stock it' to dry; then, after home consumption, apples should be taken from the a reasonable time will husk it and put the stover tree as late as the weather will permit, and should away in the barn, where his stock in the winter will be placed in the final place for winter keeping, at prefer it to the best English hay.” Now with all once. If put on the north side of a house with due deference to his opinion, I'must say that all board covering, and suffered to remain until the cold good farmers will not pursue such a course in the becomes very severe, they may then be moved in


dry, clear weather, and placed where they are in- ple of Germany. It appears, says Beckman, that tended to be kept; and if in barrels, these should be when they had learned the art of making it, they kept as dark as possible. Some have packed apples employed it only as an ointment in their baths, and in charcoal dust

, others in alternate layers, with particularly as a medicine. It is never mentioned straw and a layer of earth, in the same manner as by Galen and others as food, though they have for potatoes. Some place them in cold, dry cellars, spoken of it as applicable to other purposes. No in heaps, covered with straw; but all these methods, notice is taken of it by Apicius, nor is there anywhile they may sometimes succeed, invariably ab-thing said in that respect by the authors who treat stract so much of the flavor from the apples as to on agriculture, though they have given accurate inlessen their real value. The same mistake is often formation regarding milk, cheese, and oil. This made in packing grapes in cotton—and while they may be easily accounted for by the fact, that the maintain their figure and look well, the aroma is ancients were entirely accustomed to the use of abstracted and absorbed by the cotton.

good oil. In like manner, butter is very little emThe plan given above for preparing apples for ployed at the present day in Italy, Spain, Portugal, shipping, first made public by R. L. Pell, Esq., is and the southern parts of France, but is sold in the the most dependable.Working Farmer. apothecaries' shops for medical purposes. During

the ages of paganism butter appears to have been For the New England Farmer.

very scarce in Norway; mention is made by his

torians of a present of butter so large that a man POTATO CROP.

could not carry it, and which was considered a very MR. EDITOR :-In your paper of September 1st respectable gift. Farmer's Magazine. appears an article from one who signs himself "South Danvers," bearing the title that I have se

For the New England Farmer. lected. He says, “of the new varieties of potatoes that have been tried in this vicinity, the present CONSOLATION FIT FOR AN EMPEROR. season, there is none so highly praised as Davis' In the memoirs written by the celebrated EmperSeedling; side by side with other varieties this es- or Khang-hi, the following passage occurs.; capes disease entirely. Some pretend to crack up

"I was walking on the first day of the sixth the State of Maine' potato—but the best observers moon, in some fields where rice was sown, which was say it is a miserable concern—entirely unworthy of not expected to yield its harvest till the ninth. I regard."

happened to notice a rice plant that had already Now I agree with him exactly in what he says of come into ear. It rose above all the rest, and was the Davis' Seedling; it is a very fine variety, de- already ripe. I had it gathered and brought to serving of extensive cultivation--very productive,

The grain was very fine and full, and I was hardy, and a good-flavored sort. In regard to what induced to keep it for an experiment, and to see he has to say about the State of Maine, the reverse whether it would retain, on the following year, this is eminently true; the statement he has made is cal- precocity, and in fact it did. All the plants that culated to mislead the public in respect to this splen- proceeded from it, came into ear before the ordinadid variety of potato. It is, in the first place, very ry time, and yielded their harvest in the sixth moon. productive, yielding this year a bushel of handsome Every year has multiplied the product the prepotatoes from eighteen hills; it is early, being near- ceding, and now for thirty years it has been the ly as early as the White Chenango, which is the rice served on my table. The grain is long and of favorite early sort of the market gardeners; it is rather a reddish color, but of a sweet perfume and very handsome, being perfectly white outside and very pleasant flavor. It has been named Ya-mi, or inside ; as for its eating qualités, it is unsurpassed “Imperial rice,” because it was in my gardens that by any variety that I am acquainted with, and I it was first cultivated. It is the only kind that can think I may, without boasting, lay claim to some ripen north of the great wall, where the cold begins knowledge of potatoes, having for some years felt a very early and ends very late ; but in the province, great interest in the potato, and planting every of the South, where the climate is milder, and the named sort that I could get, besides raising a great soil more fertile, it is easy to obtain two harvests a many from seed, so that my list numbers, this year, year from it. And it is a sweet consolation to me, not less than seventy-five varieties. It is not sur- to have procured this advantage for my people.”— passed even by the famous Carter potato, which has Huc's Chinese Empire. such a high reputation, and if your correspondent Huc remarks, that this species of rice succeeds will produce a potato equal to the State of Maine admirably in dry climates, and has no need, like comin every respect, I will send him as many potatoes as mon rice, of perpetual irrigation ; and that it is not he will use for five years. It is not liable to rot, hav- the fault of the missionaries if it has not long since ing never found but few rotten potatoes among been acclimated in France. that sort. I am inclined to think that “South Danvers” has never seen the true State of Maine potato, or is radically mistaken in regard to it.

APPLES, PEARS AND PLUMS.—Our acknowledgJAMES F. C. HYDE. ments are due Mr. WILLIAM WHEELER, of Acton, Newton Centre, Sept. 6, 1855.

for a basket of fine Porter apples, and another of Bartlett

pears; to E. W. BULL, Esq., of Concord, THE HISTORY OF BUTTER.–From the various for fine specimens of the Washington Red Gage, statements in history, it may be safely concluded and other plums, and to his Excellency Gov. GARDthat the discovery of butter is attributable neither to the Greeks nor Romans, but that the former NER, for a liberal basket of the Tyson pear, grown were made acquainted with it by the Scythians, upon the first tree producing that fruit in New EngThracians, and Prygians, and the latter by the peo


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We give above a most faithful representation of the Bowery, New York, but being grafted with anthis excellent plum. The fruit represented grew in other sort

, escaped notice, until a sucker from it, the grounds of E. W. Bull, Esq., of Concord, the planted by Mr. Bolmar, a merchant in Chatham

Street, came into bearing about the year 1818, and originator of the celebrated "Concord Grape.” It

attacted universal attention by the remarkable beauis part of a branch containing five plums within the ty and size of the fruit. In 1821, this sort was first space of six inches, and weighing 114 ounces, or sent to the Horticultural Society of London, by the nearly 24 ounces each. The drawing was designed late Dr. Hosack, and it now ranks as first in nearly by Mr. John N. HYDE, a young artist of great

all the European collections. promise, and the engraving executed by Messrs. crumpled and glossy foliage, is a strong grower, and

The Washington has remarkably large, broad, SMITH & PEARSON, both parties having their place forms a handsome round head. Like several other of business at 46 Court Street, Boston. The con- varieties of plum, the fruit of this, especially in sannoisseur will find this illustration one of great truth dy soils, does not attain its full perfection until the and beauty, and it is our intention that he shall fre- tree has borne for several years. We have measquently find our columns enriched with similar and once from Mr. Bolmar's original tree, seven

ured them very often six inches in circumference, beautiful specimens of the skill of our artists.

and a quarter inches. The description of the plum we give from Down Wood light brown downy. Fruit of the largest ING:

size, roundish-oval, with an obscure suture, except

near the stalk. Skin dull yellow, with faint marThe Washington undoubtedly stands higher in

blings of green, but when well ripened, deep yelgeneral estimation in this country, than any other low with a pale crimson blush or dots. Stalk scarceplum. Although not equal to the Green Gage, and ly three-fourths of an inch long, a little downy, set two or three others, in high flavor, yet its great in a shallow, wide hollow. Flesh yellow, firm, very size, its beauty, and the vigor and hardiness of the sweet and luscious, separating freely from the stone. tree, are qualities which have brought this noble Stone pointed at each end. Ripens from about the fruit into notice everywhere. The parent tree grew middle to the last of August. originally on Delancey's farm, on the east side of|

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VERMONT STATE AGRICULTURAL outwardly a most unlovely looking set of animals, FAIR.

their shaggy coatings being covered with a thick

layer of dirt, which gives them a forbidding appearRutland, Vt., Sept. 1146 A. M. ance; but upon separating the matted locks, a soft The exhibition grounds are located on Grove and snowy-white staple is brought to view, which Street, about a quarter of a mile north of the depot. will no doubt some day be transferred from the They comprise about thirty acres, and are admirably back of the poor sheep to adorn, in the form of a calculated for the purpose to which they have been shawl, the person of some fair lady, or, made into devoted. On a portion of the lot near the street is broadcloth, will be sported by "genteel” young a beautiful grove of maples, beneath whose grateful men on fashionable promenades. shade Floral and Mechanic Halls have been erected. A glance at Mechanics' Hall yesterday afternoon These halls were improvised for the occasion, being showed a goodly array of useful inventions in the built of rough boards, Floral Hall being very neatly mechanic arts, embracing not only the useful agriculdecorated with evergreens, &c., presenting quite a tural implements, but some fine specimens (mantels rustic appearance. A portion of the cattle pens are tablets, &c.) of Vermont marble, of which there is also included within the shady area. The race- a quarry in the western part of this town; also course, for the exhibition and trial of horses, is a handsome specimens of natural and marbleized slate, little further on, and is half a mile in length. A from West Castleton. The natural slate was disfine gallery, capable of seating a large concourse of played in a variety of forms, such as sinks, boxes, spectators, fronts the course, and affords a fine &c., while the marbleized was wrought into ornaview of the contests of the turf.

mental tables, mantels, &c. They were quite handUp to five o'clock last evening there had been some, but the native marbles, of course, outshone entered for exhibition in the equine department, them. I noticed an amusing contrivance attached ninety-two geldings and mares, thirty-one Hamil- to a bedstead, to facilitate early rising. An orditonians, fifty-six Sherman Morgan or Black Hawk nary alarm clock is appended to the headboard, stallions, six Bullrush Morgans, thirty-two Wood- which arouses the sleeper at the appointed hour, bury Morgans, and twenty-three pairs of matched and allows him a few minutes to “open his peepers” horses—total two hundred and sixty-four. Some and get out of bed; but, if he is sluggish and delays of these animals are of almost matchless beauty and this unpleasant operation too long, a secret spring speed. The Black Hawk blood predominates, and is moved, and presto! the astonished sleeper feels if elegance of outline, grace of action and spirited the bed settle sideway under him, and he is rolled movements can make one class of animals favorites incontinently upon the floor ! more than another, surely the Black Hawk horses

Rutland, Sept. 12. are not undeserving of the partiality shown them. To-day there is a great accession to the number There are, of course, beautiful horses of other of people in attendance on the Fair, and throngs are breeds on the ground, which are dangerous rivals, arriving by every train and by private conveyance. but for myself

I must confess to quite a partiality The town wears truly a holiday appearance. The for the light, glossy black steeds of the Black Hawk day is clear, although warm, and nothing interposes breed.

to mar the pleasure of the occasion. Visiters began Among the fast horses entered are the “ Michi- to throng the Fair grounds at an early hour, paying gan Boy,” “Flying Morgan,” and “St. Lawrence,” thenty-five cents for admission, and by noon there whose names are quoted in sporting circles. There were fully four thousand people present. was a good display of trotting horses on the course I have omitted to speak of the display of articles yesterday afternoon, and the attendance of spec- in Floral Hall, which is devoted to fruit and ornatators was quite large, some fifteen hundred to two mental articles, furnished by the ladies, in the hope thousand being present, many of whom were ladies. that it would fill up with a class of specimens comMajor John $.' Dunlap is Marshal of the field. mensurate with the occasion. But I have been disSome of the trotting was quite smart

, and the ex- appointed. There are but three or four lots of orcitement in this part of the show is fast increasing. dinary fruit, and although the ladies have contri

In the neat stock department there have been buted some handsome fancy articles and a few crayentered 19 yokes of working oxen ; 9 yokes of ons, most of the articles are scarcely worthy of steers; 6 cows and three bulls of Hereford stock ; notice ; consisting of daguerreotypes and shop 3 native cows ; 5 cows and 2 bulls, Ayrshire; 12 goods. Any of the county shows in Massachusetts cows and 10 bulls, Devon ; 6 bulls and nine cows, would be ashamed of such a display of fruit, and Durham ; and 28 cows and seven bulls, mixed the ladies “ wouldn't begin” unless they could do breeds. All these cattle are fine specimens of Ver- better in articles of taste and elegance. mont breeding and keeping. I have not seen an I am sadly disappointed, too, in the agricultural ill-looking animal among them, while many are very department. A one-horse wagon could contain all superior; and there is good reason for it, for no- the vegetables shown. Of butter, and cheese, also, where is there better grazing than on the verdant for which Vermont has much celebrity, there were hills of Vermont, while the breeds are the same not more than a dozen specimens of each. I exthat bear the palm throughout New England. pected to see a sight in these departments to “ tell

Of sheep, there is, of course, a large collection, for of.” But these Vermonters think so much of Vermont is almost as celebrated for her flocks and horses, sheep and cattle, that other things stand a herds as for her horses. There are on exhibition poor chance at their fairs. The same may be said three pens, containing 25 ewes each of Spanish Me- of the spectators. Almost all flock to the race rino stock, besides 32 bucks and 118 ewes and course to see the horses, scarcely deigning to look lambs of the same_breed ; 17 bucks and 78 ewes at the cattle or sheep, although Floral and Mechanand lambs of the French Merino variety : 81 long ics' Halls have a few visitors. The paucity of the wool sheep, mostly Leicester and Cotswold; and 28 above departments, however, probably is not owing fine wool sheep of mixed blood. These sheep are to a lack of material, but of interest. It ought not

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