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WINTER CARE OF CATTLE. Water, either by a well in the yard, or in some The good farmer should feel, that the comfort of other way, should be supplied to the cattle in sufthe stock be owns is dependent in a great measure ficient quantities, so that they can all drink as upon him. Especially is this the case in the win- much as they choose. If the water is brought into ter. At this season, they require constant atten- the yard, the trough from which they drink should tion in feeding, watering, carding, &c. They not be placed under a shed, or in a sunny part of should be fed at proper and stated times, and as the yard ; if it is, the cattle after quenching their nearly as may be, have an equal allowance at each thirst, will stand around it and prevent the others meal. By this regular feeding, they will thrive from coming up: much better, even on a smaller amount, than if fed We think well of the plan of keeping the cattle at irregular times, and with varying quantities of in the barn through the day, except when they are food. They want, also, a variety in regard to food. let out to drink; especially, if the barn is tight and A few roots are very useful to them daily. Corn warm, as all our barns in this cold country should be. fodder, if fed to them once or twice a day, will They may be kept in as good condition on a less generally be eaten up clean, whereas, if they are amount of food in this way, than if turned out in fed on it constantly, much of it will be refused and the cold bleak winds and storms; and much more wasted. They should not be put on the poorest manure will be saved to the farmer, by this course, hay first. This should be reserved, and fed to them particularly if there is a good cellar under the occasionally, in the coldest weather, when it will barn, and the owner bas provided it with a good be eaten up clean.
thick bed of peat, or some other absorbent to hold They should have an abundant and convenient the liquid manure. supply of water. In this our farmers fail to sup- Above all things, it is poor economy for the farply the wants of their stock more than in feeding. mer to allow his cattle to go roaming round through Many depend for water upon a brook or spring, at the pastures and by-ways, through the bushes and some distance from the barn. In cold and stormy woods in the winter, browsing. They should be weather the cattle, especially the weaker and kept constantly in the yard, it not in the barn, for younger portion, are driven back, and not allowed by this course alone will be save his manure, and to drink until their thirst becomes excessive, and if this is not saved, his next year's crops will at then at the peril of being hooked and injured by maturing show him his negligence and improvithe others.
Idence.- Granite Farmer.
IMPROVED SHORT HORN BULL. We are mainly indebted to the Rev. Henryrump, in the runners, fanks, buttocks, and twist, Berry, for just descriptions of this noble breed of and in the neck and brisket, as inferior parts.” Mr. cattle. In some localities they are great favorites, Dickson also speaks of their “exquisitely symmetand prove good milkers and workers. The colors rical form of body,” as going to “ form a harmony of the improved short horns are red and white, or which has never been surpassed, in beauty and a mixture of both ; “no pure improved short horns," sweetness, by any other species of the domestic says Mr. YouAtt, “ are found of any other colorox.” but those above named.” Mr. James Dickson, Mr. CULLEY, another writer, states that “the another competent judge, says, “in its points, for short-horned cows give a greater quantity of milk quantity and well laid on beef, the short-horned ox than any other cattle; a cow usually yielded 24 is quite full in every valuable part ; such as along quarts of milk per day.” the back, including the fore ribs, the sirloin and
A SPLENDID BARN.
extraordinary box manger, directly under whicb, Few farmers can afford to erect a building equal and running the whole length of the stable, is a to the one they plan, and still fewer build one trough of water, with suitable openings in the like that described below. Still we publish a bottom of the manger, through which cattle may description of it, because he who cannot obtain be watered by removing the iron slides, and which all its advantages, may secure a part. Perhaps is done by the neans of a lever opening the line some of them can be provided for in those already of slides at once. occupied. We ask special attention to the manner The very great economy and convenience of of seeding. The description was given as appears this arrangement are obvious at a glance, and may below, by a correspondent of the Rural New. be taken as a specimen of the perfection exhibited Yorker.
throughout. Under one of the drive-ways into The barn belongs to David Leavitt, Esq., a the third story, is an arched room, well ventilated, merchant prince of New York city, who has a and lighted with a glass front, which is used as a farm in Great Barrington, Mass., pleasantly loca- milk-room, and has a great many conveniences ted upon the Housatonic.
connected with it for diminishing the labor of It is 200 feet in length, with a centre wing on taking care of the dairy, which can all be perthe east side, three stories high, with an arched formed without the least exposure to the weather, roof covered with tin, and a cupola on the centre, within the compass of a few feet. The herd is and erected at an expense of nearly $20,000. It fed with hay, cut feed and steamed roots, that are is based in a ravine which it spans, thus affording reduced to a pulp by the revolution of a cylinder an easy entrance into the third story. Through in which the roots are placed after steaming, with this ravine runs a durable stream, with which is four cannon balls of two pounds each, and I formed a beautiful reservoir of water directly above believe during the summer season the boiling the barn, that operates upon a wheel twenty feet system is to be practiced in part. The building in diameter, thus forming an excellent motive is well lighted and ventilated, so that no diseases power that is used for a great variety of purposes, are generated by confinement or impure air and such as sawing wood and lumber, threshing, clean- deleterious gases, an important feature that is too ing, and elevating the grain, cutting straw and often overlooked. stalks, unloading hay, depositing it in any desired On the side of the barn facing the Housatonic, loft, churning, grinding, &c.
which is but a few hundred feet distant, are The first story is used as a manure vault; the projections of cut stone, so arranged as to convert third for grain, hay, and apartments for domestics. the water which falls over them into a sheet of The arrangement for feeding the cattle is most foam, from which it, justly derives its name of ingenious and convenient, the following descrip- " Cascade Barn.”—Plow and Anvil. tion of which I give in the language of Mr. Wilkinson :
AGRICULTURAL ADDRESSES. “ All the manual labor required in feeding the MR. FAY'S ADDRESS IN Essex. cattle is to run a car which contains 25 bushels of feed before the line of cattle, and shovel the food We had the pleasure of listening to this plain, into the feeding boxes, which are of cast iron, practical and instructive production, at Lawrence, quadrant shaped, of about 100 bushels' capacity, at the last Exhibition in Essex county; and now and one to each stall. The boxes are placed one on each side of a partition, that divides two stalls, we give several extracts that the reader may and are each attached at the right angle corner of judge for himself. Mr. Fay indulges in no flights the box to the front partition stud by binges, so of oratory or fancy, but pursues the even tenor of that the boxes may be swung around into the feed- his way with a good sound common sense, and on ing hall, in front of the cattle, and over the feeding car, that the seed which spills in filling the boxes, topics of utility. He has not set up images of may fall into the car instead of on the floor. After straw to display his skill in knocking them down; the boxes are filled, they are turned with a slight nor is there any strained effort to bring in the touch before the cattle again. In the centre, be observations be made when abroad, on subjects of tween the next or adjoining pair of stalls, is an
no use at home ; nor does be run into sublimated erect cylinder, two feet in diameter at the top, which projects equally into each stall, and extends refinements of science—but tells us how common from about a horizontal line with the tops of the labor may be done in a common way. feed boxes (on the opposite side of the stalls) to If more of our learned men would imitate his the upper surface of the hay-loft directly over the cattle, that it may be filled from the floor. There
example, and tell us what they know and no more, is a circular aperture, six inches in diameter, in we should be much better instructed. But we each side of the bay tubes, at a convenient height are keeping the reader too long from the extracts from the floor, so that two animals may eat from we wish to present. the same tube at the same time. Under the tube is a drawer into which all the loose bay seed falls FARM WORK IS DRUDGERY, UNLESS THE MIND through its latticed bottom, which drawer when full is emptied, and when a large quantity of seed
Our farms have ceased to be a favorite scene of accumulates it is cleaned for use or market. The labor to our young men, because the work to be seed obtained is of a superior quality, and the performed is mere drudgery, without pleasure or quantity ordinarily saved by this arrangement, excitement to the mind, but full of weariness to will pay for all the manual labor required about the body. If, however, you will bring to the farm the building throughout the year.
the steam engine or horse power, and the various Across the front of the stalls there is also an implements they put in motion, our children will
IS IN IT.
THE TURNIP CROP.
gladly remain upon the homesteads they now de- Gov. WASHBURN'S ADDRESS AT WORCESTER. sert for the factory, the machine-shop and the railroad. He who delves and digs the earth from
Through the attention of the Secretary, Wilmorning until night, has little time and less inclina- LIAM S. LINCOLN, Esq., we have before us the tion for thought-he becomes a mere toil-worn Transactions of the Worcester County Society for machine at last; but if he is connected with an the last year. Like its predecessors, it contains implement the working of which he is to guide and direct
, bis position is completely changed; be many valuable papers. The Address by Governor is then a master over a slave, a truly soulless slave, WASHBURN is written in a clear, comprehensive that labors without sweat to do bis bidding. and terse style. He does not attempt to teach the
farmer wbat are the best breeds of stock, how MASSACHUSETTS A LAND OF SMALL FARMERS.
deep and when they must plow, or how he shall Massachusetts is a land of small farmers, and
drain and reclaim his lands. He takes a view of we must therefore resort to the principle of association, so well known and practiced upon for the subject more consistent with his own habits of various other purposes, to accomplish what is be- thought, study and occupation, and presents some yond our individual means. We must combine of the means whereby the farmer may elevate his together in the purchase of expensive agricultural implements, and arrange for their use in a way to
profession and raise himself to his true level. And secure perfect fairness and equality. This is only while he is very happy in the particular current one of the many ways by which the cost of them or turn of his theme, there is an equal felicity in may be very much reduced. If sufficient en- the language he uses. couragement were given, persons could be found
We know that farmers, while they criticise in every community to work them on their own accounts
, going from farm to farm as a regular themselves with unmerciful severity, are exceedbasiness, profitable to all parties. This is practiced ingly sensitive to the criticisms of others, especialto a very considerable extent among the small ly of lawyers; but in this Address the sentiments farmers in England.
uttered are so pertinent and just, and the words
so gentle and truthful, that we believe no laboring To grow turnips, the land must be well plowed, brother can take exception to them. Perhaps the highly manured and kept free from weeds. It best commentary, after all, that we can make, is was a crop, which in a proper rotation, prepared to say that we shall copy liberally from its pages, the land in the best manner for those which follow it; more than this, it would do well on his light
and begin with the following now. loams, although perhaps better adapted for a THE FARMER HAS COMFORT AND INDEPENDENCE, heavier soil. Its yield was large and bully, and to dispose of it to the best advantage, it ought to Sure I am, that no portion of God's heritage be fed off the farm to the cattle during the winter; can offer more signal marks of comfort and indeto do this, he would be forced to increase his stock, pendence than those we witness everywhere among and in this way he would augment bis barn-yard the farmers of Worcester County. manure, which in its turn would add to the fer- sball venture to affirm that no class do more intility of bis soil. He would have better cattle, justice to their true condition, in the estimation in better and more pigs, and if he kept a few sheep, which they regard it, than do the farmers of as every farmer should do, his lambs would come Massachusetts. earlier to market, and would be in good condition To hear their remarks, to watch their moveand command high prices, instead of being sold ments, and trace the course they are inclined to for their pelts.
adopt in relation to the education and training of This recommendation to grow turnips must not their children for the business of life, one would exclude, nor was it intended to do so, the cultiva- be led to suppose that Agriculture had few claims tion of other roots. Beets and carrots for some upon the respect of those who pursue it. And lands, are more profitable than turnips, besides while I do not believe that such is, in fact, the being better food for milch cows. Every farmer true sentiment of the masses, there is enough of can soon learn by experience which root thrives discontent prevalent among the farmers of New best on bis land, and having learned this, he will England to justify, if it does not demand, a brief be blind to his own interest if he does not cul- discussion of the true position of Agriculture, as tivate it.
a profession, here. If it is not so, why do we see A leading English agriculturalist has said, I be so many young men crowding into other employlieve with perfect truth, that the failure of the ments and so few settling down contented on their turnip crop in that country would be a heavier paternal acres? Why are farms in the country blow to its prosperity, than the failure of the Bank in so little demand, even at prices scarcely higher of England. It is owing principally to the liberal than they bore twenty years ago, although specuuse of the turnip, that English cattle and sheep lators are coining gold out of town and city lots have reached their present high state of perfection, in our new cities and villages that are springing making the land support four times the number up throughout New England ? that could be maintained under the old system of Our professions on the other hand are overrunhay and pasture feeding. If we should adopt ning, till lawyers and doctors starve amidst plenty, their practice in this respect, there is no reason and ministers go hungry while they are breaking why we should go abroad to purchase at enormous the bread of Life to rich churches and congregaprices, animals which in all essential qualities are tions. And if we find a young man who has selfno better, if as good as our native stock. respect enough to rely upon his own powers, and
BUT DOES NOT TRULY ESTIMATE THEM.
And yet I
is willing to earn an independence by his own labor, he grows restive as he looks upon a farmer's life here, and quits his old homestead almost without a sigh, to seek a new home in the rich prairies of the West.
EXTRACTS AND REPLIES.
A GOOD COW.
MR. EDITOR-I have the care of a cow that has been farrow for three years, and has averaged
If men would regard the pursuit of agriculture during that time, five quarts of milk a day; her in Massachusetts as its true relations deserve, milk is of excellent quality, and makes sufficient they would find little occasion for the indulgence butter for a family of six, besides supplying what of those notions. One great difficulty in the way milk they wish to use. She is of common breed, of a farmer's appreciating as he ought the advan- and does not have very high feeding. I ask if, in tages of his own condition, compared with that of your judgment, she is not more than an ordinary his fellow citizens around him, is the isolated man-cow? ner in which he passes much of his time within the sphere of his own farm and neighborhood. He is too apt to forget how important is that fraREMARKS. Certainly, she is an extra-ordinary ternity to which he belongs, in all the elements of cow. If she is farrow, we suppose she has given power and influence.
Fitzwilliam, Nov., 1854.
milk through the entire year, which at five quarts per day would be 1,825 quarts a year. Allowing 10 qts. for a pound of butter, it would give 182
The amount invested and held by the farmers of Massachusetts in lands, stock and farming tools, as stated in the census returns of 1850, exceeds pounds per year; but we think the milk of such a a hundred and twenty-two millions of dollars, cow would yield a pound of butter in something and in numbers they greatly exceed either the less than ten quarts. Eight quarts to the pound mechanics, manufacturers, or professional men in would give 227 1-4 pounds.
the Commonwealth. They forget this when they BEST FOOD FOR MILCH COWS-PLASTER. indulge in comparisons with the seemingly more favored portions of the community, and as life is MR. EDITOR:-I have been a constant reader with them one of economy and toil, they are too of the Farmer for years, and I wish now to make ready to grow discontented, when if they would some inquiries through its columns. I make milk but pause and examine for themselves, they would for the Worcester market. I wish to inquire what bless the Providence that had given them such a is the best and cheapest feed for cows that give home and such means of earning and enjoying an milk, and what will make the most milk for the independence with it. No circumstance is so same money, and also how to feed them? (a.) fraught with the elements of discontent as this Is it beneficial to sow plaster at this season of the habit of making ill-judged comparisons of one's year on winter rye and on pastures? (b.) condition with that of others. We start with asWorcester, Nov. 6, 1854. WORCESTER. suming that whoever is superior in wealth, or enjoying a larger share of popular favor or perREMARKS :-(a.) The questions under this sonal ease, must be the happier man, and looking head can only be answered in a general way withonly at the outside of things, we allow our eyes to be dazzled by the false coloring which life often out long and exact experiments. The "best and wears, even in its best estate. cheapest" food for milch cows which we have ever THERE'S MUCH IN LIFE, AFTER ALL. found, was good corn fodder, clover and herd's
There's much in this life, after all,
grass hay, and half a bushel, or three pecks of roots,-say, beets, parsnips, carrots, flat turnips and ruta bagas,—per day, for each cow, fed to them in the morning soon after they were milked. Under this treatment this gave more milk than under any other, and we found it the cheapest. Good corn fodder will produce milk abundantly.
That's pleasant, if people would take it;
On some of us trouble must fall,
But sure am I most of us make it.
Let us look for the ups and the downs,
Believe that a smile is behind them.
Is the world not sufficiently roomy? Then, why should we wish to believe
We were sent into life to be gloomy? We may meet with some rubs in our day,
But don't let us tremble for fear of them; Rather hope they will not come in our way, And do all we can to keep clear of them.
There are regions of quicksands and rocks,
And our chart do no more than mislead us,
That's pleasant, if people would take it;
Which is the best kind of spring wheat, and how and give her the slops of the family mixed with a much seed will it take for an acre? (d.) Are peat ashes good as a fertilizer? (e.) YOUNG FARMER. REMARKS:-(a.) There is, probably, no better plow for breaking up grass land than the No. 35, Double Eagle plow, where two or three catttle are to be used. For four cattle take No. 35 1-2 of the same construction.
quart of sweet shorts twice a day; and she will
For the New England Farmer. PRODUCTS OF A SINGLE ACRE.
I am a subscriber to the Farmer, and am pleased with it, both as an agricultural and family paper. see in its columns a tone of freedom, which I like, and a hatred of oppression, which every lover of liberty must admire.
from one acre of ground, for the last three years, I give you below a statement of the products which I think is not bad. The first year I plowed in the grass, and put about forty loads of manure
(d.) The best seed wheat we get comes from on the sod, harrowed and planted to corn, hoed three times, and got fifty bushels. The second Canada. A kind called the "Scotch Fife," is conyear planted to potatoes, and had 315 bushels. sidered the finest spring wheat. On ordinary soils The third year sowed to wheat, put on eight bushsix pecks are required, but on very rich land five els of ashes and 200 pounds of plaster, and had pecks will be sufficient. twenty bushels. I also send you a sample of gold, which I dug on the bank of a brook, which runs through a farm that my father sold this fall to a Californian. There has been somewhere from fifty to a hundred dollars' worth taken out this fall, by different persons digging for the fun of it. It remains to be seen whether it will pay to work it
Yours, &c., B. G. RUSSELL. Stowe, Vt., 1854.
(b.) We have tried several kinds, but find nothing equal to Gale's Paten! Eagle straw and corn stalk cutter. It works rapidly with a single knife, and is exceedingly simple in its construction. (c.) On ground mostly free from roots and stones a good steel-tooth cultivator is better than horse-plow; but on rough, stony lands, the plow would be best.
If " T. H.," from New London, who in the Dec. No. inquires about gas lime, will look at the Oct. No. of the N. E. Farmer for 1853, page 455, he will find an analysis of gas lime.
T. O. J.
FOOD FOR MILCH COWS.
MR. EDITOR :-I recommend to your correspondent "Worcester," if he wants to raise milk for market at the least possible cost, to feed half a bushet of turnips, boiled with four or five quarts of shorts, once every day to each cow. This, I think, is the cheapest food for milch cows. Will Wor- doubt on our mind that farming is just as profitable cester" please give the result, if he trys it? as a business ought to be, when it is properly conDec., 1854. HUNTER. ducted. The gold came safely. Potatoes are
REMARKS.-Your experiment shows what the soil will do if it has a fair chance. There is no
MR. EDITOR: What breed of cows do you wanted more, and we hope your people will give consider the best for quantity and quality of milk the potato crop the preference. and butter-viz.: for one family where one good cow well kept will furnish milk sufficient for all purposes?
A GOOD MOVE.-On the 5th inst., Mr. Wentworth, of Ill., offered the following resolution in the House of Representatives :—
This is the query. Are not some of our natives, as good milkers as some of the foreign blood,-Devons, Ayrshires, &c. &c.?
Resolved, That the Committee on Agriculture inquire into the expediency of establishing a NaWe go in for native born, so far as our experi- tional Agricultural School, upon the same princience goes, but we do want the "good article," any-ple with the National Naval and Military Schools, how. H. C. PARKER. to have one scholar educated at the public expense, Manchester, N. H., 1854. from each congressional district, and to be estabREMARKS: A good Jersey cow would proba-lished in connection with the Smithsonian Institubly be the best where the milk is required only tion, so as the better to carry out the object of its for family use-say milk for bread-making, for the Very good, so far, and we are greatly obliged to table, with cream for the pitcher and for an occa- Mr. Wentworth; but will the resolution be passed, sional churning. But Jerseys are at present high and if it is, will the committee on agriculture press and scarce, and some other breed may be found the matter on the attention of Congress? Judgwhich will answer the purpose. Select a native ing from the past we fear not. But remember, farcow four years old, with small limbs, a neck some-voices will be heard at Washington as well at the mers, there's a "good time coming," when your what slender, lean head, small nose and tail, with a several State capitals Aside from its warlike tenwell-developed bag, reaching considerably forward dency, we consider the Military Acadamy at West and with good sized teats. A middling-sized ani- Point the best educational institution in the United States. An Agricultural Academy, conducted with mal with a bright, lively countenance, but at the the same energy and thoroughness, would be of insame time gentle. Feed her upon upland hay calculable advantage to our country.-Country Genwhere a ton or a ton and a half to the acre is cut, tleman.