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SHORT HORN BULL AND COWS. pounds of butter per day, when fully fed; but for The sketch given above represents specimens of my use, I should prefer the two pound heifer exhibred and white short horn stock, bred by the late ited by Mr. Sheldon, of Wilmington. I have never met the man, who had more correct ideas of the Geo. Brown, at Wintsome Hill, in Berwickshire, points of a good animal than Mr. S. He is one of England. His splendid bull, named Jupiter, was the right sort of farmers, who understands both got by a red and white bull belonging to Mr. Ro-how "to hold and drive,"-may his success be probertson, of Lady-kirk, in that county, named Valen-portionate to his knowledge.

September 20, 1855.


tine. At that time Mr. Robertson's stock of short horns was in its glory. The dam of this bull was got by a red bull, never named, bred by Thomas Smith, when at Grindon, in Northumberland, and was a son of the old roan bull "Duke." At that The annual festival of the Middlesex Agricultural period few farmers possessed such high-bred stock Society took place on Wednesday, September 26th, as Mr. Smith, his steers being then unrivalled for a little earlier than usual-the first Wednesday in beauty and weight. The grand-dam was one of October being the time at which most of the exhi twin gray calves, produced by a gray cow, purchased bitions have been held. For several days previous, in calf by Mr. Brown from the late Mr. Mason, of there were indications of a storm, the wind prevailChilton. One of the calves, when two years old, ing from the east, with occasional sea-mists and Mr. Brown sold for fifty guineas, and the other he squalls. On Wednesday, however, the sun soon dissipated the vapors that curled over the streams, This bull was purchased from Mr. Brown, when or rose slowly, in fantastic forms, from the low one year old, for twenty guineas, and for eight grounds, and at nine o'clock, the air was as pure and years, during which he was kept at one place, he elastic as on a clear October morning. proved excellent in raising stock, and evinced genSo old Middlesex was awake again. Men and tleness which was remarkable. He had many good maidens, old folks and children, all sorts of vehicles, points,―small head, lively eye, and small fine white mowing and washing machines, plows, with some of horns. He was completely filled up behind the the prodigies of nature, in human form, thronged shoulder, a point in which many fine bulls are defi- the avenues to the Fair Grounds, and made it a gala cient. He had a long quarter, a very thick flank, day indeed.

retained for himself.

and ribs very round. His forearm was very strong, Then staid and sober milch cows, staring and neck vein full, and brisket not too deep, as is often wondering what the tumult could mean, came from the case with bulls. His back was remarkably their quiet and sweet pastures-fat oxen rolled straight and broad, the rump full and round. His their sleek sides along from their “fall feed" neck and shoulders were thickly sprinkled with grounds, antic colts with their proud dams from the curled locks of gray hair, the entire body being hills, prim pullets with their crowing husbands covered with fine soft hair. The face was singular- from the poultry-house, gabbling geese from the ly ornamented with curly hair, shedded from a line pool, ducks from the pond, and fat, sleepy, gruntdown the front of the face, seeming as if combed ing pigs, with their cousins and uncles, from their toward each eye; and the hair above the eye seemed stercoraneous abodes. Noble "fifteen and sixteen combed up to meet the locks from the face. His hand high" horses also came, touching the turf as hide was loose, thick, and soft, and the touch mel- lightly as though it were to fall from under their low. He had a most robust constitution, and never feet at every step, and neighing, prancing and snuffhad an hour's illness, during a life of nine years. ing the invigorating breeze. All seemed happy to He was generally kept in ordinary condition, get- witness the exhibition, and mingle in the festivities ting in winter only a few turnips, and being princi- of the day. pally supported on straw. When killed, his flesh was fine, and resembled ox, more than bull beef.

For the New England Farmer.


At nine o'clock the Plowing Match took place on a field opposite the Society's grounds. Thirteen teams entered, and the contest was animated and interesting, which a large number of people witnessed with apparent satisfaction. The sod was thin, and in some places small stones proved an in

I was much gratified on Wednesday, by the sight of this extraordinary animal, at the Show at Chelms-terruption to the plow; but the work was generally ford, of whose products I have read in the state- skilfully accomplished.

ments made by her owner, Mr. Reed. I have no The Spading Match took place at ten, immedidoubt of their correctness, but still, was greatly dis- ately after the plowing, and, as usual, drew a large appointed in her appearance. She is not handsome. She has a coarse, bony, ill-looking aspect, concourse of spectators. The stirring strains of the occasioned, beyond doubt, by her propensity to conBoston Brigade Band lent their aid to the occasion, vert all she takes into milk. I can readily believe and the scene soon became an animated one, the that an animal of her size will yield two and a half spectators at once fixing upon their favorite compet

itors, and becoming as deeply interested as the spa- the exhibition showed that the good farmers of old ders themselves. There were nine competitors for Middlesex do not neglect the substantials in their the prizes, who performed their parts in a hand- farming. some and expeditious manner.

Among the articles in this department was a The Drawing Match, or, rather, the "Trial of unique and beautiful plant called the " Purple Cape Strength and Skill" of working oxen, came next Broccoli," exhibited by Simon Brown, of Concord. in order, and ten teams of noble oxen were enlisted The foliage was rich and abundant, and the outline in the trial. Hundreds of interested spectators graceful. gathered round this part of the exhibition, and wit- The fruit was so plentiful that the elegant connessed a remarkable degree of skill in managing tributions of the ladies was almost crowded from loads, as well as of power to move them. the table. There was a variety of specimens of The exercises at the church took place at half needlework, handsome tokens of taste and skill, past twelve o'clock. A procession was formed at of which the fair contributors might well feel proud. the Society's grounds, under the marshalship of E. Of paintings and crayons there were but few. W. FISKE, Esq., of Waltham, and, escorted by the The "bread and butter" department looked Boston Brigade Band, proceeded to the Unitarian nicely, as though a capital lunch might be enjoyed church to listen to the annual address, which was if the injunction "touch not, taste not, handle delivered by the Hon. N. P. BANKS, of Waltham. not," was not vigorously enforced. It was attentively listened to by a large audience.

The contributions were arranged with much taste, After the services at the church were closed, the and the hall presented a beautiful and gladdening procession was re-formed and marched to the Town sight. Long tables groaning under the weight of Hall, where an excellent dinner had been provided luscious fruit, and a profusion of wholesome vegeby Mr. J. B. SMITH, of Boston. tables, proclaimed the "fatness of the land," while After the good things upon the tables had been draperies of brilliant carpetings suspended from the duly attended to, the President, SAMUEL CHAND- rafters, and fine specimens of paper hangings hung LER, Esq., of Lexington, arose, and briefly express- upon the walls, imparted a gay and lively aspect to ed his gratification at seeing so many friends of the the whole.

Society present at the annual festival. In the name

The whole interior arrangement of the building of the Society he extended a hearty welcome to was under the direction of JOHN B. MOORE, Esq., of them. Sentiments and speeches were given, spark- Concord, whose familiarity with fruits and skill in ling with wit and humor, intermingled with which arranging them is scarcely surpassed. Under his were the reports of committees and the announce- judicious management every thing was orderly, and ment of premiums which had been awarded. Among made agreeable to all. The Society is under oblithe guests at the table was the Hon. SETH SPRAGUE, gation to him for his faithfulness and skill. of Duxbury, who came as a Delegate from the The beautiful carpet-rugs, which ornamented the State Board of Agriculture. In answer to a senti- centre of the room, were from the house of TENNY ment alluding to the Board, he made excellent & Co., Haymarket Square, Boston, and were an atpractical remarks, giving evidence of his accurate tractive feature of the exhibition.


observation of the several departments of the farm, and particularly of the effects of crossing in our neat stock. The whole entertainment at the table was of the most interesting character.

were not so well filled as on previous years, and the stock was not so good as at some former exhibitions. Both native and foreign breeds were well represented in the bulls, milch cows, and other neat stock. Several pens were filled with fine looking fat cattle. Of horses there was a larger number than we have


The show of Fruit in the spacious hall of the Society was very fine, and fully equal to that of any former year. Three long tables, and part of a ever seen on exhibition in the Society's grounds befourth, were loaded with some of the finest fruit fore. we have ever seen. The display of apples was es- Swine were not numerous, though there were pecially superb. Finer Porters than some exhibited fine specimens presented, and among them some were never raised, and the same might be said of slate colored pigs of the Essex variety, contributed some other varieties. by CHS. B. CLARK, of Concord. They were beautiThe show of pears, although of course not so ful in form, and are said to be a valuable breed. numerous as the apples, was very fine, and embrac-| The day throughout was pleasant, the attendance ed handsome specimens of this delicious fruit. Of large, and the Show a successful one. Middlesex grapes and peaches the contributions were not nu- county has held three this month, each of which we have attended, and believe them to be among the Of vegetables there was a noble display. All best we have ever witnessed. In fruits,-with the varieties of garden products were numerously rep- exception of our neighbors in Essex-we think they resented by superior specimens. This portion of have not been equalled in the State.


For the New England Farmer.

I paid a dollar a bushel for some good sized pota

GROWTH OF SQUASH VINES---CAN WE toes, and planted them, putting one in a hill with



South Abington, Sept. 17, 1855.



out cutting, except a few of large size, then I had a few small ones of the same kind which grew with MESSRS. EDITORS :-On the morning of the 15th the others, and were sorted out about as large as robult., I measured accurately two squash vines, and in's eggs, some a little larger, and planted them side on the following morning, at the same hour, again by side, with the same manure and cultivation, and measured them; one of them had grown over nine, I have just dug them, and found that twenty hills of and the other over ten inches during the twenty- the large seed produced more in measure, and larfour hours. The night could not have been very fa- ger in size, than thirty of the small ones. On a small vorable for growth, as with us the wind was from the patch where I did not expect more than 15 busheast. The more rapid grower of the two is from the els, it being dry green sward, I had 25. Will some seed of a California squash, purporting to weigh one one give the result of his experiences. hundred and sixty pounds. I observe that the female flowers of this vine have ten divisions to the stamen instead of eight, which is the number in the flower of the common squash. "You can see them grow," we sometimes say, to indicate a maximum of growth. For a loose hyperbole, this is passable, Any body can manage bees. It is the easiest among the thousands of other innocent exaggerations thing in the world to do it, just as it is to make an which serve to give life to conversation and open folks' egg stand on end,-after one knows how. A man eyes, withal; but it would be more accurate, to say who knows their nature, and habits, and can avail that we can see that they have grown; for, if we himself of their instincts, can make them do just reflect a moment, we perceive that a growth of what he pleases. Ten thousand men have kept twelve inches in twenty-four hours would be, on an bees for thousands of years, and have watched their average, half an inch per hour; now, as I draw my doings, and many have written learned treatises upthumb along on the table, with one eye on the clock on the economy of their Commonwealths. But it above, I perceive that the slowest motion possible has fallen to Huber and Langstroth and a few others for me to detect with the unaided eye, must pass to discover the few simple secrets which, while they over one inch in from two to four minutes, so that are unknown, have rendered their movements so it may be safely affirmed that a growth, to be per- mysterious. Any body can move a hive of bees ceivable with the unaided eye-without the micro- from its stand, invert it and call them out, and hanscope-must be at the rate of from thirty to sixty dle them as he pleases, and restore them to the feet in the course of twenty-four hours! a growth, hive with perfect safety, and the bees will be all as we are all well aware, attained by few, if any the time perfectly good-natured, and not an indiplants in the temperate zone during the entire sea-vidual among them will offer to sting him, and yet very few persons dare make the attempt, and still What revelations the microscope might make fewer know how to do it with safety. The object of we cannot say; though from the above facts one the miser is to lay up treasure. This occupies his would think in the case of these vines, that with a thoughts and his hands day and night. His heart power of from thirty to sixty, it might be possible is with his gold. It is the god of his worship. He to witness that most wonderful of all vegetable has no place in his mind for any other thought. phenomena, the growth of plants; and with one of Upon the slightest alarm, he grasps his money bags. still higher powers to investigate still more deeply, If he hears a step at the door in the darkness of perhaps, even to the detecting of the elaboration night, he deems his treasure in danger. He believes and circulation of the vegetable juices! That final all others attach the same value to it, and that wonderful transformation of elements into vegeta- when they approach his premises, they can have no ble tissue, analogous to the change of elements in other object but to gain possession of it. The bees, the capillary vessels of animals into bone, muscle, in their way, are perfect misers. They labor inces&c., must, in like manner, probably ever remain santly for about eight months in the year, to amass hidden from man's feeble powers.


Yours truly, JAMES J. H. GREGORY. Marblehead, Sept. 25, 1855.

For the New England Farmer.

honey. They undergo the severest toil to search it out, and transport it to their storehouses. In the early spring, from the flowers of the willow, of the alder and the maple, from the blossoms of the cherry and the nectarine and the peach, and through the heat of summer, from the bean and clover, and a thousand sweet flowers, and as the autumn apMR. EDITOR:-Much has been written about proaches, from the mature juices of the plum, the seed potatoes, some advocating the planting of small potatoes. Now that small potatoes will sometimes peach, the pear and the apple, they suck the sweet nectar, and bear it with unfailing instinct to the produce large ones, I do not doubt; but that is not storehouse which their fellows have built to receive the rule. "Like produces like," is a law of nature, it. This is the great work of their lives, the one and until that law is abrogated, as we plant, or sow, end of their being. To lay up, secure and defend in the physical, vegetable and the moral kingdom, their treasure all their instincts are directed.that shall we also reap. Why don't those writers When engaged in their daily work, they have no who recommend small potatoes for seed, recom- other purpose. When attacked, all their movements mend small corn, small beans, and small, inferior have reference to the security of their honey. seeds of all kinds. This they ought to do to be con- When bees are alarmed, they believe with the miser, sistent. I had the curiosity, last spring, to try the' experiment of small potatoes to satisfy myself, although pretty well satisfied in my own mind be


that their treasure is the object of the invader; as it is the only treasure of any object to them, they act on the belief, that it is of equal value to others. If

the alarm is repeated, each one drops all other em- the nature and habits of bees, a knowledge which ployment, whether he is constructing a cell, or fill- has cost him years of close and careful observation. ing it with honey, or in whatever work he may be We commend this hive to those who raise honey, employed, and sets himself at once to secure as and who would always have it within their reach, much honey as his honey bag will contain. Each and especially to those who like to study the habits one secures a share of the pure limpid nectar. and economy of the curious and "busy bee."Each sucks in his drop of honey, that at least so Country Journal. much may be secured from plunder. It is surprising with what rapidity a bee will fill himself with honey, when alarmed. He draws it in, in a continued stream till he can hold no more, and then quietly awaits the result of the alarm. Having secured as much of his treasure as he can, the instinct of his nature is satisfied. He has done all he can. And now comes the secret by the knowledge of which the operator can handle and manage them as he chooses. When a bee is full of honey he never stings, unless pinched or otherwise injured. The operator has only to induce them to fill their bags with honey, and they at once become harmless. This is a uniform law of their natures, as certain and reliable as any other law of nature. The knowledge of this law, and a little expertness in managing the alarm in such a way as to induce each bee to seize his portion of the common treasure, is the only magic possessed by the bee charmers, which enables them to astonish by their boldness the uninitiated lookers on. The drones have no stings, of course they may be handled with impunity. They may be distinguished by their larger size. The different keys upon which bees pitch their note indicate their condition. When they are full of honey their note is on a lower key, and has a quite uniform hum drum tone. When they are empty, their note is sharp and angry. When a swarm have filled themselves it may happen that one or more may be found, that have not secured any portion of the treasure. Perhaps they have just returned to the hive, and have had no opportunity to fill themselves. These will fly about in great agitation uttering a sharp piercing note. If you are not careful you may get stung by them. Their angry note is readily distinguished from the note of the rest of the swarm, and the operator puts himself at once on his guard. A few days since, I had the pleasure of seeing Mr. Langstroth, on the grounds of Mr. Brown, Editor of the New England Farmer, take a large old hive, full of bees, and remove it from its stand, and turn On the afternoon of the 24th inst., the citizens of it bottom upwards, and call out the swarm into an Lexington, under the auspices of the Lexington empty box-take them up by handfuls, and handle Farmers' Club, got up an exhibition that was highly them with the same freedom, as he would so many creditable to that good old farming town. We peas. He broke open several bees and shewed the have seen larger exhibitions of fruit and vegetables, full honey bag. He struck down one that was but we never saw a better one. The samples of uttering a spiteful note and threatened to sting him, apples were equal to the best, and prove that the and shewed that his bag was empty. Not having citizens of this town take a deep interest in this desecured any portion of the common stock, he was partment. The market-gardeners brought forward obeying the next instinct of his nature, and endea- some of their best samples of vegetables, and the voring with his own unaided weapon, to drive off specimens of needle-work proved that the fair lathe invader. Mr. L. has constructed a very inge- dies of Lexington take an interest in the pursuits of nious hive, in which the operations of the bees, and their fathers and brothers and husbands. After witthe progress of their work, may be readily watched nessing the exhibition, we formed a procession, and from day to day. In this hive, the comb is con- marched into the old meeting-house, and listened structed in plates about an inch thick, entirely dis- to an address from N. P. Banks. At 7 o'clock, we tinct from each other. Any one of these plates may sat down to supper at the Lexington House. The be taken, the bees shaken or brushed from supper was not only good, but elegant, and everythe comb. The comb is then detached from the thing went off in fine style under the Presidency of frame that contains it. The frame is replaced, and Mr. Copeland. After satisfying the wants of the the bees immediately set themselves to work to appetite, the assembly was addressed by Mr. Banks, reconstruct another comb in place of that which Professor Nash, Dr. Reynolds, of Concord, Rev. has been taken away. The whole arrangement is Mr. Pope, of Somerville, Rev. Mr. Staples, of Lexvery complete, and shows a thorough knowledge of ington, and Gen. Samuel Chandler, President of the

For the New England Farmer.


For the New England Farmer. THE FARMER.

Does the farmer dig the dirt?
Aye, aye;
Does he wear a coarse shirt?
Aye, aye;
And if his cheek is brown
With the kisses of the sun,
Is he less a gentleman?
Nay, nay.

Does the farmer plow and sow?
Aye, aye;
Does he wield the spade and hoe?
Aye, aye;
And if his hand is hard,
And his feet be roughly shod,
Shall we give him less regard?
Nay, nay.

Does the farmer work for all?
Aye, aye;
Labors he for great and small?
Aye, aye;
If from out the farmer's store
Comes the bread for rich and poor,
Should we honor him the more?
Yea, yea.

Give the farmer then his due ;
Aye, aye;
Though he serves, he's master too,
Aye, aye;
And may Heaven its blessings shed
Down upon the farmer's head,
'Till we cease our cry for bread,
Aye, aye.

Somerset, Mass., Sept. 19, 1855.


Middlesex Agricultural Society. The whole affair the great lake, with its countless islands, one, it is was admirably managed, and we have no doubt, will estimated, for each day in the year, the lake so beaucontribute to the interest which has been already tiful, that it was called by the Indians by its preawakened in the various departments of agriculture and horticulture, among the inhabitants of this patriotic town.


J. R.

For the New England Farmer.




sent name, which signifies "The Smile of the Great Spirit," and away in the distance, the White Hills, known first in history as "The Chrystal Mountains," lift up their towering heads.

But I must descend from these heights to more sober views, and leave scenes on which it is pleasant to look back, merely saying in conclusion, that sensible men and women of late, who leave the cities in summer, are finding out the villages I have

Up in New Hampshire, some twenty miles above named, and spending their weeks of leisure there, Concord, on the Concord and Montreal railroad, instead of seeking the crowded hotels of fashionalies the new town of Laconia, recently created by ble watering-places.

an act of the General Court, out of part of the ter- In this new village of Laconia, among many ritory of Meredith. The village is separated from other gentlemen of taste in horticultural matters, Gilford by the clear and beautiful stream, through lives my friend and cousin, HENRY J. FRENCH, which the waters of the small bays above, and of whose well-deserved honors, in the way of fruit exWinnipisseogee Lake still higher, are brought into hibitions at our State Fair, I have, from the simiSanbornton Bay. This stream is of itself "a thing larity of our names, sometimes divided with him, of beauty," and so, according to somebody, "is a joy while he, innocent victim of this, to him, unfortuforever" to the beholder. It is worth a journey nate coincidence, has occasionally had laid to his from old Concord, in the Bay State, for Hawthorne, charge some less desirable products of my pen. As and Emerson, and Thoreau, and Channing, who for myself, I have no idea of applying to the Legishave so sweetly "dreamed dreams" over the tran- lature for a change of name, to escape the credit of quil waters of the sleeping Concord and Assabeth, his fruit-growing. He is at liberty to do so, whento "see visions" by the rushing, sparkling, wakeful, ever he finds the vicarious punishment of my editothough I believe nameless river, which brings the rial sins too grievous to be borne. Mr. French has mountain springs from "the Chrystal Hills," in a at present, in my judgment, decidedly the best fruit broad stream, so constant and rapid, that the heat garden I have ever seen in New Hampshire. It of summer does not narrow it, nor the chains of covers about two acres of land, of what I should winter bind it for a moment. To be sure, one seems call, part a sandy loam, and part a gravelly loam, to hear in its noisy current, loud boastings of its over a hard pan, a little elevated above the level of power and usefulness, how, after finding its way the village generally, but not so high but that the to the Merrimack, it can turn the mighty factory mist which usually rises in the autumn from the wheels at Manchester and Lawrence; and after all, water protects it from the early frosts. He has one begins to doubt, whether a more serene and forty varieties of pears, nearly all in bearing this peaceful existence, like that of the Concord, whose year, all the best varieties of plums, a good selection very name denotes its character, is not better than of apples, with most of the small fruits that can be this mad spirit of unrest, and this ability to serve cultivated in this region. He has occupied the the purposes of man, which tempts him ever to en- place but eight years, though a part of his grounds slave and ruin. had been before occupied by Hon. Wm. C. Clark,

But we need not detract from the striking beauty now of Manchester, who had commenced the work of this dividing line of Gilford and Laconia, by any of planting fruit trees. I have elsewhere seen well efforts at sentiment. Instead of following it in fact cultivated trees, and perfect fruit, but I think New or fancy to the ocean, take an afternoon drive with England could not show, this season, a garden conan agreeable companion over Pollard's Hill at the taining an equal number of pear and plum trees east, or farther on, ascend Mount Belknap, and a more uniformly healthy, and more fully laden with view will meet the eye, such as is not surpassed for fruit in its highest perfection. The secret of his beauty and grandeur in New England. Below, on success is, that having a location neither too wet nor the west, stretching away, among hills which push too dry, he has ordered his trees from the best nurboldly down to its shores, lies the Great Bay, while series, paid for them the highest prices, and given at short intervals above, Long Bay and Round Bay them the best cultivation he knew how to bestow. reflect the light of the setting sun, and Laconia, and Most of us do no such thing. We know that dwarf Gilford, and Lake Village, nestling down between pears require a rich soil, deeply trenched, that they the hills in the distance, seem like some fairy should be headed in, and kept in pyramidal form, dwellings in a vast and variegated artificial pleasure and that the fruit be thinned out, to prevent overground of the giants. Northerly, in full view, lies bearing. I know a great many cultivators who

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