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As before stated, horses take cold very easily. (that if our friends wish to see a display of fine fruits, On this account they should never be turned from a and in great variety, they must visit some of our warm stall, where they have perspired for an hour, exhibitions nearer the sea-board, where interest, as directly into a wet damp pasture. A horse should never be compelled to lie down over night in a wet,
well as taste, has prompted the cultivator to reach unsheltered pasture. Let them always have a dry the highest perfection in the art. plot, or what is better, a shed or stable to retire to The Butter and Cheese presented were in quite when they have completed their evening grazing, large quantity and of the best quality; we have seen especially if there be heavy dews, fogs or rain. A horse will never lie in an open field when a shel- nothing to equal it, except at the Berkshire Show tered spot is accessible. Every one must have ob- at Pittsfield. served that they always seek the driest spot to be The address was by CHARLES L. FLINT, Esq., found, and generally lie near a fence, shed or tree. Secretary of the State Board of Agriculture, was -ORANGE JUDD, in N. Y. T'imes.
an excellent one, and we are happy to present the
opinion of it given by the editor of the Amherst FARMERS' FESTIVAL AT AMHERST. Express :
The Hampshire County Agricultural Society held The orator began with an allusion to the objects its Annual Show at Amherst, on Wednesday and and advantages of such a gathering, regarding the Thursday, October 10th and 11th. The weather day as eminently a social occasion, a day of relaxawas pleasant, and great numbers from all parts of
tion as well as improvement, and any subject of an the county attended, and what was especially grati- wearisome attention as out of place. He gave a
abstruse or scientific character requiring a close and fying, the wives and daughters, not only of the brief sketch of the progress of farming in ancient farmers, but of the mechanics, merchants, lawyers, and modern times, drawing a picture of a Greek physicians, clergymen and literary men, were there, farm house twenty-five centuries ago, including the and enjoying the festivities of the occasion with as
appearance of the farm, the stock and the tools, much relish as those who had the fat oxen and no- Greek and Roman agricultural writers, and then
making a few extracts from the maxims of the ble horses, or those who made the butter and cheese. stated briefly the progress which had been made in Like most of the western Societies, in some re-England and other countries. The troubles and spects their exhibition was better than we can show trials of the early farmers of Massachusetts were here. In the exhibition of fruits, they are far be
then alluded to, and many curious facts stated with hind Essex, Middlesex, Norfolk and Worcester revolution, the necessity of associated effort began
regard to the farming of the Indians. After the counties, but in the articles of butter and cheese, to be felt, and the Massachusetts society was estabthey entirely outstrip all these counties, with the lished in 1792. The prejudices which the county exception, perhaps, of Worcester.
societies met were very great. The Berkshire soThere can be no comparison between their fat, or
ciety, during the second year of its existence, being
greatly embarrassed for want of funds, wrote to working cattle, and ours, as they raise their own, the State society for aid, and received from its presoften selling the best to be taken away, while most ident, John Adams, this significant reply: of ours are selected from the finest which can be
Quincy, Sept. 16, 1812. found in the western part of this State, and from “You will get no aid from Boston. Commerce, New Hampshire and Vermont. So it is in a con- literature, theology, are all against you; nay, medsiderable degree with the horses,—though in the icine, history, and university and universal politics latter they are able, at any time, to make a fine dis- might be added. I cannot, I will not be more ex
plicit.” play of young animals. There were some very fine cattle presented by Messrs. Alfred Baker, of Am
These prejudices had gradually worn away and herst, Horace Russell, of North Hadley, Frary some other organization was needed to meet the
the societies had accomplished a good work. But Field, of Leverett, H. N. Rust, of South Deerfield, wants of the inquiring and thinking minds which Luke Sweetser, of Amherst, H. Hunt, of New Sa- now form so large a part of the community. lem, A. J. Cadwell, Hubbard Graves and Austin The importance of a Farmers' Club in every Russell, of Sunderland, O. Richardson, of Granby,
town and every village of the State was dwelt upon and others whose names we did not obtain. The
at considerable length, showing their tendency to
promote the best social feelings, and increase the town of Leverett sent in a string of working oxen intercourse among farmers, too often isolated from numbering 53 yoke, and Hadley, 24 yoke, which each other or separated by prejudices, as much as if were a credit to their towns, and these made quite an ocean rolled between them. It would bring mind an attractive feature of the show. Pigs and Poul
and thought to bear on the development of our try were not numerous, or in any way remarkable, bear on the toils of the land, that moment we dig
true home policy. The moment we bring mind to but the show of Sheep was fine, and included choice nify and ennoble them. Mind is the only thing varieties.
that distinguishes the toils of man from the toils of The exhibition of fruits was creditable, there be- the brute, and those occupations which neither reing fine specimens of most of the common varieties. quire nor admit of the exercise of mind and thought
descend to the level of mere brute force. But fruit-raising in that part of the State has not
The management of such a club was illustrated been entered into much as a matter of business, so by a supposed discussion on the adaptation and profit
BY DAVID L. ROATI.
Is the tiller of the soil.
He labors not in vain.
of fax, in which many important facts with regard reality. By dashing a small bottle of sulphuric to this crop were given.
ether, with a few particles of metal potassium, into The address closed with the importance of edu- a flat cistern, a bright fame was produced, which cating farmers for their profession and making illuminated the whole place. He then laid down farming attractive to the young.
four plates of red-hot iron on four bricks, and one During the delivery of the address the church of his attendants walked over them barefooted, was crowded, and the close attention of the audience without any injury. By wetting his fingers in amevinced the satisfaction with which it was received. monia, the Professor dipped them into a crucible of The highest gratification which we found, was not
melted lead, and let the metal run off in the shape
of bullets into a shallow cistern of water. in the noble horses, fat beeves, milch kine, pigs, poultry, or vegetables, but in the expression of a sentiment fast increasing in the rural population. THE TILLER OF THE SOIL. A great many people have discarded the belief that labor is an evil, and that there is no enjoyment in
A hardy, sun-burnt man is he, the occupation that earns the bread we eat and the
A hardy, sun-burnt man;
No sturdier man you'll ever see, delightful homes we occupy. After looking at all
Though all the world you scan. the departments of the exhibition, we were so for
In summer's heat, in winter's cold, tunate as to be introduced to several of the women
You'll find him at his toil:
0, far above the knights of old, of Hampshire county, and in their expressions of attachment to rural life, and of the happy influences
No weighty bars secure his door, of rural occupations upon themselves and their
No ditch is dug around; children, we found a source of gratification far ex
His walls no cannon bristle o'er, ceeding that which any other matter afforded. They
No dead lie on his ground. feel that in the calm and rational pursuits of agri
A peaceful laborer is he,
Unknown in earth's turmoil : culture and its kindred branches, horticulture and
From many crushing sorrows free, arboriculture, there is less excitement of the pas
Is the tiller of the soii. sions, less temptation to lure from the paths of vir
His stacks are seen on every side,
His barns are filled with grain; tue, and a constantly ennobling influence that lifts
Though others hail not fortune's tide, the soul through nature up to nature's God. That God is daguerrotyped, as it were, before us all;
The land gives up its rich increase, that we see his wisdom and love, in the bending
The sweet reward of toil,
And blest with happiness and peace, grass, the trembling leaf, the sparkling dew, and in a thousand wonderful operations constantly carried
He trudges out at break of day, on by His superintending care, and which are ever
And takes his way along, present to him who cultivates the soil. That there
And as he turns the yielding clay, are lessons of trust, of confidence, of submission to
He sings a joyjul song.
He is no dull, unhappy wight, be found in the garden and field in many different
Bound in misfortune's coil ; forms; that wisdom may be found in every flower
The smile is bright, the heart is light, that blooms, or insect that lives; that there are
Of the tiller of the soil.
And when the orb of day has crowned “Tongues in trees, books in the running brooks,
With gold the western sky, Sermons in stones, and good in everything."
Before his dwelling he is found, Such sentiments are gaining ground, and as they
With cheerful faces by
With little laughing duplicates, are received, will the farm-house become embellish
Caresses will not spoil ; ed with books, with shade trees, with climbing
0, joy at every tide awaits plants and flowers, and contented hearts, and the home of the farmer become the happiest of all in
A hardy, sun-burnt man is he, our land.
A hardy, sun-burnt man;
But who can boast a hand so free, So the Hampshire Show was a successful one, be
As he, the tiller, can? cause it was constructed upon principles which will
No summer's heat, no winter's cold, make men better and happier—a rational Holiday,
The power has him to foil ;
0, far above the knights of old which should be kept pure from all distracting in
Is the tiller of the soil ! fluences of whatever name.
Our thanks are due Mr. DICKINSON, the President, and Mr. BOYDEN, the Secretary, for kind at
ASHES IN AGRICULTURE. tentions.
Wood ashes is one of the most important fertil
izers. It is easily obtained in any quantity, and at WALKING ON RED-HOT IRON PLATES.—Prof. little or no expense. Take them carefully from Pepper recently delivered a lecture in the Pyrotech- your hearths and save them until your corn and ponic Institute, London, before a large audience of tatoes have arisen two or three inches from the mechanics, in which he remarked that the setting ground, and then take a basket on your arm, and of the Thames on fire was no longer a joke, but a from it take a small handful of ashes, and cast it at
Is the tiller of the soil.
The tiller of the soil.
the root of your plants, and hoe them soon, so as to have the pleasure of seeing them devour unhappy cover the ashes.
criminals; and slaves for various offences, most parAshes contain all the inorganic substance of the ticularly for any attempt to gain their liberty, were wood or plants which are consumed; part of these punished by being thrown to wild beasts. At last are soluble and part insoluble. Thus dissolved, pot- the nation became so effeminate, that the army ash will dissolve silica and prepare it for glazing the which had been the terror of the world, and was in stalks of cane, corn, wheat, &c.
the early ages of her existence composed of the Not a particle of ashes should go to waste. flower of her youth, was ruined by the introducLeached ashes has parted with most of its potash, tion of many foreign legions. It is the commonly but it still retains its phosphoric acid and most of received opinion that Rome was conquered by vast its lime. Ashes neutralize acids in the soil; they hordes of barbarians from the Norih, but it will warm cold, messy, wet places; they are very de- easily be seen that slavery was the conqueror, for structive to insects; they assist to break down and if the Romans had remained a free, virtuous and dissolve the coarse fibres and stalks in compost industrious people, they could have withstood all heaps ; and render hard, clayey soils, open loamy the world.
E. N. and fertile.
South Hadley, Sept., 1855. The potash, so material to most crops, can be obtained here, only from ashes. In granite regions,
For the New England Farmer. potash is obtained from the dissolution of the feldspar, but we have none in this region of country.
GRAVEL WALLS. Wheat contains a large proportion of potash. MR. EDITOR :—The subject of mortar is extensive, Fifty-nine per cent of the ash of corn isæarbonate and at best but a mere glance of it can now be of potash, one half of the earthy part of Irish pota- taken, yet its importance is so great, in this mode of toes is pure potash.
building especially, that it cannot be passed over Save your ashes, therefore, as carefully as you do too hastily. your five and ten cent pieces, apply them to your Shaw, in one of his works on Architecture, says: crops with care, and you will find them of a rich, “The characteristic of all modern artists, builders deep green color while growing, and heavy with nu-among the rest, seems to be to spare their time and triment at harvest.-Ancient City.
labor as much as possible, and to increase the quantity of the article they produce, without much re
gard to goodness, and perhaps there is no manufacFor the New England Farmer.
ture in which this is so remarkably exemplified as DIGNITY OF TOIL.
in the preparation of common mortar.”
There is a work on mortars, now out of print, but MR. EDITOR :—When Lycurgus, ruler of Laco- which should be in print, and in the possession of nia, made an equal division of land, and destroyed all builders and persons about to build, which is the commerce by the introduction of an almost valueless result of extensive research, and the patient praccurrency, he performed an act bold and novel be- tical experiments of Lieut. Wm. H. Wright, of the yond all precedent, requiring unlimited authority U. S. corps of Engineers, while engaged on the for its performance. And he acted from wise mo- public works in Boston harbor. The following tives, for Sparta was a small country, surrounded by directions for preparing mortar and concrete, are warlike nations, and he hoped by suppressing all gleaned from the mass, and partly in the language wealth and luxury, to be able to maintain its inde- of the book. He says, sand performs no chemical pendence. But he made one great mistake-he part in mortar, but is entirely passive in its influence ; destroyed the dignity of labor, for the work of till- it appears rather to diminish the adhesiveness or ing the soil was performed by "helots” or slaves, tenacity of the limes, and though it may often add consisting of prisoners taken in war, and their de- to their resistance, is employed chiefly for reasons scendants, who were treated with great rigor, while of economy. It is useful, however, as an ingredient they, (the Spartans.) spent most of their time in of mortar, in some other respects; it moderates military exercises ; and subsequent to the death of the shrinkage of the cementing matter, making it Lycurgus they became luxurious and effeminate, uniform, and preventing cracks; probably facilitates and were swallowed up in the Roman vortex. desiccation, and makes the induration more rapid.
The Romans, in the early ages of their history, Sand diminishes the strength of hydraulic cement were a virtuous and industrious nation, who paid in every respect, whether we regard tenacity, resisgreat attention to agriculture, the land being tance, or the property of setting under water ; though owned chiefly in small parcels; each proprietor cul- a mixture of cement and sand for stucco and pointtivated his fårm with his own labor. And so long ing mortar is better than pure cement, as being less as their great men were called from the plow to liable to crack, and therefore more durable when the senate and the tribunal, did they increase in exposed to the sun in hot weather. In general, a popularity. But when the nation had waxed migh- moderate portion of sand is mingled with cement, ty, had fought many wars and conquered many na- for the sake of economy, except in peculiar circumtions, then slave labor was almost universally adopt- stances, on very important works. ed: not only in agriculture and the mechanic arts, but Sand containing soft earthy matter, should be realso in nearly all of the professions, slaves were to jected for mortar, or if retained should be washed. be found. Consequently it became a disgrace for a Its presence is easily detected by its soiling the free citizen to labor--they became effeminate and hand. dissolute. In their amusements they showed a de- A suitable proportion of sand or fine gravel, by praved taste; amphitheatres were erected at vast ex- filling the void spaces in the lime paste, and by the pense; lions, tigers, elephants, alligators and other adhesion of its particles to the lime, is important in ferocious beasts, were brought from various parts of point of economy, as it is the least expensive ingrethe world, in order that the Roman populace might dient. A very important part in mortar-making,
then, is to know what is the smallest amount of sand, stone broken into small fragments, broken cementing matter admissible in its preparation. bricks, gravel, shells, and the like. The coarser inThe cheapest, and only allowable combination, is the gredients are added to the mortar of sand and filling of the void spaces of the sand. To ascertain cementing matter, with a view of giving hardness the void spaces, fill a vessel of known capacity, and incompressibility, and of lessening cost—and with dry silicious sand, and after shaking it com- this cost is reduced to the utmost by the use of pactly, add water until it appears on the surface, the fragments of various sizes, and sometimes by a cerquantity of water is the measure of void spaces of tain proportion of gravel, in order to make the sum the sand. The rate recommended by Lieut. Wright of the voids as small as possible. Of the materials for proportions, is, to twelve measures of coarse employed at Fort Warren, brick fragments have dense sand, five of the cementing ingredients in usually been preferred as affording the best results. paste somewhat firmer than properly tempered The proportion of cementing matter should always mortar. To five measures of middling sand, two of be such as to form good mortar, with the sand alone ; the cement; to three measures of fine sand, one and the mortar, thus composed, must always be admeasure of the cement. A cask of stone lime ded to the solid particles, in the least sufficient weighing 240 lbs., net, will produce 8 cubic feet of quantity to fill up the voids. This, however, would stiff paste, and will admit of sixteen bushels damp be the minimum of mortar, and would rarely proloose sand; and the lime paste should become cold duce a good result. An excess over this amount before the sand is added.
has been always used in the composition of concrete From the extended quotations and remarks on at the public works in Boston harbor. the adhesive mixture for gravel or concrete build- The concrete for the sea-wall at Lovell's Island ings, it is apparent that the true principles of mor- was prepared by mingling mortar of hydraulic tar-making should be applied to those, of all other cement and sand, and a shingle or gravel of slaty buildings.
texture. This gravel consisted of all sizes, from the Bricks are porous, and the carbonic acid of the bigness of a pea to stones of six inches in diameter, atmosphere, small as it is, being only one part in so proportioned as to fill the void spaces. A batch one hundred, will in time reach the mortar to a of mortar was composed as follows: 1 cask cement, considerable depth from the surface. The unavoid- equal to 31 cubic feet stiff paste; 104 cubic feet damp able interstices in the concrete, admit also the at- loose sand, equal to 8 cubic feet dense sand. One-nalf mosphere, and besides, the walls may be ventilated of the sand was put into a box and spread out, then a from bottom to top at intervals of a few feet by cask of cement, and over this was spread the remainmoveable tubes, round or square, to draw up as der of the sand. Water was then added, sufficient to the work advances. The ventilators serve to harden produce a somewhat pliant mixture, and then mixed the mortar at these points, and rapidly strengthen in the usual way. The result was 10 cubic feet the wall.
of quite stiff mortar. This batch was mixed with Of the buildings erected in this vicinity of con-|313 cubic feet of gravel, the void spaces of which crete, the majority stand, and it is much to be were estimated at 20 to 25 per cent of its volume. hoped they will stand to a remarkable old age. The minimum of mortar would be between 7 and 8 Others have fallen, and of those fallen an examina-cubic feet, but two more feet were allowed to comtion shows that the stones and particles of gravel pensate for imperfection in the manipulation. The were little more than whitewashed, without an ap- concrete was prepared by spreading out the gravel proximation of adhesive mixtures to bind the par- on a platform, in a layer from 8 to 12 inches thick, ticles together.
the smaller pebbles on the bottom and the larger Of those concrete buildings which have fallen, one on the top, afterwards spreading the mortar over it at Lexington was built on a wet site. The base- as uniformly as possible. The materials were then ment was some of the time under water, and upon mixed by four men, two with shovels and two with a foundation of lime concrete. The design was, one hoes, the former facing each other, and always story above the basement, and the thickness of the working from the outside of the heap to the centre, wall one foot. But it was carried up two or three then stepping back and recommencing in the same stories. While the frost remained it stood, and way, and thus continuing the operation until the when it came out it fell. One at Lynn, 23 stories, was whole mass was turned. Then men with hoes workplaced on a stone foundation, supposed to be good ex-ed, each, in conjunction with a shoveller, and were cepting the lack of a thorough coating of hydraulic required to rub well into the mortar each shovel full
, cement above the underpinning, on which the con- as it was turned and spread, or rather scattered on crete should be placed, to prevent the attraction of the platform by a jerking motion. The heap was dampness from the ground,-a precaution needful turned over a second time, in the same manner, but to a brick or stone building as well as to one of in an opposite direction, and the ingredients were concrete. It was thought by the owner that the thus thoroughly incorporated, the surface of every foundation started, and with it the whole edifice pebble being well covered with mortar. came to the ground, filling the air with a perfect Two turnings usually sufficed to make the mixcloud of lime powder. It was built of gravel and ture complete, and the resulting mass of concrete smooth cobble, without the coarser rubble stones, (33] cubic feet) was then ready for transportation and probably nearly destitute of such a preparation to the foundation. The concrete was taken to the of mortar as is requisite to hold brick and stone and foundation, levelled and rammed. The rammer gravel together.
was a cylinder of wood 8 inches in diameter and 8 Lieut. Wright says “that the French beton and inches high, and its base was faced with sheet iron, English concrete are used for similar purposes. and furnished with a handle 3 to 4 feet in length. Beton or concrete is nothing more than a mortar, There was prepared a quantity of mortar, with 8 to which are added coarser materials than are found cubic feet of stiff lime paste, 11 stiff cement paste, in sand. The materials proper for use in the manu- and 42 cubic feet of damp and loose sand, equal to facture of concrete, are hydraulic lime or cement, 32 cubic feet of close sand. The products amount
W. H. K.
ing, as our author says, to 40 cubic feet of stiff mor
For the New England Farmer. tar. Of this mortar ļ of the batch was used in
HOPS-INQUIRIES ABOUT. making concrete--say 133 cubic feet of mortar, 22) cubic feet of granite fragments, and 114 cubic feet
MR. EDITOR :-From a child I have been accusof gravel, making 33} cubic feet of stony material. tomed to experimental farming on a slope of one of In the preparation of this batch the gravel was first the Green Mountain ranges. Perceiving and senmixed with a portion of the mortar, and when well sibly feeling my inefficiency, with the hope of obincorporated, the mass was spread out, over which taining some idea of what is termed its theory, I were then spread the granite fragments, and after- some time since, commenced as a reader and also a wards, the remainder of the mortar. The whole subscriber to the New England Farmer. was then worked thoroughly, and produced 384
To the agriculturist, a knowledge of its theory cubic feet of concrete. The gravel consisted of may be of about as much consequence, as that of various sizes, from that of a pea to that of a small physic to the physician. Both are made available, hen’s-egg, and the fragments of granite were broken when accompanied with a corresponding share of to about the size of a hen’s-egg. This concrete was good sound common sense ; necessary in the varied placed in a very dry situation. But if it was placed aspects and different developments of the same, and below ground,' I am convinced that the pot lime also of different diseases. should have been omitted. The cost of this concrete
I ask my brother farmers if in too many inwas $2,62; per cubic yard.
stances, our sickly soils do not denote that their After the thorough and critical experiments of attendant physician has been a mere quack? Why our author, he illustrates the economy of using con
is it that so many of our brethren are obliged uncrete, by giving a table of the cost of masonry at remittingly to toil
, from "early dawn to evening's Fort Warren.
shade," until they are physically and intellectually
more feeble than the soil they cultivate, in order to Rubbled masonry, dry, costs per cubic yard, about $3,00 Rubbled masonry laid in mortar,
make the "strap and buckle come together at the
84,25 Brick masonry per cubic yard,
end of the year," quoting from my good old neighFacing stone, sea-wall beds and joints hammered, $9,00 bor, Economy? Concrete, least costly kind a little over
82,00 Concrete, most costly kind a little over
$3,50 While I hail the weekly arrival of the New book, justice is not and cannot be done him ; a uals in the learned professions, and perhaps some In this compend of Lieut. Wright's valuable England Farmer, I lament that those whose organ
or mouth-piece it should be, should compel individ. newspaper article being too limited. If the work was to be obtained of the publishers or the trade, I gentleman farmer, to do so much of the talking. I should have referred your readers to it for ample the editor with some of their more difficult ques
believe, however, that my brother farmers do go to information on the subject of which it treats. Waltham, 1855.
tions. I propose a simple suggestion, and a question or two. Will experimenters in the soil be
more particular in stating the nature, formation, and For the New England Parmer. locality of their soil, as well as its treatment and
results ? PLUM ROT.
The deacons and laymen in agriculture, if not FRIEND BROWN :-As the rain pours—and every the priests of this vicinity, are making almost one body is thankful, or should be, after a long drought— simultaneous rush into the hop-growing business. I look out upon my plum trees near the windows, Now in this place we sail in small boats, and have at the same time taking up the N. E. Farmer to to guard against an approaching storm, that we read again. I notice particularly the “Extracts and may see ourselves safely in harbor. Replies," and only wish that I had inquired, too, I wish to inquire, first, has art or discovery dewhy my plums rot upon the trees, just as they had voted the use of the hop to any purpose that it was attained their natural size and beauty, and look as not used for ten years ago ? if ripe. How disappointed! After having spent What has been the average price of hops for fifso much time, money and labor to have trees laden teen years past ? What, with the best information with unripe fruit
, promising a full harvest in the for judging, might be considered a safe estimate for end, attacked with the “plum rot,” every one of the same time to come ? them of the "same sort," not even a "few left.” Is the price of the article any more fluctuating This is one trouble. And here is another. Look than that of other staple farming products of New at the Isabella grapes—Jack Frost did it all—we England ?
S. P. J. know who did this, and do not inquire. But a few Waitsfield, Vt., 1855. days more, and I should have had my heart's desire, ripe grapes. In looking over the “Extracts and Replies," I must confess that I smile at others'
MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY.—The troubles ; (misery loves company, you know.) For following officers have been chosen for the ensuing here is one Mr. A.
, who says, “I wish to inquire,” year, commencing on the first Saturday of 1856: &c; Mr. B. says, “I am much troubled," &c. ;
President-Joseph S. Cabot.
Vice Presidents---Benjamin V. French, Cheever inform me," &c. Now, all
you I want to know is--though I would like to know Newhall, Edward M. Richards, Josiah Stickney. what Mr. A., B. and C. want to know—what is the
Treasurer-William R. Austin. cause and preventive of “my plum rot.” But no
Corresponding Secretary-Eben Wight. grumbling-while I have gangrenous plums, I have
Recording Secretary-W. C. Strong pears fully ripe—though Jack Frost claims my Isa
Professor of Botany and Vegetable Physiologybellas, my Dianas are left, and I like them best
John Lewis Russell. so no grumbling, it's all right.
Professor of Entomology-T. W. Harris, M. D. PLUMS AND GRAPES.
Professor of Horticultural Chemistry-E. N. Manchester, N, H., 1855.