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For the New England Farmer. cellar are raised considerably above the level of the IMPROVEMENT IN BARNS. land surrounding it. The excavation for the cellar

having been made, it is then walled in upon the two Among the many and recent improvements in ends and the side next to the bank ; the side frontfarming matters, none is more conspicuous than the ing upon the yard being left open,-although it is improvement in the con ction of barns. afterwards sometimes closed up by a wooden par

If a stranger from some remote corner of our tition with doors and windows. land, where these "new-fashioned" barns have not The frame of the barn is now raised over the yet made their appearance, should travel through cellar, which has been so excavated that one end of the country, and especially those parts of it which the barn will—like fashionable modern houseslie in the vicinity of the large town and cities, he front upon the road. The frame is then shingled would be very likely to conclude that nearly every and boarded, the boards being either "halved” or farmer has an academy or meeting-house upon his “matched,” but sometimes they are fitted snugly premises; and when informed that these tasty build- together with the jointer only, the cracks being ings are barns, would, perhaps, show you the full afterwards covered with narrow strips of boards. dimensions of his eyes, and often exhibiting other This last named method of putting on the boards, signs of astonishment, wish to know the use of the although objected to by some, yet, when properly cupolas or steeples which he saw upon their sum- done, makes the barn tight and warm; and when mits. And when told that the cupolas are “ventil- the boards are planed and painted, as they frequentators,” would, doubtless, open his eyes still wider ly are, gives to the barn a very neat and pretty apthan before, and exclaim—“Ventilators ? What

pearance. Lengthwise, and through the centre of good does a ventilator do upon a barn?” When the barn, a space sufficiently wide has been left for we consider the manner in which barns were forin- a floor, or “drive-way,” which can be driven into, or erly built, we shall not so much wonder at the above out of, at either end; and which, if occasion requirquestion. The boards were put on without “match-ed, would contain several loads of hay at the same ing” or “halving," and frequently without the use of time, without any pinching; affording also, when the jointer, so that in a short time there were cracks the golden corn is gathered in, ample room for a wide and numerous enough to thoroughly ventilate merry “husking”. The space beneath the scaffolds the barn, and keep it cool

, especially in the winter. upon one side of the floor is occupied by the stalls, And in addition to the above method of purifying or stables for the horses and cattle; the other side the atmosphere of the barn, there was usually space being reserved for a "bay." enough at the top and bottom of the "great barn- This arrangement of the interior compartments doors," and sometimes between them, to throw out of the barn renders the task of unloading and a stray dog without injuring him in the least. The mowing away hay, feeding and tending the cattle, internal part of the barn was likewise arranged in &c., much easier and more convenient than it used the same convenient style. The narrow “barn- to be formerly. Instead of the old-fashioned, doufloor” was laid crosswise of the barn, and generally ble, loose, swinging, flapping doors, which, besides near to one end; a "head-scaffold" covered about being inconvenient, rendered a passage into the one-third of the length of the floor, at the end far-barn absolutely dangerous in windy weather, unless thest from the doors ; so that when a respectable they were securely faatened, each door, great and sized load of hay was driven into it, if there was small, is now made single, or in one piece, and any hay upon the scaffolds, the load was tightly moves backwards and forwards so easily upon small pressed on each side and the farthest end, the other iron wheels, that a child could with facility open or being “out-doors.” A part of the hay, after being shut them. jerked from the load, had to be pitched several A barn built in this manner is so snug and warm times over, before it reached its final destination at that some method of ventilating and purifying its the farthest end of the barn.

atmosphere is rendered highly necessary, and acThe stables, "lean-to” or byre, hen-roost, &c., cordingly an aperture has been left in the centre of were jumbled up together somewhere—the last the top of the barn, which is covered by a cupola. named place being frequently in the "lean-to” over In each of the four sides of the cupola, there is an the necks of the cattle.

opening, of the shape and size of a small window, The barn-yard was almost invariably in front of into which venetian blinds are fitted and fastened. the barn, rendering a passage to and from the barn The cupola is ornamented, if the taste and means of extremely pleasant, especially in a rainy day. Dig- the farmer acquiesce, with panels, mouldings and ging a barn-cellar was a piece of folly which very carvings in the Arabesque, Gothic, or some other few were guilty of committing in those days. style, the whole being painted and surrounded by a Farmers would as soon have thought of protecting gilded vane, balls and letters, to indicate the differtheir fruit trees from the effects of the sun and air, ent points of compass. The gables, doors and winby building sheds over them, as of preserving ma- dows of the barn are also frequently adorned with nure from the same causes,—the effects being dif- pediments ; and the eves, or cornices, with wide, ferent in toto,—by digging a cellar to receive it.

handsome mouldings. But these ill-constructed barns, although too A barn built and finished in this style, with its many of them still have an existence, yet, for the pretty white, or fancy-colored cupola peeping up most part, have disappeared, and others of a new through the surrounding trees, contrasting beautiand much improved style have arisen from their fully with their green foliage, or with the dark blue ruins.

sky, presents to the eyes a pleasing spectacle, and The first thing done nowadays towards the crea- is an ornament, not only to the farm upon which it tion of a barn, is to dig a cellar. To render the stands, but also to the whole neighborhood and to task an easier one, a site is chosen where the ground the adjacent country as far as the barn can be seen. is somewhat sloping, but if this is impracticable, Although there are many modifications to the more digging is necessary, unless the walls of the above poorly described mode of building barns, yet generally, it is considered the most convenient, and habits of reading for themselves, such reading is both is, therefore, the one which is most frequently safe and useful. Reader, if your neighbor has no adopted.

agricultural paper, persuade him to take one. Even There is one thing I wish to mention, which some, if he is poor, he can better afford to take one than perhaps, may think unworthy of notice, but which to do without it : for if he takes one, his children to me, seems otherwise, and will, doubtless, to will be likely to be better off-to make a good home many others; and this is, that in these new barns for themselves, and it may be for him in old age. no provision is made for the ingress and egress of Not all will have farms ; but all will need to know the poor swallows.

something of the garden and orchard at least ; and Around these neat, spruce, well-proportioned we advise no parent, who feels that he may sometime barns, and their decorated gables and cupolas, the be dependent upon his children, to bring them up swift, graceful gyrations of the swallow are seldom without the means of instruction in rural economy. seen, and beneath their sheltering roofs his merry It should be regarded as essential in the education twitterings are never heard. And why are these of any child, male or female.American Cotton barns thus deserted by these sociable little fellows ? Planter. Simply for the want of a little aperture, round or square, and three or four inches in diameter, in each

SEEDS. gable of the barn, just beneath its apex. In barns built after the old style, “swallow holes” of the seed which are to start future crops, and too

This is the season for the preservation of many were always to be seen. In some of these barns I have counted twenty nests at one time, all of them much care can scarcely be exercised in the selection being occupied.

and disposition of them. If we desire early and A barn swarming with a multitude of such happy, perfect crops, we must begin them with the best innocent inhabitants, resounds with such flutterings, seeds, and these can only be obtained by careful twitterings and gushing outbursts of song, that it discrimination and preservation. They should be seems as if every one who enters within its precincts , even if he be a confirmed hypocondriac, must kept from moist places

, and on the other hand not forget all his troubles, and feel his heart drawn up- so dry as to shrivel and nearly bake them. Every wards in praise to Him “to whom alone praise is farmer and gardener should have his seed drawers, due," for their cheerful melodies.

conveniently arranged, and always ready for use. If birds possess, as they certainly did in at least

Seeds constitute the ultimate production of plants. one instance, I refer to the story which appeared in the Farmer a short time since, under the title,

In shape as well as specific qualities they are wide"Instinct and Affection of Birds," and with which, ly and wonderfully diversified. While some are all who read it were, doubtless, greatly interested-enveloped in a soft pultaceous substance, which easisuch strong affection and such wonderful instincts ly decays, and allows the germ to expand, others as would almost lead one to suppose that they are endowed with the faculty of reason, it seems to me

are confined within involucres almost rivalling in that they are worthy of our particular regard and their hardness and indistructibility, the most induprotection. And, besides the pleasure we receive rated mineral. In others we find the germinating from their society, they, and especially the swallows, principle protected only by a membranous integudestroy during their short stay with us an innum- ment, as in the case of the common garden pea. erable multitude of insects, which is a fact of no The seeds of some plants vegetate only in moist soil ; little importance in these insectivorous times.

The above description of barns, both of the old others, of the aquatic sort, only in water; while a and new style, have been given, not with the sup- third class, require neither soil nor water, but develposition that they contain any information for the op in the open air. The latter are denominated intelligent readers of the Farmer, but that the aerial, to distinguish them from the terrene and reader, by comparing them together, may the more

aquatic orders, and are very numerous, but less so clearly perceive the great improvements which have been made within a few years, in these necessary

than the terrene or earthy kinds. The powers of concomitants of the farm.

prolification possessed by some species of vegetables, There is, perhaps, no greater proof of the increas- is truly astonishing. The thistle, for instance, proing wealth, knowledge and refinement of the farmer duces an immense number of seeds, and these, owthan this reformed method of building barns; and the fact that the farmer is thus increasing in knowl- ing to the villous or downy coating with which naedge, refinement and wealth, is a pleasing thought ture has endowed them, are so buoyant that they to all who truly feel interested in the happiness are commonly disseminated over vast extents of surand prosperity of this great and glorious republic. face, broadcast, by the August winds. The same Groton, Od., 1855.

S. L. WHITE. is true of the seeds of the dandelion, and many oth

er weeds. The seeds of the locust, oak, walnut, EVERY FAMILY SHOULD HAVE AN AGRICULTURAL chestnut, and other similar trees, are larger and PAPER.— It is worth more than it costs simply for more ponderous, and consequently are never difeducational purposes.,. Parents have hardly a right fused in this way; they require to be transported to deprive their families of its advantages in these and planted by hand. The seed of the locust, is times. Children will learn more, as they go to and from school, to drive the cows to pasture, or pick enveloped in a shelly integument of such exceeding berries by the way, if their observation is quickened. hardness, that it can only be made to germinate by by what they hear their parents read or talk over the application of the most scrupulous care. Some from the agricultural papers ; and when they form seeds are found to be capable of resisting the or

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J. S.

ganic action of the stomachs of birds, and are thus

For the New England Farmer conveyed and voided by them, without experiencing HAWAIIAN AGRICULTURE. any detriment therefrom. Plants indigenous to

MAKAWAO Maui, HAWAIIAN ISLANDS,

MARCH 20, 1855. one section are thus frequently found in places far

EDITORS OF NEW ENGLAND FARMER :-Gentleremote-on promontories and the distant islands

men,-Till you shall have some other and an abler of the sea.

Water, also, furnishes to many a vehi- correspondent at the islands, I may not neglect to cle of transportation, as well as the feathery coats give you the news of the day. of birds of passage, and the hair of graminivorous You see, gentlemen, that the Sandwich Islands and carnivorous animals.

are not yet annexed to the United States, and I may add there is no likelihood that they will soon

be annexed. I mention this as an item of news, A YOUNG FARMER. which I think you may rely upon, and which I

which The old adage, “Never too old to learn,” has been hope may exclude from nearly all the papers thrown a century behind the present age, by the from the United States reach the islands, items refollowing letter, received by the editors of the New specting the islands to this amount, that they are England Farmer :

about to be annexed—negotiations all finished the

king ready, merely waiting the return of the Prince "GENT. :-I am six years old; I send you $1.00 Liholiho from the windward in order to sign the for the N. E. Farmer, Monthly.

treaty of annexation. I took the liberty of doubt“Yours,

ing the correctness of these statements when I first New Market, N. H., Jan. 13, 1855."

saw them ; who made them is not exactly known, If we could hope to receive one such letter du- and there is now no need of inquiring. Whatever ring the year, we would labor with redoubled ener

the late king, Kamehameha III., might have said gy in the cause of agriculture. Where are the boys encouragingly on the subject, he did not affix his and girls of the South, who intend to be happy and name to a treaty of annexation, and death put a stop prosperous in the exhibition of a life of industrious to his design of so doing, if he had such design. He thrift

, enterprise and frugal enjoyment? Where died about the middle of December, and the same are the young men who are to fill the places of our

day Liholiho was proclaimed king, under the title staunch, planting population, who are now enrich- of Kamehameha IV. and in a few days he was ing the country by their labors ? Labor, preparar of the young King, both to his own people and to

crowned, with much display of loyalty. The address tion, study, and an acquaintance with the details of practical life, must all be learned properly, before foreigners, was sensible and good. Of course, no you are worthy to step into their shoes. It requires

one expects annexation at present. No one speaks years of patient observance to fit you for the task. of it. No doubt many are greatly disappointed The operation of plowing, alone, will repuire ex

that the plan has failed, and the more so on account perience and practice, to enable the planter to excel of the high hopes which have been raised by readin it; and, unfortunately, where to plow, when to ing what they regarded as official statements on the plow, and how to plow, are matters not to be learned subject of annexation. Do you inquire who would in our high schools and colleges. So with all other be benefited by such a scheme? No one would departments of agricultual life. A young man of really be so, in my opinion, though a small class, I good education, when he commences agriculture as

admit, would make money faster somewhat than they a calling, finds that he has to commence the study

now do. The sugar planters compose this class. also, and his after life is spent in acquiring what he The duties which they now pay at California on might have profitably learned under a proper system

their sugar and syrup, causes them to complain, and of agricultural education. If nine-tenths of our sons

they are earnest advocates for annexation. Ten forare to be planters, let them have primary educations eigners, however, would be injured, in my opinion, to fit them for the pursuit

. If planting is to be a by the measure, where one would be benefited. lottery of practice—as it has ever been at the South I learn lately that about the time of the king's

--we might as well desist from our recommenda- death, there were several gentlemen at Honolulu ' tions. But it must not be. We must still strive from California, who came down, it is thought, ex

on, and if there is no proper system of Agricultural pecting that annexation was about to take place. education provided for the people, we must make The death of the king put an end to their expectaour journals travelling schoolmasters of the great

tions of this sort, and they have returned to San science which feeds the hungry and clothes the na

Francisco. ked.

I claim, gentlemen, to be a cordial friend of my

own native country, and none the less so because I For the New England Farmer.

am a friend of this my adopted one. I wish well A THRIFTY PIG.

to foreigners on these shores. I pray for their high

est prosperity. As many of them as desire to setMR. EDITOR :—Mr. George H. Floyd, of this tle on the islands, and are willing to become peacetown, purchased a pig on the 7th of July last

, whose ful and law-abiding citizens, I rejoice to see among live weight was 173 lbs. He slaughtered it on the us; especially should I rejoice to see an increasing 16th ot October. It weighed when dressed 342 number of agriculturists, practical farmers, who lbs. Now suppose we deduct 2-5 of the live weight should fence their lands, build barns, corn-houses, when bought, (2-5 I believe is the usual amount al- raise wheat, oats, corn, beans, barley, garden vegelowed to waste in dressing, it would leave 103 lbs. tables ; feed stock, cattle, sheep, swine, &c., and fill which would have been dead weight when bought. their gardens with fruit trees of all kinds. They Now for the gain, which is 239 lbs., or 2} lbs. per might not become rich in a year; they might not day.

in five or in ten, but they would obtain a comfortaFremont, N. H., Oct. 20, 1855.

ble living, and their gains would be sure though

c.

slow. And is not this as God would have it? But as some are more successful, fortunate they Why should a man, any man, become rich in a term it, and turn their speculations to a good acday? This is not God's plan of bestowing riches, count, the spirit still survives. When will men learn judging from the analogy of His works. Look at that the history of Jonah's gourd is one full of inthe oak, the product of His hand. In favorable cir-struction. It came up in a night, was of marvellous cumstances it has become a lofty, a majestic tree, rapid growth, spreading its shade over the head of with deeply-buried roots and wide-spreading branch- the fainting prophet, and making him very glad of es, which has withstood the storms and blasts of a its cooling influence; just as the wealth of some hundred winters. It is a model of strength and speculator flows in like a mighty stream, carrying beauty. But who does not know that this majestic all before it, and fairly turning the head of the tree of the forest gained this proud eminence by a fortunate man. But look again at the gourd. “It slow, almost imperceptible growth? So in the in- perished in a night, "leaving the poor prophet more tellectual world. The giant Newton, whose discov- unhappy than he was before the creation of the eries astonished the world, and whose name makes shade which he now mourns. If it is not thus with one proud of belonging to the same species, had innumerable speculators, then I am greatly mistakonce the mind of an infant, unoccupied and imbecile. en. Let men of all classes be content with the He became what he was according to his own dec- slow but more sure gains of industry, rather than laration, by a course of indomitable industry. So eager for the quick returns of speculation, never of others of like pursuits and of towering intellect. safe, oftentimes criminal, and commonly injurious To industry and application is the world indebted, in their influence on communities. I will only add not to something called genius, for her good and that the amount of wheat sown in this neighborrenowned and useful men and women. And why hood is about the same as last year, say 1200 acres. in seeking wealth should not men be content to The wheat is now promising. grow rich slowly? Why not be satisfied with mod- Very truly your friend and fellow-laborer, erate gains ? Such gains are incomparably more

J. S. GREEN. safe to every one, more satisfactory to all reasonable men. Such were the gains of most men of my

For the New England Farmer. early acquaintance in New England—farmers and mechanics of country towns. I do not say that many

POTATOES FOR PLANTING. of these would not have been glad of quicker and MR. EDITOR :—I am an advocate for small potalarger returns, of more rapid gains, though most of toes for planting purposes. Not but that large ones them appeared contented and happy in making the are not as good, and perhaps better; yet on the ends of the year, as they used to express themselves, whole, I am in favor of small potatoes. The argufairly meet; especially, could they lay by a small ment, that small potatoes will produce small potasum at the end of the year. Even the merchants toes is not supported by facts. It appears to me of those days were content with a small per centage that the application which writers on the other side on their goods. Small gains with much business of the question make of the axiom, "Like produces was regarded as the most desirable method of con- like,” is sophistical, that it does not touch the question ducting trade.

under consideration. Potatoes will produce potatoes, But these notions are regarded among us at the corn, corn, &c.; but it does not follow that a small islands as antiquated, far behind this age of pro- potato will produce smoll potatoes. I am rather gress. Not only do most, not to say all, who from inclined to believe that the advocates for large poforeign lands come hither to do business, mean to tatoes for seed, are rather apt to try small culture become rich, but they design to become so at once. as well as small potatoes, when they make experiSlow gains will not answer their turn; such gairs ments that way. Permit me to give my experience they could have secured at home. Why should in relation to small potatoes as seed potatoes. they come thousands of miles, and deny themselves I am a mechanic, and cultivate only a small garof the comforts of civilized society, merely to make den ; it is, therefore, for my interest to produce as a few hundred dollars per year. I do not say that much as I can on a small space; my garden conmany of these men use this precise language, sisted of ten square rods in 1853-4, and this year though some have employed even stronger lan- there were two rods more added. Of this, I have guage, but the language of their conduct reads planted some two-thirds to potatoes. In 1853, I thus, if I have skill in reading it. Hence the few planted with a mixture of large and small potatoes, who engage in agricultural pursuits, or in other and in October dug nearly six bushels, large and manual labor departments. The gains are too small, besides what my family used through the slow. The raising of wheat and corn, of potatoes, summer; from these I took all the small ones for beans, &c., will do well enough for plodders, but we the next year's planting; there were none larger must adopt other plans, engage in more lucrative than a good-sized plum, and many were smaller. In employments. Hence the few farmers, the lean 1854 I planted these potatoes, and dug in the fall markets, the importation of flour, bread, meat, &c. eight bushels of good-sized potatoes, besides the Hence the multiplication of merchants or rather small and what were used in my family before digstore-keepers ; the number of candidates for govern- ging time. This year I planted the small of last ment employments

, the increase of speculators— year's raising, and having finished digging, I find, anything to make money, to secure quick returns. besides what were used before digging, that I have This is the great obstacle to Hawaiian prosperity. 115 bushels in all, which makes about 250 bushels This keeps us poor more than anything else. This per acre. I think, considering the effects of the was the cause, as I informed you at the time of the drought in this region, this gives a good result in heavy failures of 1851. Had the men who then favor of small potatoes. The manure which I used failed been content with small gains they would was ashes mixed with night-soil and the collection have avoided this catastrophe-would have avoided of a sink-drain. Yours, &c. the blow which has crippled them perhaps for life. East Bridgewater, Oct. 22.

H.

RAIN FROM THE ROOFS. doubt, that charcoal is, in its nature, nearly indes

tructible. It remains in the soil for generations In our climate, when rain water is most needed,

without scarcely any perceptible change or alterafor washing, for cattle, and for watering plants, it is tion, and when applied in large quantities, as a stimnot to be had. There is a sufficient quantity falls, lant of vegetable life, acts from year to year, and however, unless in seasons of extreme drought, to even from generation to generation, without any obgive every farmer a full supply, if he had the proper

viously apparent diminution of energy or effect.

Fountain and Journal. reservoirs for holding it. These may be made much more readily and cheaply, than most people believe they can be. On any soil but a very sandy one, the

SALT FOR ANIMALS. earth may be removed, and the sides and bottom ce- Professor Simonds, Veterinary Inspector to the mented without brick or stone, and the top covered Royal Agricultural Society, observes, in relation to

the action of salt on the animal economy, that “it with chestnut plank, and any amount of rain water

is exceedingly beneficial in moderate quantities, but preserved. If slanted outward half an inch to one prejudicial in large ones.” He thought horses inch to each foot in height, and well cemented, a cis- might take with advantage from an ounce and a tern will last for many years. Such cisterns would half to two ounces of salt daily; but that an excess be a matter of economy to many of our farmers.

of it would render animals weak, debilitated and We find a paragraph in the papers which has sug- also to oxen, which accumulate flesh faster by the

unfit for exertion. Similar facts were applicable gested these remarks, stating that “every inch of judicious use of salt, than without it. He cited rain that falls on a roof yields two barrels to every | Arthur Young, and Sir John Sinclair, to show that space ten feet square; and seventy-two barrels are salt had a tendency to prevent the rot in sheep. yielded by the annual rain in this climate on a sim- Prof. S. added as his own opinion, that salt, by its ilar surface. A barn thirty by forty feet yields an- ed to the bile, led to a greater amount of nutriment

action on the liver, and the supply of soda it yieldnually eight hundred and sixty-four barrels; this is being derived from the food. The substance, he enough for more than two barrels a day for every said, was also well known as a vermifuge, destroyday in the year. Many of our landlords have, how- ing many kinds of worms in the intestines of aniever, at least five times that amount of roofing on

mals, and conferring a healthy tone of action which their dwellings and other buildings, yielding an- of the R. A. Society, as Col. Challoner, and Mr.

prevented their re-occurrence. Several members nually more than four thousand barrels of rain wa- Fisher Hobbs, stated that their experience led them ter; or about twelve barrels, or about one hundred to agree with Prof. Simonds in regard to the value and fifty ordinary pailsfull daily.

of salt for animals. In reference to the mode of giving it, the practice of placing large lumps of

rock salt in fields or yards, where it was accessible CHARCOAL FOR WHEAT. to the stock, was mentioned with approbation. There are many instances on record, going most This practice is now adopted by many farmers in conclusively to demonstrate the very high value of this country, and after several years' trial, is precharcoal as a manure for wheat. We scarcely, in- ferred to the former mode of giving salt periodicaldeed, take up an agricultural publication in which ly. When animals are only allowed to have salt its efficiency, as a stimulant, is not rendered appa- once or twice a week, it is sometimes the case that rent by the most convincing and undeniable facts. they eat too much at once, but by having it conA late writer in the Lewisburg Chronicle, in some stantly in their reach, they eat such quantities as remarks

upon this subject, says:—"A few days since, their systems require, and it assists the digestion, in company with Mr. Jacob Dorr, of East Buffalo, i and promotes health and thrift. visited a spot on the land of my brother, John Dorr, on which the excellent effects of charcoal were plainly visible. Before reaching the spot, I noticed the

SANATORY SUBSTANCES. beautiful bright green of the wheat in the lower As the warm weather is now at hand, it will no part of the field, even at this season—the dead of doubt be very useful information to many persons winter-and remarked to Mr. Dorr, that that must to be told what are the best substances for removbe the spot. He stated that he had not visited it for ing offensive odors from sinks, &c. Copperas, or a number of years, but was under the impression sulphate of iron, is a very excellent substance for that it was higher up the field. When we arrived slushing drains and sinks. By dissolving half a at the spot of beautiful green wheat, we found, in- pound of it in a pail of hot water, and throwing it deed, that it was the locality of the charcoal. In into a sink once per week, it will remove all offensome places the soil was black with the coal, and the sive odor; and from the situations of many houses wheat plants were very large and healthy. Their in all our cities, it would greatly tend to health and appearance is very fine, and they can be seen from pleasure for the inhabitants of each to do this. The all parts of the field, so superior are they to those chloride of lime, or the chloride of zinc, will answer surrounding them." It appears from the commu- just as well, but these are expensive substances in nication, that some fifty or sixty years ago, a black-comparison with copperas (sulphate of iron.) Lime smith shop occupied this spot and near it there was is also very useful, and is, no doubt, a cheap deoda coal pit. This accounts for the presence of the orizer, but it is not a very good one; copperas, coal, but not for the continued and undiminished fer- therefore, is preferable to all these substances. tility and suprising productiveness of the soil en- But there is another substance which is far superiched by it.

rior to either copperas, the chloride of lime, or zinc, But it is well known to many of your readers, no as a deodorizer, both as it respects its qualities and

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