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economy; we mean charcoal powder-made of ground wood charcoal. Charcoal powder possesses the quality of absorbing ammoniacal, sulphuretted hydrogen and carbonic acid gases in superior degree to any other substance. Placed in the vicinity, or spread among decaying animal or vegetable matters, it absorbs all the offensive and hurtful gases, and keeps the air sweet and wholesome.

We really hope that charcoal powder will soon come into extensive use as a deodorizer and disinfectant. It appears to us that it can be ground in mills in the timber regions where wood is cheap, transported to our cities, and sold at a very moderate price. We are convinced that a plentiful use of fresh ground wood charcoal for sinks, damp floors and the drains of cellars, would greatly tend to prevent disease in many places, by the absor ption of miasma. -Scientific American.



For the New England Farmer. CONCORD FARMERS' CLUB. This Institution held its annual meeting on This is the name of a verv efficient grinding apThursday evening, Nov. 1, at the house of Dr. J. paratus, for using with one or two horses. Its Reynolds. Simon Brown was elected President, Jos. D. Brown, Vice President ; Minot Pratt, Sec- weight is 300 to 800 lbs., according to its size, and retary; W. T. Farrar, Treasurer. There was a full it can be easily adjusted and put in running order. attendance, and the members came together with The patentee warrants it to grind feed from oats, the right spirit, determined to give a new impulse corn on the ear, &c., and to make grits, or fine homto this Institution, which has already done so much iny from shelled corn, with a degree of ease and to promote agriculture and horticulture in this convenience never attained before. town. Several committees were appointed, and among others, a committee to correspond with

Judging from the popularity of this mill in Ohio, Farmers

' Clubs in the neighboring towns, with a Kentucky, aud other stock-raising States, where view to an interchange of visits, by means of dele- more than six thousand of them are in use, it must gates, during the ensuing winter. It was believed have been found a valuable adjunct to the farmer in by the members that such a reciprocation of visits the saving of labor and expense. The patentee will add interest to our own meetings, and to those of other Clubs. The subject of a mass meeting of claims for it the merit of “a peculiar, improved arfarmers and horticulturists, to be held in this town, rangement, by which it first breaks, then crushes sometime during the winter, was discussed. We and crumbles the cob at the centre of the mill, thus hope such a meeting will be held. Such meetings, lessening the strain upon both mill and team, the if properly conducted, are not only very interesting, chief work of crushing being thrown upon the cenbut very useful.

Men of all other occupations, merchants, me- tral parts by a judicious application of the leverage chanics, professional men, meet, and become ac- power.” Messrs. Parker, White & Gannett are the quainted with each other, interchange views and patentee's agents in this city. concert measures to promote their respective interests, and why should not those who cultivate the earth? There is no occupation which such mea- SHEEP HUSBANDRY IN MASSACHU. sures will more directly benefit than that of agri

SETTS. culture.

We hope this proposition will be received with The great diminution of sheep husbandry in this favor by the farmers of Middlesex. The meeting State is very much to be deplored; it is a striking held in this town two years ago was eminently suc- indication of deterioration and decay in our agriculcessful. We should be glad to see such a meeting ture, unless we find that something more profitable held in every county in the State during the com- has taken its place. We shall look, however, in ing winter. They would do more to promote the vain for anything of the kind; every sheep, therecause of agriculture, and to place farmers in the fore, lost from the census of 1850, as compared with position they ought to occupy, than any other meas- that of 1810, is a dead loss to the agricultural ure that could be adopted. In this connection, wealth of the State. Sheep are the most active and permit me to remark, that I hope the farmers in all profitable agents in the work of amelioration and our country towns will interest themselves in the farm improvement. Valuable as fertilizers when organization of lyceums, and secure two or three folded, they likewise improve and renovate pasture good lecturers on agricultural subjects, during their lands, brought as ours have been by neglect to a respective courses. Agriculture is taking a promi- state bordering upon non-productiveness. nent place in the literature and science of the coun- Two objections are commonly made to keeping try, and should be recognized and receive its due sheep, one is that they are difficult of restraint, and share of attention in our lyceums where such sub- the other that they are very liable to be worried and jects are discussed.

Yours truly,

J. R. Idestroyed by dogs. With regard to the first objec

tion, it may be said that there are breeds of sheep foaling; and they again labor within a few weeks afso docile and quiet, that they only require the usual ter that time, and with kind and gentle treatment, fences to keep them within hounds. The second and good keeping, they and their colts are better objection is a much more serious one, because we have not the remedy in our own hands, unless we

than they would be, if they were entirely idle. keep constantly on the watch against trespassers. Look at animals through the wide creation, and see Our agricultural towns, however, can aid the farmer how few among them are idle mothers! Exercise very much in this matter. There is no more rea- is conducive to health and strength; and every anson why they should not prohibit dogs from running imal, four-legged, as well as two-legged, ought to at large, as cattle or any other animals liable to do injury, with penalties attached to the infraction of take, at least, moderate exercise, as it is conducive any law passed for preventing this measure, as to to their comfort.” insure a proper obedience to it

. In many parts of In this connection we present the following acRhode Island, where sheep husbandry has increased

count of an experiment, made some years since, by very much of late, the farmers have united together to keep off dogs, allowing no person to go over

an intelligent “Yankee Farmer," who had found the their land if accompanied by one. Many suffer their expense of keeping a yoke of oxen on a small farm dogs to roam about, or to be their companions in somewhat more debilitating, in a pecuniary sense, the field and the road, from inconsiderateness, and than his conceptions of strict economy induced him when once they come to know the injury caused by to regard advisable. He commenced working his them, they are quite ready to join in preventing it. Mr. Fay's Address.

cows in 1836, in the spring, using a pair of cows that had calved the previous January. They were

four years old and of a large size. He did all his WORKING COWS.

plowing and other spring work with them, workWere the question submitted to us — "Why ing them almost every day. During this time they should not the cow be subjected to the yoke, as well continued to give a good mess of milk, and he was as the ox ?” the only reply, probably, should unable to discover that their labor occasioned any be able to make, would be the very insufficient one, skrimpage, except on a couple of days when a young that popular custom is averse to, and would not colt, which was under process of “breakingwas sanction it. Prejudice often goes a great way, in worked before them, and occasioned them unusual such matters, even with the best informed. In fatigue. In the summer he hauled his hay with this country the cow has rarely been subjected to them, and was not aware that they failed in any relabor of any kind; yet in other countries the case spect to do as well as oxen. During the winter, is different. In Spain and Great Britain, she is which was remarkable for its severity, and the depth made to labor, both on the farm and on the road, of the frequent snows, they were used for breaking and is said to be not only quicker but more tracta- roads, and not un frequently got so deeply into the ble than the ox. One of our writers, who appears drifts, as to render it necessary to relieve them by to have investigated this subject with considerable shovelling. They were not, however, in the slightindustry, remarks :-“We have no doubt that many est degree injured, and calved the following April

. farmers who do not want cattle for travelling much The subsequent autumn, he worked an additional on the road, will find an advantage in working cows. yoke, making a team of four cows. With these he As this custom is not common among us, it would did all his plowing, breaking green-sward, during be at once opposed by many as inconsistent, and thirteen or fourteen days, besides plowing his corn unreasonable. In this 'respect it would be like and potato lands. many other improvements. There was a time when His hay was again housed by them, and in the many farmers thought the only method to dispose fall they harvested his crops, and were employed of a large quantity of apples, was to work hard in very constantly till a late period in hauling wood, the fall and fill up their cellars with cider, and then rocks, &c. Their food was straw, turnips and hay. work hard in the winter to drink it up. They would It is his opinion that cows, properly subjected to have laughed at the thought of wintering hogs in a the yoke, are quicker and smarter than oxen, and thriving condition, or fattening them mostly on ap- will perform more labor, according to their size, if ples; but experience has taught them that apples kept in good condition. are valuable for making pork, and that much cider- They are also less difficult to break, he says, than drinking is attended with trouble and expense, and steers, as all except one were perfectly mild and is injurious to health ; and had we time, we would kind after the third day. In this case the keeping show that many other improvements, when first in- was no doubt good, as it should always be when troduced, were regarded as changes for the worse." these useful animals are subjected to the yoke.

Another, adopting the same views, says :-"Why When cows are made to labor, care and kindness cannot cows work as well as mares that are with are of the greatest importance. On this subject, foal, or have to nourish offspring ? Mares, without a writer very truly remarks :-"Every animal should injury to themselves or their young, perform con- be treated with kindness, but harsh treatment of siderable labor till within a month or two of their oxen would not be attended with so much injury,

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as it would with cows. One of these cows is part- CRUMBLING BONES IN ASHES. ly, and if we recollect right, mostly of the Durham Having seen in the Farmer a short time since a short-horned breed; she is an excellent worker and communication from friend E. G. B., of Yarmouth, a good milch cow. Anothe farmer informs us that concerning his "bones,” in which he complains that he knew of two cows being worked as regularly as for I have not the paper at hånd,) will not soften;

his bones, though packed away last April (I believe, oxen, and worked hard too, from the time they let me give him a bit of my own experience. were calves, till they were six or seven years old, A year ago last March, I saw a statement in the and they were of a large size and rery handsome. Dollar Newspaper, that bones treated as friend B. He understood that they gave a good mess of milk has treated his, would decompose and make good when well kept."

manure. Accordingly I took a barrel and put in

lashes three or four inches deep, then a layer of Persons having had opportunities of observing bones, and covered them with ashes. It was then the action of these animals, when subjected to labor wet with urine from day to day, till I supposed the on the road, have been surprised by the singular ashes was completely saturated with the liquid. docility and mildness they evinced, and the alacrity ed as before, and wet with the same liquid. This

Then another layer of bones was added, and coverwith which they obeyed the commands, and even

process was repeated till the barrel was full, and the motions of the driver.

then left undisturbed till the last of May, when it On the small farms in Massachusetts, and espe- was dug out to be used, and the bones were found cially near the cities, where the making of milk is to be soft enough to be cut with a shovel, except a the principal object, it is important to dispense with few jaw-bones and teeth, which seemed to be proof

against the leech, in a great measure.

I have now A horse or two we must have to go to mar- Ruta Bagas growing on the mixture. It was put ket, meeting or mill, and with a horse and two or in the drills and covered about four inches ; I supfour cows, all the work of such farms may be con- posed it might be rather strong, and buried it acveniently performed. These suggestions may seem cordingly. Within a week or two those Bagas to some as of little value, but there certainly can be

looked as if they had got hold of something that no harm in a consideration of the subject.

agreed with them.

If E. G. B. will give his bones time, I think there

will be no trouble about there becoming soft enough For the New England Farmer.

to be picked to pieces with the fingers, as the most

of mine were. But mine were in pickle nearly 13 CLIFF SWALLOWS.

months, instead of 3 or 4, as friend B. says his FRIEND BROWN :-Knowing that anything relat- have been. Whether soap suds would be more efing to birds is interesting to you, I propose to add fectual than urine, or less so, is a problem to be my mite in relation to swallows. Late in June, solved by some one who is more of a chemist than last summer, six or eight of the cliff swallows came

myself. I used the urine in order to save it, as my to my open shed, where I keep my wagon, cart, &c.,

faith in the softening of the bones was like a “smail and built a nest in a very short time, say three or grain of mustard seed.” From present appearance four days. In as short time as possible the old bird the mixture is a very powerful fertilizer for Ruta was sitting.. Soon, another pair came and went to Bagas at least. To be patient, friend B., let them work at their leisure, taking their own time to do soak till next spring and then try it on some of their work. After the first nest of eggs were your crops, and let us know the result of your exhatched, and the young had nearly attained their periments. growth, we found the nest and young birds all on

North Yarmouth, Aug. 6, 1855. the ground, and the old birds missing. Wishing to get a settlement of these birds around my build- NOTE.—We like the suggestions contained in the ings, I set my wits to work to save them. I went above communication. The course proposed will and found a second-hand robins' nest, drove up make a rare combination of fertilizing materials, some nails, put up the nest, put in the young birds, and a hogshead or vat near the out-house of every and the old ones came and took care of them, and house-keeper filled as directed, will become useful put on another story, and trained their young until in more ways than one. -Ed. Maine Farmer. they were able to fly. The second nest fell down just as the young ones were able to fly.

We Now the reason why I write this, is to make a highly approve of the plan recommended for such

the above from the Maine Farmer, and

copy few suggestions to those who like to have those localities as can furnish unleached wood ashes, and swallows about their premises ; and I would say that where sulpheric acid cannot be procured—but when I have never known them to build on new buildings: sulphuric acid can be bought at 3 cents per pound, and, also, when they come and look about and stick

or less, and not ashes, should be used to decompose on a little mud and commence operations, that if you put up anything to help them, they are sure to bones and brush together, then set fire to the brush,

bones. The bones may be thus prepared :-Mix leave for the season. Now to try to accommodate them, I have lately put up some old dirty strips of will carbonize the bones on their surfaces alone, and

which, if the quantity of brush be not too large, board in the places where for several years they thus render them friable, so as to be easily broken. have made unsuccessful attempts to locate them- When broken they are then ready for treatment selves, and if any happen to see this and wish to get with sulphuric acid, thus :—Stand a hogshead on a colony of swallows, I wish they would try my ex- end, take out the upper head, trim off the edge of periment.


this head and bore a few augur-holes, of a half-inch Pelham, N. H., Oct., 1855.

or more in diameter, through it, place a few stones

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or bricks on the bottom head, and on these place. In the management of his trees, Mr. Loughry the upper head prepared as above-then throw in keeps them trimmed in, and annually removes 100 gallons of water, and 5 to 10 gallons of sul-about one-half the wood that is formed. He uses a phuric acid, stirring the water briskly to prevent the compost, and omits nothing to bring them to peracid falling to the bottom ; then throw in the burnt fection, and thus keeps the trees in full vigor. Will bones, stirring the mass each day for a week, after other farmers take a hint and follow so good an which the dissolved portion of the bones may be example ? drawn from the bottom and thrown over any compost, or applied in the fluid form dilute, direct to

For the New England Farmer. the land. Masses of earth or charcoal dust may be witted with it, and then scattered like ashes or TETE-A-TETE OF THE MILKMAIDS. other finely divided manure. More bones and acid may from time to time be added to the hogshead, Becky, see the sunset glowing, taking care always to have more bones than the

O'er the fields a radiance throwing, acid will dissolve. One bushel of bones, so prepar

Golden, pure and steady ; ed, will be more effective on the crops of the first

0, its beams illume my spirit. five years, than ten bushels treated with ashes.

(That's our cow-bell-don't you hear it? Working Farmer.

Get the milk-pans ready!).
Yes, dear Sally, look and listen!

Now the dew begins to glisten-

Hark! the night-bird's sonnet!

What a balmy breeze is blowing ! There is still large quantities of fruit cultivated

(Head the brindle cow-she's goingthat is not worth taking to market. Hundreds of

Run-I'll hold your bonnet!) bushels of apples have been made into execrable

Becky, does the twilight hour, pies in Boston this fall, merely because they could

By its bland and soothing power, be purchased at a trifle less cost than those of a

With sweet musings fill you ? better quality. But it is a mistaken economy, as a

Peace hangs round us like a mantlemild, good-flavored apple would require less sugar

(Soh now, Sukey, come, be gentle !

Stop that kicking, will you?) and then make a better pie. Many persons have a

With music earth is overflowingpride in, and attach too much consequence to an There, the hungry calves are lowing! apple which sprang up spontaneously on their own

How those tins do rattle!

But I fain would wander, Sally, farm, or, perhaps, which they have cultivated with

To some green and quiet valley, some care, and then numbers of seedlings occupy the places that should be improved by finer vari

Becky, life's a fleeting hour; eties, and which, if cultivated, would afford a great

Joy brings grief-e'en cream will sourer profit.

Yet 'tis vain complaining ; The New York Tribune brings to notice the fol

Mortals now get milk and honey

Only by hard work and money! lowing

(Set the pans for straining!) Just see how easy it is to grow better fruit. In Adams county, Ohio, John Loughry has a peach orchard of eleven acres that has yielded him this REGULARITY IN FEEDING CATTLE. year five thousand dollars, while peaches have been Stephens, in his “Book of the Farm,” gives the folselling in Cincinuati at twenty-five cents a bushel. lowing illustration of the necessity of regularity and It is easy to see that his orchard would not have method of agricultural duties : produced that sum at that price. No, it did not.

In thus minutely detailing the duties of the catIe got two dollars a bushel more readily than his

tle-man, my object has been to show you rather how neighbor got twenty-five cents for the same variety the turnips and fodder should be distributed relaof peaches. And this is how he did it :

tively than absolutely ; but whatever hour and min“When the peaches had arrived at the size of a ute the cattle-man finds, from experience, he can hickory nut, he employed a large force and put on devote to each portion of his work, you should see one hundred and eighty-five days' work in picking that he performs the same operation at the same off the excess of fruit

. Probably more than three-time every day. By paying strict attention to time fourths of the fruit then on the trees was carefully the cattle will be ready for and expect their wonted removed. Each limb was taken by hand, and where meals at the appointed times, and will not complain within a space of eighteen inches there would be, until they arrive. Complaints from his stock should perhaps, twenty-five peaches, but five of the fairest be distressing to every farmer's ears, for he may be ones would be left to ripen. By carefully removing assured they will not complain until they feel hunger all but the strongest specimens and throwing all the and if allowed to hunger, they will not only lose vigor of the trees into them, the peaches have ri- condition, but render themselves, by discontent, less pened early, and are remarkable for size and excel- capable of acquiring it when the food happens to be fence of quality."

fully given. Wherever you hear lowings from catThere, this was labor-seven months' labor oftle, you may safely conclude that matters are conone man in a small peach orchard! What of it? ducted there in an irregular manner. The cattleHis net profits were between three and four thou- man's rule is a simple one, and easily remembered, sand dollars. If he had neglected his trees his — Give food and fodder to cattle at fired times, and profits would have been a crop of peaches hardly dispense them in a fired routine. I had a striking fit to feed the pigs.

instance of the bad effects of irregular attention

Minus horned cattle.





to cattle. An old staid laborer was appointed to both. It may be blessed in leading the heart up to take charge of cattle, and was quite able and wil- the love of the Rose of Sharon and the garden of ling to undertake the task. He got his own way at God. -American Messenger, first, as I had observed many laboring men display great ingenuity in arranging their work. Lowings

For the New England Farmer. were soon heard from the stock in all quarters, both in and out of doors, which intimated the want

THE CANKER WORM AGAIN. of regularity in the cattle-man; whilst the poor crea- CAN WE PROTECT OUR ORCHARDS FROM HIS RAVAture himself was constantly in a state of bustle and uneasiness. To put an end to this disorderly state MR. EDITOR :-Permit me to correct a grammatof things, I apportioned his entire day's work by ical error in my last communication, in which I deshis own watch ; and on implicitly following the plan ignated the female moth by the unfeminine appelhe rot only soon satisfied the wants of every animal lation, “he.” committed to his charge,but had abundant leisure to Last fall my father caught several of the female lend a hand to anything that required his temporary moths, and putting them under a tumbler, watched assistance. This old heart overflowed with gratitude their movements. True to their instincts, they imwhen he found the way of making all his creatures mediately commenced toiling up the sides of the happy, and his kindness to them was so undeviating, tumbler. Some could advance but a few lines; one they would have done whatever he liked.

or two, after several ineffectual attempts, at length reach the inverted bottom, when they stopped, and

felt about, seemingly in trouble. In a few minutes they TREE PLANTING,

mustered courage and endeavored to walk the glasWe notice among the munificent bequests of El sy plain, but in every attempt no sooner were their liott Cressen, a legacy of $5,000 to be employed in hinder feet raised from the sides, than down the planting trees in Philadelphia. There is something poor insects came. Here, then, was a fact estabtouching in this gift. It is fragrant of good taste lished, that the female moth could not carry its and friendly feeling. It seems to express gratitude destructive load across a horizontal surface of glass. for the comforting shade of some old tree under That they are provided with the foot-tiap or suction which the weary philanthropist had meditated his apparatus attached to the feet of most insects, to schemes of usefulness; and of considerate interest enable them, by an atmospheric pressure, to more for the health and pleasure of future generations, than counterbalance the falling down power of who are to people the city of his birth. And when gravity, is evident from the fact that they could asmonuments of marble and of bronze shall crumble, cend the sides of the tumbler. Now for a practical the broad arms of the elm and the oak shall stand application of this fact, which points to a horizontal out against the sky as the befitting memento of the plane of glass as an impassable barrier to the proliberality and the last of the tree-loving Philadelphi- gress of the moth. The lamented Mr. Cole, in his

excellent Fruit Book, states that Mr. F. Dana, of Every one should plant trees. No object is more Roxbury, in the Ploughman, recommends that the beautiful than a spreading elm, or a lively ever-tree be surrounded by a collar of wood made slipgreen; none more productive than the apple or the pery by glass on the under side. Of the mechaniluscious

pear. Half the labor bestowed on a single cal application of the glass Mr. Cole gives us no incrop of potatoes, would originate an orchard, the formation. Mr. William Bowler, of this town, conproduct of which in a few years would be equal in jecturing that glass would be impassable to the value annually, to the potato crop, yet with but little 'moth, during the last fall and winter protected his labor beyond the harvesting. À fortnight's toil in trees accordingly, and the result was, as might be the spring or autumn, in transplanting choice fruit- conjectured from the tumbler experiments, though trees to the roadside, or tastefully grouping them his neighbors were sorely troubled by the ravages on the lawn, will ultimately add more to the value of the canker worm, his own trees were comparaof the place than twice the time employed in build- tively unharmed, and doubtless would have been ing or fencing. For their own comfort

, for the wholly so, if the plan had occurred to him earlier, sake of their descendants, for the taste and improve- before the moth was on the move. For Mr. Bowlment of the country, plant trees—let everybody er's method of applying the glass, I would refer to plant trees.

that gentleman himself, as, from the use he intends That bald, naked church. tasteless, treeless! Who to make of his plan, it is not proper that I should will have compassion on the worshippers, and sur- make it public. However, I would say, that though round it with trees? That district school-house, he has courteously given us free permission to avail bare and unsightly; who will interest the boys in ourselves of his ingenuity, my father has designed, planting and protecting shrubs and trees that will and is now protecting our trees by the following make it an attractive and beautiful spot ? Those method, believing it to be as cheap, as efficacious, verdureless villages, with their houses thrust upon and considerably easier of application than that of the street who will distribute honey-suckles, and Mr. Bowler. Virginia creepers and prairie roses, that they may For large trees, take two pieces of board, oblong be turned into civilized habitations ?

squares, cut a semicircle out of each of them, so There is a softening, humanizing influence in hor- that when united the two may embrace the tree in ticulture and tree-planting, that we could wish were the circle. Next take four strips of board, to be more general. There is too much danger of the used as cleats to surround the wooden platform on gross and sensual and selfish in our national char- the upper side, at about half an inch from its edge. acter; and while our reliance must be on religious Before securing these cleats, groove them away on and educational influences to correct this tendency, their edges, to the depth of about three-fourths of we believe that good and only good would come of an inch, with a width of about three-sixteenths of the love for trees and flowers, and the cultivation of an inch. Secure these cleats to the platform (the


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