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two transverse ones will serve to connect the two be readily seen that the material used is of low cost, parts together,) by screws or nails, as you please, that the simple apparatus can be easily constructed though to facilitate removal it will be better to fas- and applied by any person of common ingenuity, ten the transverse ones by screws. Secure the plat- that with the return of the growing season the proform to the trees, either by suspending it by strings tection necessary for a large orchard could be easi from the lower limbs, or by wedging with wedges ly removed, within an hour's time, and finally, that of wood, in either case filling up between the plat- the enclosing circle can be easily enlarged, so that form and the tree with a stuffing of tow, oakum, the same collar may be used around the same tree or some substance which will prevent the moth for many years.

from passing between it and the tree. Some who Without knowing anything of the mechanical have tried sea-weed as stuffing, have abandoned it, construction of Mr. Dana's collar, which certainly believing from its tendency to hold moisture, or involves the same idea, I would state that those from other reasons it furnished a tempting place proposed serve as two-fold barriers. The insect ap for the operations of the borer. Having fastened pears to be completely deceived by the glass, evithe cleat as before directed, within half an inch of dently confiding much in the testimony of its own the edge, surround the platform by slips of glass, eyes, like many faithless bipeds, it plumps its head from two and a half to three inches in width, sliding continually against the glass above, but because it the slips under the grooves in the cleats; the glass perceives nothing, believes nothing. This want of will thus rest on the platform completely surround- faith in the presence of any obstacle to their proing it, and projecting beyond it from one to two gress, may, in part, account for so few venturing on inches, as may be. The space that will remain be- the glass, for I am told that whole ranks of these tween the cleats and glass of ordinary thickness, will, unbelievers may be seen for hours marching along of course, require sufficient stuffing with cotton, the borders of the glass, each probably wondering oakum, or some light material, to keep the glass in why its silly neighbor don't go up. We found the its place; but room must be left sufficient to allow other morning just under the glass two curculios, for the warping of the wood, and consequent bend- apparently checked in their progress up the tree; ing of the glass; still the experimenter must be but whether it would serve as any effectual protecprepared to find some of his strips cracked from this tion against this great winged enemy, may well be cause, though it may be mostly obviated by treating questioned, though I note this fact. the woodwork to a good coating of paint before ap- I doubt whether to those who have not been plying it. Should the glass finally crack, he will subject to their ravages, either the excellent works still find it as good a protector as before. Glass for of Downing or Cole give a correct idea of the time the above purpose can usually be found among the of the ascent of the canker moth or the ravages of waste pieces of the glazier. Care must be taken to the canker worm. In the year 1852 the first indiwipe the projecting portion of the under side of the vidual moth found in the act of ascending our trees, glass, to keep it free from dust or particles of earth, was on Oct. 24; in 1853, the first found was on the which may be dashed on by rains, otherwise by 13th; of the year 1854, we have no record, while stepping from particle to particle, the moth may be on the present year, the first discovered was on the able to bridge the barrier. 21st inst. There can be but little doubt from the

With our trees thus protected, we consider them above date that the moth usually commences her secure from the intrusions of the moth fraternity, ascent as early as thefirst of October, and we know those with wings sufficient for flying being except- by observation that they may be found ascending ed, and experience may teach us that we must also on almost any pleasant day from this date to the except an occasional specimen whose abdominal close of their season.

load is exceedingly light, perhaps supplying one or The moth ascends in increased numbers just af two exceptions in the course of a season. There is ter a hard frost, which seems either to quicken her room of course to modify the above plan in some of instinct or set her free from some imprisoned state its particulars, to suit the judgment and experience in which she previously existed. We have examof each; for instance, in the distance between the ined our trees each day and each night for the past cleats and edges of the platform, some may prefer to fortnight, and find that like other intruders, they have them nearer, and the glass consequently nar- prefer the cover of the night. rower, but the above is the plan my father has Of the extent of their ravages, those infested by adopted for our larger trees, and such as it is I them can testify that they will strip large trees, and cheerfully present it for the consideration of our brother farmers, and should their ingenuity or ex-be found on them; and not satiated with this, they even orchards, so that literally not a green spot can perience enable them to suggest improvements, we will devour every germinating effort of the tree to should be very happy to learn them. If the trees recover itself. There is an orchard, almost within are small, say under six inches in diameter, instead stone's throw of where I am now writing, which lost of the platform they may be directly encircled by glass. First surround such trees by a thick ring of its finest trees, trees of the largest size, from two by their depredations a few years since several of rich putty, and allow it to remain a short time to to two and a half feet in diameter, and with vastharden, then insert your glass, having first cut off the corners to prevent all unnecessary pressure; many a passer-by. But like many other of the farspreading heads that have drawn the attention of the glass will now externally have the form of an mer's pests, they keep their "age and generation," octagon. Should it appear likely to fall, it may now in this neigborhood, now in that, infesting one be propped by two or more supporters, resting on the ground. I should remark relative to this last tion, blessing another locality by an absence of half locality for years, and after one sweeping devastaplan, that its practicability is to a degree conjectu- a century. Meanwhile we must match our intellect ral, though from a limited test we are sanguine that against his instincts. Marblehead, Oct. 30.

it will succeed.

Respecting the advantages of these plans, it will




It might, perhaps, on a small scale, where the beds could be covered with leaves or something else as

J. WHITMAN, Esq., of South Abington, Mass., a protection. presented us a sweet apple the other day, which we

think is a new variety, and a very fine one.
It is a
little above the medium size, oblong, of a greenish-


MR. EDITOR:-I send you some apples raised by yellow color, on one side covered with russet fair specimen of the product of a young tree—a Mr. Lysander Hollis, of this place. They are a blotches, and the other side free from them; stem sucker from the roots of an old tree, which was rehalf an inch long, slender and deeply set; calyx in moved some years ago, and which must, therefore, a shallow basin, and surrounded by minute blackish be a natural fruit. Please try them, and give your opinion of their merit. Yours, s. South Weymouth, 1855.


The flesh is tender, crisp, juicy, fine grain, having a delicious sweet, without any bitter or astringent REMARKS.-Well, we will. They are below meflavor, and must be a good dessert, as well as baking diocrity in texture and flavor,—having a sharp, acid apple. He says it ripens in September, and will taste, and at the same time coarse, crumbly and keep through October and November. With the mealy. Don't propagate them. You can find a fine crop of apples of the present season, it is diffi- dozen varieties better.


We are unable to inform our correspondent at Lincoln, Vermont, what proportion of hops is used for distillation, and what for other purposes. A

cult to procure, even in the country about Boston, a barrel of good sweet apples. We do believe that not more than one family in twenty, in Middlesex county, where we reside, and know something of its products, have, to-day, a barrel of good sweet apples,—whereas every farmer should have at least large quantity, certainly, are pressed into cakes two barrels, and three more of Baldwins, Hunt Russets, or some other pleasant acid apples.

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weighing one or more pounds, and used for family purposes, such as making yeast, beer, &c.; but onehalf, probably, of all the crop produced, may be used in distilling.


MR. BROWN:-The willingness which you maniifest to reply to the queries of your correspondents, encourages me to ask a few questions also, viz. :

1. What are the best six varieties of pears for cultivation on the quince, taking into account vigor, productiveness and flavor?

2. What soil and treatment do gooseberries require, and what are the best kinds to raise for market?

West Townshend, Vt., 1855. REMARKS.—Will some of our correspondents lands in the fall, a good one? or, in other words, 3. Is the common practice of grazing mowing answer the inquiries of the writer above, who, we does the benefit received in increase of milk, &c., suspect, is a lady? exceed the injury inflicted upon the land, the roots of the grass, &c.


4. I think I have read of white cotton cloth being so prepared as to be a good substitute for glass on hot-bed frames; will it answer the purpose, and if so, how should it be prepared?

Through the politeness of THOMAS A. SMITH, Esq., of Westboro', one of our systematic and intelligent farmers, we have received a fine specimen By answering any or all the above inquiries in the of the Kohl-Rabi, or Bulb-stalked cabbage, (Bras- Farmer, you will much oblige, sica oleracea, or caula-rapa.) This curious variety Weston, Oct., 1855. A YOUNG FARMER. of cabbage is a native of Germany, where it is much REMARKS.-1. Col. Wilder, in an excellent arcultivated, and whence it was introduced into Eng-ticle on Fruits in the monthly Farmer, gives the land, by Sir Thomas Tyrwhitt. The stem is swollen following list as those which succeed well on quince


Louise Bonne de Jersey,
Vicar of Winkfield,
Duchess d'Angouleme,

Glout Morceau,
Passe Colmar, and

See his article, page 193, Monthly Farmer, for 1852.

like a tuber, and, when destitute of the leaves, may readily be mistaken for one. The produce is nearly the same as that of Swedish turnips, or what we usually call ruta-bagas, and the soil that suits the one is equally good for the other. It may be sown in drills, or raised in beds, and transplanted like 2. The gooseberry requires a bright sun and cabbages; in this case the beds are sometimes made deep soil, made rich and kept light. See COLE'S and the seed sown in Autumn, in England, but it is Fruit Book for the varieties. He is probably as doubtful whether that course would answer here. near correct as we can come.

3. The common practice of grazing mowing lands sandy, or land liable to bake or become hard in dry is exceedingly injurious. Where there is a gener- weather-but they will produce an abundant crop ous second growth of grass, a portion of it may be on poor swampy land that will not produce any fed off without detriment, but to crop it as is the other valuable crop, or any wet land after being drained. Dry ground should be plowed and harcommon practice, deprives the roots of their vigor, rowed smooth; in a swamp where a plow will not and exposes them to the winter winds, and is the work, the turf or bog may be peeled off or burnt frequent source of "winter-killing." Over feeding to get the weeds and grass out. They may be set also robs the land of a coating of manure which would be found in the thick and decaying grass of the second growth.

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MR. BROWN-I send samples of three varieties of apples, of which I wish to know the names. The largest-sized red apple is just now in eating. bears well every year, most in odd years; tree probably forty years old.

Two specimens of what I take to be Hunt's Russet, keeps till May. Are they? One specimen of a handsome small, red apple, said to be very fine, in eating in January. An answer to the above, through the Farmer, or otherwise, will oblige,

North Andover, 1855. WM. BATCHELDER. REMARKS. Two of the apples mentioned above are the Hunt Russet-the others are unknown to us.

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in fall and spring, as early as the ground will admit, until the middle of May. Moss, tan, or anything to retain the moisture, would be beneficial around the plant after transplanting; a little sand around the plant fall and spring, will tend to keep the weeds out.

Planted in drills as you plant strawberry, cabbage, and other plants, one and a half to two feet apart. At two feet apart each way, it will take 10,000 plants to the acre. Hoe them slightly at first, until the roots become clinched, and afterwards no other cultivation is needed, unless to keep out weeds and grass. The plants may be expected to run together and cover the whole ground in two or three years. They can be gathered with a crabberry rake made for the purpose, to be procured at the agricultural stores."


In the spring remove the soil from the roots, and if there are any knotty lumps on them, scrape them off carefully, and then scatter two or three quarts of coarse salt over them, and then put on the soil, and during the summer keep the tree well covered with air slaked lime, to keep off the curculios, and occasionally shake the trees while in flower and while the fruit is forming, gather and destroy all the fruit that drops. In this way I have been able good ripe fruit from one green gage plum tree this to save my plums; I have gathered five bushels of Respectfully yours,

Pawtucket, Oct., 1855.

GIDDINGS WHITMORE, of Marshall, Calhoun Co., Michigan, informs us that common honey applied to the heads of sheep afflicted with vermin, or to the tails of lambs when docked, will cure them. He summer. also says, in answer to the frequent inquiry, "What does the striped squirrel do with the dirt he excavates in making his hole?" that he has seen them repeatedly go away with their cheeks stuffed, and drop the contents in some stream near by, and so continue to work until their task was completed.


MR. EDITOR :-Will you inform me through the columns of the Farmer, the best modes of cultivat




Please accept a specimen of my apples. you inform me the name of them? The tree is a great bearer, and some of the fruit is excellent; where the apple is exposed to the sun, it is somewhat watery. H. W. BARTLETT.

East Holliston, Oct., 1855.

REMARKS. This fruit is new to us, and if like

ing cranberries, on a swamp where the turf is from 10 those we tasted, hardly worthy of propagating, when to 15 inches deep, and the water is drained two feet we have so many fine varieties about us.

from the top of the turf. Would it be best to
take off the turf and set the vines on the mud or
muck? When is the best time for setting the
vines, and how far apart should they be set? And
is there anything that can be put on them to make
them grow and bear well?
Mason, 1855.

H. W.

REMARKS.-The following is the plan proposed by Mr. F. TROWBRIDGE, of New Haven, Conn., and agrees pretty well with our own knowledge of the proper mode of cultivation :

"The soil best adapted, is such as will keep moist through the dry season; they have been raised on land high enough to produce corn and potatoes with a wet substratum under the soil, or a clay and loam. They will not succeed well on dry,

For the New England Farmer. STRIPED SQUIRRELS' HOLES. MR. EDITOR:-There has lately been going the rounds of the papers an article asking "What becomes of the dirt when a striped squirrel digs his hole ?" I had supposed that naturalists know, and that every intelligent farmer ought to know, that a striped or ground squirrel, when he digs his hole, carries his dirt in his cheeks to a distance of several rods from where he digs it. In proof of the above can show a pile of dirt where it has been left by them, and have several times killed them with the dirt in their faces or cheeks. B. F. CUTTER.


Pelham, N. H., Oct., 1855.

THE INSECTS OF COMMERCE There are forms of life, insignificant as to the outward appearance, which are not only indirectly serviceable to mankind, but of great direct commercial value, either in themselves or in their products, to some of which we may refer with interest, as illustrating the frequent connection of the beneficial with the lowly in the scheme of creation.

found sometimes in England, but this is a rare occurrence, though it appeared in great numbers in Essex, Suffolk, and the Isle of Wight, in the summer of 1837, frequenting ash trees, on the leaves of which it feeds abundant in Spain and Italy, though, notwithstandIt is more common in France, ing the name, the greatest quantity is obtained from Astrachan, in Russia. The Russian insects are considered superior to those from other quarters.The honey which the bee elaborates from the nectar of flowers is in many countries an important Persons employed in collecting them have the face When alive they exhale a pungent volatile principle. article of food, and the base of a vinous beverage, and hands protected by coverings, from contact. though its value has much abated to ourselves since the discovery of sugar. The wax which the insect insects are somewhat torpid, by shaking or beating This is usually done morning and evening, when the occasionally secretes is also an extensive demand among civilized nations for various domestic pur- receiving them on cloths spread upon the ground. the boughs of the trees they infest with poles, and poses, polishing furniture, and lighting up the saloons of the great.

"Flowery hill Hymettus, with the sound
Of bees, industrious murmur."

They are then killed by exposure to the vapor of hot vinegar, dried in ovens, or on hurdles in the At Narbonne, the chief trade is in honey, which is said to be the finest in France, remarkable for its sun, and packed for the market in casks and small whiteness, and highly aromatic flavor. This pecu- a drachm. The cantharis is about three-quarters of chests. Fifty of the dried carcasses scarcely weigh liar excellence is owing to the number of fragrant plants in the neighborhood, and the variety in the with bluish-black legs and antennæ. When touched an inch in length, of a light shining green color, nourishment of the bees secured by the system of the insect feigns death. management. From the gardens of the city, the After the luxurious and healing insects, we come hives are regularly carried to the surrounding meadows, and afterwards conveyed 30 or 40 miles dis- to a much more tiny and numerous class to which tant, as far as the Low Pyrenees. By this arrange- to produce our brilliant scarlet, crimson and carthe name of dyers may be applied. Cochineal, used ment, the cultivated vegetation, with that of the meadows and the mountains, is put into requisition cacti, found in Mexico, Georgia, South Carolina, mine dyes, is the dried carcase of an insect, coccus to produce the honey of Narbonne. The tending and some of the West India Islands, where it lives of bees is, perhaps, the oldest of all industrial oc- and propagates upon the cactus cochinillifera. The cupations, after tilling the soil and keeping flocks and herds. It is also one of the most stable as to plant produces a fruit, which is also of a purple colits locality. Milton speaks of the or, and is supposed to contain the coloring matter. The insect is of small size, seldom exceeding that of a grain of barley, and was generally considered a regetable substance for some time after it began to Hymettus, memorable from its connection with the be imported into Europe. It is on record that a name of Plato, extends to the east and south of ship being wrecked in Carmarthen Bay, of which Athens. From the summit, the ancient city was cochineal formed a part of the cargo, the article was seen in its glory near the base while beyond it, turned into the sea as damaged grain, and the bags westward, lay the Gulf of Salamis, the scene of the alone preserved. In Mexico, the principal seat of naval triumph of the Greeks over Xerxes. At that production, where the insect is reared with care, time the hill was a "flowery" one, and swarmed with there are two varieties; the best, or domesticated, bees, from whose hives the best of the Attic honey called grana fina, or fine grain; and the wild, was obtained. The hill is now where it was, and as named grana sylvestra. The former is nearly twice it was when Themistocles fought the Persians, cov- as large as the latter, probably because the size has ered with wild thyme, giving employment to those been improved by the favorable effects of human humble laborers, who in uninterrupted succession, culture. The insects are detached from the plants have occupied the spot, from the most prosperous on which they feed by blunt knives, and killed by days of Athens to the present hour. They are kept being dipped in boiling water, then dried in the in hives of willow or osier, plastered with clay or sun, and placed in bags for exportation. In 1851, loam within and without. For upward of two thou- our imports included 22,451 cwts. of cochineal, sand years the Hymettian bees have been on rec- somewhat more than half of which quantity was reord, surviving the revolutions which have changed tained for home consumption. As each pound is the features and uprooted the population of Attica, supposed to contain 70,000 insects, the enormous according to the poetical saying,

"Their race remains immortal, ever stands

Their house uninoved, and sires of sires are born."

annual sacrifice of insect life to supply the markets of the world may be readily imagined. The insect has been introduced into Spain, Malta, Algeria, Java, and India, but the valuable article of commerce is still the produce of Mexico.

Next to these pleasant caterers for the healthy, mention may be made of a class extensively used in medicine. In former times, odd ideas prevailed re- Kermes-grains, another dye-stuff, consists likespecting the medicinal value of insects, which if true, wise of the dried bodies of an insect belonging to would certainly diminish expenditure with the apoth- the old world, coccus ilicis, of kindred species to ecary; for lady-birds have been recommended in the true Mexican cochineal. It is found upon a cases of measles, earwigsin nervous affections, cock- small kind of oak which grows abundantly in the chafers for the bites of mad dogs, ticks for erysipe- south of Europe. The tree clothes the declivities las, and woodifice as aperients. But, passing by of the Sierra Morena, in Spain; and many of the such vagaries, the Spanish fly, or blister-beetle, inhabitants of the province of Murcia have no other cantharis vesicaloria, is an insect of commerce in- mode of obtaining a livelihood than by gathering dispensable to allopathic materia medica. It is its animal tenants. There are several other species,

For the New England Farmer.


one of which is called the scarlet grain of Poland, coccus polonicys, being found on the root of a perennial plant growing in the sandy soil of that country and other districts. The word kermes is of Per- MR. EDITOR :-A certain man in West Roxbury sian or Arabic origin, and signifies "a little worm." lately got the Western fever, and as one step toIn the middle ages, the material was therefore wards its treatment, sold out a fine milk run, from called vermiculus in Latin and vermilion in French, which he had made a good living, and laid by some which latter term has curiously enough been trans- money against a rainy day. His son on going his ferred to the red sulphuret of mercury. Before rounds for the last time, called on an old sea-captain, the discovery of the western world, it was the most whom they had supplied with milk for some years, esteemed substance for dyeing scarlet, and had been after pouring out his accustomed supply, the son used for that purpose by the Romans and other an- told the captain that Mr. W— would bring his cient nations from an early period. But notwith- milk to him in future, as his father had sold out standing their acquaintance with it, the real nature to Mr. W- and contemplated going West. of the product was unknown, being supposed to be "D- the West," abruptly replied the old salt.a vegetable grain, fruit or excrescence, and not final-"Tell your father that when he has been around the ly established to be an insect, assuming the aspect of world as much as I have, and seen the whole a berry as it did in the process of drying, until a re-elephant, he will be glad to come back and settle cent date. Through several centuries in Germany, in good old New England," and without any furthe rural serfs were bound to deliver annually to ther remark resumed his chair. the convents a certain quantity among the products I have no doubt very many have found the rough of husbandry. It was collected from the trees upon prophecy of the sea captain sadly true to their expe St. John's day, with special ceremony, and was rience. Very few who go West, so far as I can called Johannisblut, "St. John's blood," in allusion learn, (and my experience embraces a large numto the day and the color. Many a proud cardinal ber,) acquire property strictly by farming. They has been indebted to this diminutive creature for have got their money either by speculation or by the red hue of his hat and stocking.


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the rise of property on their hands. So far as real legitimate farming is concerned, it will be found, I think, that the East compares very favorably with the West, and so far as small farmers are concerned, rather exceed the Western. Of course I have

It seems impossible to make some people under- nothing to say in regard to the ease by which crops stand what is meant by the expression, "Blood are produced in the one compared with the otherStock." They will twist, and turn, and laugh at simply the amount of money obtained, acre for acre. the idea that any farmer, by judicious selections, has There is no question but certain crops are producreared a herd of cattle that inherits the principal ed very much easier in the West than they are traits of the animals selected to begin with. in the East, or ever will be. Now then the ques

They laugh at the idea of keeping the very best tion comes up-does it pay-this going West to for breeders and will tell you how a chance animal engage in farming, if that is the only object? Very of their own has excelled the herds denominated few persons who have been nurtured and brought up all their days in the East, and perhaps never

"blood stock."

And yet when you ask what reliance they can have been fifty miles from their birth-place, form have on the progeny of chance animals, they will very correct ideas of what this young West really tell you that they have bred from the same for six- is, until they arrive where the elephant can be seen ty years in succession, and therefore they are confi- in all his gigantic proportions, and then they do see dent of success in rearing their calves. very truly a magnificently large animal-hand

Now this is precisely the doctrine of the advo- somely proportioned for one of its size—but after cates of "blood stock." They breed from the best, all, it's all elephant and nothing else. It seem to and cast off the inferior animals. They want no me that no man in his right sense would think of crosses with inferior animals, and are confident that going West and taking up government land at by pursuing this course, they are on the right road $1,25 per acre. The chances are, as a general to perfection, however long that road may prove. thing, that he will die before he gets anything like Still there is another class of farmers who profess his good New England civilization and privileges to think that the most promiscuous intercourse be- about him, will deter him from this rash act. tween the males and females of cattle, will tend to What then?-why, he will purchase a farm with produce better dairy cows and better working oxen, more or less improvement, and get rich by the than can be produced by any kind of selection. rise of his lands in value, that's all-not by farming These farmers inquire what is meant by "blood Now I ask our young New England men again, if stock." They would prefer to buy from the most under all the circumstances, and I have only sugpromiscuous herds of cattle because they occasion-gested some of them, this going West is a paying ally find an extraordinary cow that yields more than business? I think not. Not as long as good the average of blood stock. If one in fifty is found farms, in delightful townships, with all our puritan to excel the average of select stock, they seem to priviliges, can be purchased for from $1000 to think they have proved their case, and are ready to $3000 in any of these New England States. for judgment. How many are there now "out West" who wish But what progress do such people make in farm- themselves back again, and in their old homes-I ing? The same which a gambler makes to get a could not guess. No doubt, however, they are fortune. He runs for luck, and makes but little legion, and I guess the old sea Captain's blessing calculation, except upon the want of information of has more than once passed their lips.—Take my adthose who may be induced to play with him.-vice, boys, and stay at home. Oct., 8th, 1855.



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