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two transverse ones will serve to connect the two be readily seen that the material used is of low cost, parts together,) by screws or nails, as you please, that the simple apparatus can be easily constructed though to facilitate removal it will be better to fas- and applied by any person of common ingenuity, ten the transverse ones by screws. Secure the plat- that with the return of the growing season the proform to the trees, either by suspending it by strings tection necessary for a large orchard could be easi from the lower limbs, or by wedging with wedges ly removed, within an hour's time, and finally, that of wood, in either case filling up between the plat- the enclosing circle can be easily enlarged, so that form and the tree with a stuffing of tow, oakum, the same collar may be used around the same tree or some substance which will prevent the moth for many years.
from passing between it and the tree. Some who Without knowing anything of the mechanical have tried sea-weed as stuffing, have abandoned it, construction of Mr. Dana's collar, which certainly believing from its tendency to hold moisture, or involves the same idea, I would state that those from other reasons it furnished a tempting place proposed serve as two-fold barriers. The insect ap for the operations of the borer. Having fastened pears to be completely deceived by the glass, evithe cleat as before directed, within half an inch of dently confiding much in the testimony of its own the edge, surround the platform by slips of glass, eyes, like many faithless bipeds, it plumps its head from two and a half to three inches in width, sliding continually against the glass above, but because it the slips under the grooves in the cleats; the glass perceives nothing, believes nothing. This want of will thus rest on the platform completely surround- faith in the presence of any obstacle to their proing it, and projecting beyond it from one to two gress, may, in part, account for so few venturing on inches, as may be. The space that will remain be- the glass, for I am told that whole ranks of these tween the cleats and glass of ordinary thickness, will, unbelievers may be seen for hours marching along of course, require sufficient stuffing with cotton, the borders of the glass, each probably wondering oakum, or some light material, to keep the glass in why its silly neighbor don't go up. We found the its place; but room must be left sufficient to allow other morning just under the glass two curculios, for the warping of the wood, and consequent bend- apparently checked in their progress up the tree; ing of the glass; still the experimenter must be but whether it would serve as any effectual protecprepared to find some of his strips cracked from this tion against this great winged enemy, may well be cause, though it may be mostly obviated by treating questioned, though I note this fact.
the woodwork to a good coating of paint before ap- I doubt whether to those who have not been plying it. Should the glass finally crack, he will subject to their ravages, either the excellent works still find it as good a protector as before. Glass for of Downing or Cole give a correct idea of the time the above purpose can usually be found among the of the ascent of the canker moth or the ravages of waste pieces of the glazier. Care must be taken to the canker worm. In the year 1852 the first indiwipe the projecting portion of the under side of the vidual moth found in the act of ascending our trees, glass, to keep it free from dust or particles of earth, was on Oct. 24; in 1853, the first found was on the which may be dashed on by rains, otherwise by 13th; of the year 1854, we have no record, while stepping from particle to particle, the moth may be on the present year, the first discovered was on the able to bridge the barrier. 21st inst. There can be but little doubt from the With our trees thus protected, we consider them above date that the moth usually commences her secure from the intrusions of the moth fraternity, ascent as early as thefirst of October, and we know those with wings sufficient for flying being except- by observation that they may be found ascending ed, and experience may teach us that we must also on almost any pleasant day from this date to the except an occasional specimen whose abdominal close of their season.
load is exceedingly light, perhaps supplying one or The moth ascends in increased numbers just aftwo exceptions in the course of a season. There is ter a hard frost, which seems either to quicken her room of course to modify the above plan in some of instinct or set her free from some imprisoned state its particulars, to suit the judgment and experience in which she previously existed. We have examof each; for instance, in the distance between the ined our trees each day and each night for the past cleats and edges of the platform, some may prefer to fortnight, and find that like other intruders, they have them nearer, and the glass consequently nar- prefer the cover of the night. rower, but the above is the plan my father has adopted for our larger trees, and such as it is I them can testify that they will strip large trees, and Of the extent of their ravages, those infested by cheerfully present it for the consideration of our brother farmers, and should their ingenuity or ex-be found on them; and not satiated with this, they even orchards, so that literally not a green spot can perience enable them to suggest improvements, we will devour every germinating effort of the tree to should be very happy to learn them. If the trees recover itself. There is an orchard, almost within are small, say under six inches in diameter, instead of the platform they may be directly encircled by glass. First surround such trees by a thick ring of
by their depredations a few years since several of stone's throw of where I am now writing, which lost its finest trees, trees of the largest size, from two
rich putty, and allow it to remain a short time to to two and a half feet in diameter, and with vast-
many a passer-by. But like many other of the far-
EXTRACTS AND REPLIES.
A FINE SWEET APPLE.
J. WHITMAN, Esq., of South Abington, Mass., presented us a sweet apple the other day, which we think is a new variety, and a very fine one. It is a little above the medium size, oblong, of a greenishMR. EDITOR: I send you some apples raised by Mr. Lysander Hollis, of this place. They are a yellow color, on one side covered with russet fair specimen of the product of a young tree-a blotches, and the other side free from them; stem sucker from the roots of an old tree, which was rehalf an inch long, slender and deeply set; calyx in moved some years ago, and which must, therefore, a shallow basin, and surrounded by minute blackish be a natural fruit. Please try them, and give your opinion of their merit. Yours, s. The flesh is tender, crisp, juicy, fine grain, having South Weymouth, 1855. a delicious sweet, without any bitter or astringent REMARKS.-Well, we will. flavor, and must be a good dessert, as well as baking diocrity in texture and flavor, apple. He says it ripens in September, and will taste, and at the same time keep through October and November. With the mealy. Don't propagate them. You can find a fine crop of apples of the present season, it is diffi- dozen varieties better. cult to procure, even in the country about Boston, a barrel of good sweet apples. We do believe that not more than one family in twenty, in Middlesex county, where we reside, and know something of its products, have, to-day, a barrel of good sweet apples, whereas every farmer should have at least two barrels, and three more of Baldwins, Hunt Russets, or some other pleasant acid apples.
It might, perhaps, on a small scale, where the beds could be covered with leaves or something else as a protection.
They are below mehaving a sharp, acid coarse, crumbly and
We hope the "Whitman Apple," will be mitted to good judges, and if found to be what think it is, will be brought into notice.
AGRICULTURAL SCHOOL-VALUE OF CARROTS.
MR. EDITOR:—Will you, or some of your numerous correspondents, please to inform me, through the columns of your valuable journal, the value of carrots, as compared with oats, for horses and sheep. And will you please to tell me where there is a good agricultural school for those who wish to go for a short time?
A. R. PIERCE.
We are unable to inform our correspondent at Lincoln, Vermont, what proportion of hops is used for distillation, and what for other purposes. A large quantity, certainly, are pressed into cakes weighing one or more pounds, and used for family purposes, such as making yeast, beer, &c.; but onehalf, probably, of all the crop produced, may be used in distilling.
PEARS ON QUINCE-GOOSEBERRIES-GRAZING MOW-
MR. BROWN:-The willingness which you maniifest to reply to the queries of your correspondents, encourages me to ask a few questions also, viz. :
1. What are the best six varieties of pears for cultivation on the quince, taking into account vigor, productiveness and flavor?
2. What soil and treatment do gooseberries require, and what are the best kinds to raise for market?
West Townshend, Vt., 1855. REMARKS.—Will some of our correspondents lands in the fall, a good one? or, in other words, 3. Is the common practice of grazing mowing answer the inquiries of the writer above, who, we suspect, is a lady?
does the benefit received in increase of milk, &c., exceed the injury inflicted upon the land, the roots of the grass, &c.
4. I think I have read of white cotton cloth being so prepared as to be a good substitute for glass on hot-bed frames; will it answer the purpose, and if so, how should it be prepared?
By answering any or all the above inquiries in the
A YOUNG FARMER.
Through the politeness of THOMAS A. SMITH, Esq., of Westboro', one of our systematic and intelligent farmers, we have received a fine specimen of the Kohl-Rabi, or Bulb-stalked cabbage, (Brassica oleracea, or caula-rapa.) This curious variety of cabbage is a native of Germany, where it is much cultivated, and whence it was introduced into Eng-ticle on Fruits in the monthly Farmer, gives the land, by Sir Thomas Tyrwhitt. The stem is swollen following list as those which succeed well on quince like a tuber, and, when destitute of the leaves, may stocks. readily be mistaken for one. The produce is nearly the same as that of Swedish turnips, or what we usually call ruta-bagas, and the soil that suits the one is equally good for the other. It may be sown in drills, or raised in beds, and transplanted like 2. The gooseberry requires a bright sun and cabbages; in this case the beds are sometimes made deep soil, made rich and kept light. See COLE'S and the seed sown in Autumn, in England, but it is Fruit Book for the varieties. He is probably as doubtful whether that course would answer here., near correct as we can come.
See his article, page 193, Monthly Farmer, for 1852.
Louise Bonne de Jersey,
Passe Colmar, and
3. The common practice of grazing mowing lands sandy, or land liable to bake or become hard in dry is exceedingly injurious. Where there is a gener- weather--but they will produce an abundant crop ous second growth of grass, a portion of it may be on poor swampy land that will not produce any fed off without detriment, but to crop it as is the
other valuable crop, or any wet land after being
drained. Dry ground should be plowed and harcommon practice, deprives the roots of their rigor, rowed smooth; in a swamp where a plow will not and exposes them to the winter winds, and is the work, the turf or bog may be peeled oíf or burnt frequent source of “winter-killing.” Over feeding to get the weeds and grass out. They may be set also robs the land of a coating of manure which in fall and spring, as early as the ground will admit, would be found in the thick and decaying grass of
until the middle of May. Moss, tan, or anything
to retain the moisture, would be beneficial around the second growth.
the plant after transplanting; a little sand around 4. Cotton cloth, oiled with linseed oil, answers a the plant fall and spring, will tend to keep the pretty good purpose for a hot-bed. But a glazed weeds out. sash
Planted in drills as you plant strawberry,
cabbe obtained so cheaply now, that it is may
bage, and other plants, one and a half to two feet scarcely economy to resort to anything else.
apart. At two feet apart each way, it will take 10,000 plants to the acre. Hloe them slightly at
first, until the roots become clinched, and afterMR. BROWN :-I send samples of three varieties wards no other cultivation is needed, unless to keep of apples, of which I wish to know the names. out weeds and grass. The plants may be expected
The largest-sized red apple is just now in eating. to run together and cover the whole ground in two bears well every year, most in odd years; tree or three years. They can be gathered with a crabprobably forty years old.
berry rake made for the purpose, to be procured at Two specimens of what I take to be Hunt's Rus- the agricultural stores." set, keeps till May. Are they? One specimen of a handsome small, red apple, said to be very fine,
HOW TO SAVE PLUM TREES AND PLUMS. in eating in January. An answer to the above, through the Farmer, or otherwise, will oblige, In the spring remove the soil from the roots, and
North Andover, 1855. WM. BATCHELDER. if there are any knotty lumps on them, scrape them REMARKS.-Two of the apples mentioned above of coarse salt over them, and then put on the soil,
off carefully, and then scatter two or three quarts are the Hunt Russet—the others are unknown to us. and during the summer keep the tree well covered
with air slaked lime, to keep off the curculios, and MAGGOTS IN SHEEP.
occasionally shake the trees while in flower and GIDDINGS WHITMORE, of Marshall, Calhoun Co., while the fruit is forming, gather and destroy all Michigan, informs us that common honey applied
the fruit that drops. In this way I have been able to the heads of sheep afflicted with vermin, or to good ripe fruit from one green gage plum tree this
to save my plums; I have gathered five bushels of the tails of lambs when docked, will cure them. He summer. Respectfully yours, also says, in answer to the frequent inquiry, “What Pawtucket, Oct., 1855. G. D. STREET. does the striped squirrel do with the dirt he excavates in making his hole ?” that he has seen them repeatedly go away with their cheeks stuffed, and Please accept a specimen of my apples. Can drop the contents in some stream near by, and so you inform me the name of them? The tree is a continue to work until their task was completed.
great bearer, and some of the fruit is excellent ; where the apple is exposed to the sun, it is somewhat watery
H. W. BARTLETT. CULTURE OF CRANBERRIES.
East Holliston, Oct., 1855. MR. EDITOR :-Will you inform me through the columns of the Farmer, the best modes of cultivat
REMARKS.--This fruit is new to us, and if like ing cranberries, on a swamp where the turf is from 10 those we tasted, hardly worthy of propagating, when to 15 inches deep, and the water is drained two feet we have so many fine varieties about us. from the top of the turf. Would it be best to take off the turf and set the vines on the mud or muck? When is the best time for setting the
For the New England Farmer. vines, and how far apart should they be set? And is there anything that can be put on them to make
STRIPED SQUIRRELS' HOLES. them grow and bear well ?
H. W. MR. EDITOR:- There has lately been going the Mason, 1855.
rounds of the papers an article asking "What be REMARKS.— The following is the plan proposed comes of the dirt when a striped squirrel digs his by Mr. F. TROWBRIDGE, of New Haven, Conn.,
hole ?" I had supposed that naturalists know, and and agrees pretty well with our own knowledge of
that every intelligent farmer ought to know, that a
striped or ground squirrel, when he digs his hole, the proper mode of cultivation :
carries his dirt in his cheeks to a distance of several "The soil best adapted, is such as will keep rods from where he digs it. In proof of the above moist through the dry season ; they have been I can show a pile of dirt where it has been left by raised on land high enough to produce corn and po- them, and have several times killed them with the tatoes with a wet substratum under the soil, or a dirt in their faces or cheeks. B. F. CUTTER. clay and loam. They will not succeed well on dry, Pelham, N. H., Oct., 1855.
THE INSECTS OF COMMERCE found sometimes in England, but this is a rare ocThere are forms of life, insignificant as to the currence, though it appeared in great numbers in
Essex, Suffolk, and the Isle of Wight, in the sumoutward appearance, which are not only indirectly serviceable to mankind, but of great direct commer- which it feeds
mer of 1837, frequenting ash trees, on the leaves of cial value, either in themselves or in their products, abundant in Spain and Italy, though, notwithstand
It is more common in France, to some of which we may refer with interest, as illustrating the frequent connection of the beneficial ing the name, the greatest quantity is obtained from with the lowly in the scheme of creation.
Astrachan, in Russia. The Russian insects are con
sidered superior to those from other quarters.The honey which the bee elaborates from the nectar of flowers is in many countries an important Persons employed in collecting them have the face
When alive they exhale a pungent volatile principle. article of food, and the base of a vinous beverage, and hands protected by coverings, from contact. though its value has much abated to ourselves since This is usually done morning and evening, when the the discovery of sugar. The wax which the insect occasionally secretes is also an extensive demand the boughs of the trees they infest with poles, and
insects are somewhat torpid, by shaking or beating among civilized nations for various domestic pur- receiving them on cloths spread upon the ground: poses, polishing furniture, and lighting up the saloons
They are then killed by exposure to the vapor of At Narbonne, the chief trade is in honey, which
hot vinegar, dried in ovens, or on hurdles in the is said to be the finest in France, remarkable for its sun, and packed for the market in casks and small
chests. whiteness, and highly aromatic flavor. This pecu- a drachm. The cantharis is about three-quarters of
Fifty of the dried carcasses scarcely weigh liar excellence is owing to the number of fragrant an inch in length, of a light shining green color, plants in the neighborhood, and the variety in the nourishment of the bees secured by the system of
with bluish-black legs and antennæ. When touched
the insect feigns death. management. From the gardens of the city, the
After the luxurious and healing insects, we come hives are regularly carried to the surrounding meadows, and afterwards conveyed 30 or 40 miles dis- to a much more tiny and numerous class to which tant, as far as the Low Pyrenees. By this
the name of dyers may be applied. Cochineal, used
arrangement, the cultivated vegetation, with that of the to, produce our brilliant scarlet, crimson and car
mine dyes, is the dried carcase of an insect, coccus meadows and the mountains, is put into requisition to produce the honey of Narbonne, . The tending and some of the West India Islands, where it lives
cacti, found in Mexico, Georgia, South Carolina, of bees is, perhaps, the oldest of all industrial oc- and propagates upon the cactus cochinillifera. The cupations, after tilling the soil and keeping flocks and herds. It is also one of the most stable as to
plant produces a fruit, which is also of a purple colits locality. Milton speaks of the
or, and is supposed to contain the coloring matter.
The insect is of small size, seldom exceeding that of “Flowery hill Hymettus, with the sound Of bees, industrious murmur."
a grain of barley, and was generally considered a
regetable substance for some time after it began to Hymettus, memorable from its connection with the be imported into Europe. It is on record that a name of Plato, extends to the east and south of ship being wrecked in Carmarthen Bay, of which Athens. From the summit, the ancient city was cochineal formed a part of the cargo, the article was seen in its glory near the base while beyond it, turned into the sea as damaged grain, and the bags westward, lay the Gulf of Salamis, the scene of the alone preserved. In Mexico, the principal seat of naval triumph of the Greeks over Xerxes. At that production, where the insect is reared with care, time the hill was a “flowery” one, and swarmed with there are two varieties; the best, or domesticated, bees, from whose hives the best of the Attic honey called grana fina, or fine grain ; and the wild, was obtained. The hill is now where it was, and as named grana sylvestra. The former is nearly twice it was when Themistocles fought the Persians, cov- as large as the latter, probably because the size has ered with wild thyme, giving employment to those been improved by the favorable effects of human humble laborers, who in uninterrupted succession, culture. The insects are detached from the plants have occupied the spot, from the most prosperous on which they feed by blunt knives, and killed by days of Athens to the present hour. They are kept being dipped in boiling water, then dried in the in hives of willow or osier, plastered with clay or sun, and placed in bags for exportation. In 1851, loam within and without. or upward
our imports included 22,451 cwts. of cochineal, sand years the Hymettian bees have been on rec- somewhat more than half of which quantity was reord, surviving the revolutions which have changed tained for home consumption. As each pound is the features and uprooted the population of Attica, supposed to contain 70,000 insects, the enormous according to the poetical saying,
annual sacrifice of insect life to supply the markets “Their race remains immortal, ever stands
of the world may be readily imagined. The insect Their house unmoved, and sires of sires are born." has been introduced into Spain, Malta, Algeria, Java, Next to these pleasant caterers for the healthy, and India, but the valuable article of commerce is mention may be made of a class extensively used in still the produce of Mexico. medicine. In former times, odd ideas prevailed re-Kermes-grains, another dye-stufi, consists likespecting the medicinal value of insects, which it true, wise of the dried bodies of an insect belonging to would certainly diminish expenditure with the apoth- the old world, coccus ilicis, of kindred species to ecary; for lady-birds have been recommended in the true Mexican cochineal. It is found upon a cases of measles, earwigsin nervous affections, cock- small kind of oak which grows abundantly in the chafers for the bites of mad dogs, ticks for erysipe- south of Europe. The tree clothes the declivities las, and woodifice as aperients. But, passing by of the Sierra Morena, in Spain ; and many of the such vagaries, the Spanish fly, or blister-beetle, inhabitants of the province of Murcia have no other cantharis vesicaloria, is an insect of commerce in- mode of obtaining a livelihood than by gathering dispensable to allopathic maleria medica. It is its animal tenants. There are several oiher species,
one of which is called the scarlet grain of Poland,
For the Ner England Farmer. coccus polonicys, being found on the root of a per
HO! FOR THE WEST.
the rise of property on their hands. So far as real
think, that the East compares very favorably with
the West, and so far as small farmers are concerned,
rather exceed the Western. Of course I have It seems impossible to make some people under- nothing to say in regard to the ease by which crops stand what is meant by the expression, “Blood are produced in the one compared with the other Stock.” They will twist, and turn, and laugh at simply the amount of money' obtained, acre for acre. the idea that any farmer, by judicious selections, has There is no question but certain crops are producreared a herd of cattle that inherits the principal ed very much easier in the West than they are traits of the animals selected to begin with. in the East, or ever will be. Now then the ques
They laugh at the idea of keeping the very best tion comes up-does it pay—this going West to for breeders—and will tell you how a chance animal engage in farming, if that is the only object ? Very of their own has excelled the herds denominated few persons who have been nurtured and brought “bl stock."
up all their days in the East, and perhaps never And yet when you ask what reliance they can have been fifty miles from their birth-place, form have on the progeny of chance animals, they will very correct ideas of what this young West really tell you that they have bred from the same for six- is
, until they arrive where the elephant can be seen ty years in succession, and therefore they are confi- in all his gigantic proportions, and then they do see dent of success in rearing their calves.
very truly a magnificently large animal handNow this is precisely the doctrine of the advo- somely proportioned for one of its size—but after cates of "blood stock.” They breed from the best, all, it's all elephant and nothing else. It seem to and cast off the inferior animals. They want no me that no man in his right sense would think of crosses with inferior animals, and are confident that going West and taking up government land at by pursuing this course, they are on the right road $1,25 per acre. The chances are, as a general to perfection, however long that road may prove. thing, that he will die before he gets anything like
Still there is another class of farmers who profess his good New England civilization and privileges to think that the most promiscuous intercourse be- about him, will deter him from this rash act. tween the males and females of cattle, will tend to What then ?-why, he will purchase a farm with produce better dairy cows and better working oxen, more or less improvement, and get rich by the than can be produced by any kind of selection. rise of his lands in value, that's all—not by farming
These farmers inquire what is meant by “blood Now I ask our young New England men again, if stock.” They would prefer to buy from the most under all the circumstances, and I have only sugpromiscuous herds of cattle because they occasion- gested some of them, this going West is a paying ally find an extraordinary cow that yields more than business? I think not. Not as long as good the average of blood stock. If one in fifty is found farms, in delightful townships, with all our puritan to excel the average of select stock, they seem to priviliges, can be purchased for from $1000 to think they have proved their case, and are ready to $3000 in any of these New England States. for judgment.
How many are there now “out West" who wish But what progress do such people make in farm-themselves back again, and in their old homes-I ing? The same which a gambler makes to get a could not guess. No doubt, however, they are fortune. He runs for luck, and makes but little legion, and I guess the old sea Captain's blessing calculation, except upon the want of information of has more than once passed their lips.—Take my adthose who may be induced to play with him.- vice, boys, and stay at home. Ploughman.
Oct., 8th, 1855.