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ligious, political, or literary, and they were all read nearly see the bottom of his purse. But worse more or less by all the family. But the great fea- than al 1 this was the result of his "not being exposture of attraction and source of enjoyment to the ed to al sorts of weather," but of his being exposed family was the plat called "the garden," and it was to the confinement of a shop and to the bench. His worthy of its name. Each one had his or her dis-own system had become diseased, so that he was tinct part set off by metes and bounds, and each cul- scarcely a day free from pain; and one of his sons tivated it just as they saw fit. had all the marks of a consumptive about him, and The mother had in her part the useful herbs, all the family were ailing most of the time. One pie-plant, asparagus and a row of gooseberries day during the winter Mr. Russel happened in to which a friend had sent her, of a choice kind. The his neighbor Burton's as they were just setting father paid attention mainly to the kitchen garden down to dinner, and beside the usual dishes found vegetables, onions, beets, carrots, early potatoes, on a farmer's table, there was a large dish of apples, &c., and around his own and Mrs. Burton's was set another of pears, and still another of grapes! out a row of currant bushes, red and white; and "How on earth can you afford to buy such things then they had a patch they cultivated in common, in these hard times ?" inquired Mr. Russel. which were to be found cucumbers, early peas, "Buy," responded Mr. Burton, "these were not beans, &c. Then each of the young folks had bought, we raised them!"
whatever fancy or inclination dictated, and there "What! you don't say you raised those grapes was a generous rivalry between them as to which and the pears too!"
should exhibit the most attractive territory. The "Certainly I do! I did not raise them myself, girls each planned her own "improvements," and the but Anna raised the white grapes on her arbor, and boys rendered all needed assistance in spading, Mary and Julia raised the purple ones on theirs, planting trees, or constructing arbors, or any thing and Luther and Calvin raised the pears and apples.' else that required their aid. Their gardens, of "Well," said Mr. Russel, "I'm going to beg one course, abounded mostly in flowers and shrubs, of each kind of the apples and of the pears and a though among these were to be seen strawberry bunch of each kind of grapes to carry home; and beds, in the most perfect condition, tomatoes, mel- as sure as spring opens again, and I'm a live man, ons, and a variety of other fruits. The "twins" I'll go back to my old business of farming!" went mostly into tree-fruits, as cherries, peaches, pears and apples. Calvin was mainly interested in cherries, plums and peaches, while Luther as assidulously cultivated pears,-dwarf and standardThe Poughkeepsie (N. Y.) Eagle gives a very and apples; and there was not a day in the year in good account of the details and extent of one branch which the family were not fully supplied with fresh fruits. The apples were not gone from the bins in of "Fruit Culture" thus :—
the cellar, before strawberries, early cherries, &c., But few persons are aware of the extent and imwere abundant; then currants, gooseberries, rasp-portance of this comparatively new branch of the berries, early apples and pears came again, and so Agricultural, or rather Horticultural business. the delicious circle was seldom broken throughout The most extensive operations in this part of the the year. Owing to these ripe fruits to season their country, are carried on at Milton, Ulster county, alfood, diseases were seldom known in the family. though the fruit is largely cultivated in this counIt was a pleasing sight to see the whole family ty.
after supper, toward the close of day, enjoying There are now about 100 acres of raspberries in themselves in the garden, admiring each others' pro- bearing in the immediate vicinity of Milton, and imductions, eating fruit and nursing some pet flower mense quantities of plants are being set out every or tree. This was happiness, simple, pure and ele- year.
vated. It was considered almost a calamity to any A few days ago we visited the raspberry plantamember of the family to be away from home at tion of Nathaniel Hallock, at Milton, in order to such a time. None minded working hard during learn the modus operandi of the culture. Mr. Halthe day, for rest and recreation awaited them after lock's being one of the principal plantations.
the day's work was done. The pickers were in the fields with their baskets They had struggled on through "hard times for between eight and nine o'clock in the morning, as farmers," when every other interest seemed to pros- soon as the dew was off the plants, as the berries per. But there was a great change approaching; do not keep so well when picked wet.
the knowing ones saw the indication before it was In a short time the pickers began to bring in the felt by the mass. The prices of provisions began to baskets of berries. These baskets hold about a rise, and in a short time the only class that seemed pint, and are very neat looking, being made of wilto prosper was the farmer. The boot business fell low, and much superior to the baskets in which to the lowest ebb; little or nothing to be done, and strawberries are sold, in fact the berries would hardonly the most ruinous prices paid for labor, ruinous ly sell, if sent to New York in strawberry baskets. to the laborer. There were about fifty pickers at work, men, woThis state of things began to be felt in mid-sum- men and children, the women being the most exmer, when it was too late for such as had land to pert pickers of course. One person was employed cultivate it. Mr. Russel was caught with the rest. constantly, and a part of the time several persons, He had sold off a part of his farm, but he had many in packing the baskets. The baskets, as soon as acres left. Winter came on with flour at twelve picked and examined, are packed into boxes of dif dollars a barrel, corn one dollar fifty cents a bushel, ferent sizes, according to the crop of that day. The and potatoes a dollar and a quarter, and his cellar object of putting them into boxes is to ensure their and garret both empty, and work hardly to be had safe transit to the market, and in order to do this, if to be done for nothing. He had laid up some the packer has to work carefully to fit the baskets in money, but by the time spring opened he could so that each one braces the other; when the boxes
are filled to the top, the lid is closed and locked, and the boxes are ready for shipment.
The season lasts about six weeks, and this period is one continual round of business, the berries being sent off to New York every night except Saturday, (there being no sale for them on Sunday.) The berries were all picked about six o'clock, and sufficiently proved to enable him to speak confidentafter supper they were conveyed to the landing, the ly of its merits; but we believe the Messrs. HYDE, baskets making two very heavy horse loads, and as and other cultivators, have found it to be an excelnear as we could calculate, the steamboat took off about 60,000 baskets that night, making about 20 lent variety. It is a German pear, and was received tons of berries, exclusive of the weight of boxes and from the nursery of the brothers Baumann, of Balbaskets.
willer, on the Rhine.
The baskets are imported from France by hundreds of thousands every year, and although such quantities are manufactured every year, the supply is inadequate to the demand, the latter exceeding the former by about one-half.
The culture of the plants requires the services of a large number of people.
The pickers constitute a small army, there being from five to ten, and often more required for each acre, according to the time in the season, which was at its height this year about the second week in July.
The manufacture of the boxes in which the baskets of berries are packed is no small item, and the steamboats that carry this extra freight are obliged to employ extra men to handle it.
This business, though at first view it seems small, gives employment to, and distributes its gains among thousands of persons.
From the Milton landing, the average daily export is 10,000 baskets, and the retail price in New York averages about ten cents per basket; thus the product of 100 acres amounts to $1,000 per day, or $42,000 per season. We call to mind no other crop which produces as much per acre, or which gives employment to so many.
THE ROSTIEZER PEAR.
We are happy to acknowledge our obligations to JAMES HYDE & SON, of Newton Centre, for the fruit from which our engraving was sketched.When Downing wrote of it in 1845, it had not been
It bears abundantly. Fruit of medium size, oblong-pyriform. Skin a dull yellowish green, with a reddish-brown cheek, and whitish dots, light russet.
AGRICULTURE THE PROPER CALLING.
BULBOUS ROOTS.-The Magazine of Horticul- Stalk very long, nearly two inches, irregular, slenture says, what is in com mon language termed a der, set with very little depression. Calyx open, bulbous root is by Linnæus termed the Hybernacle, but little sunk. Flesh juicy, a little coarse, but or Winter Lodge of the young plant. These bulbs, very melting, sweet and delicious, with a rich in every respect, resemble buds, except in being fume. August and September. produced under ground, and include the leaves and flower in miniature, which are to be expanded in the ensuing spring. By cautiously cutting, in the early spring, through the concentric coats of a tulip root, longitudinally from the top to the base, and A most sensible writer in the Country Gentletaking them off successively, the whole flower of man says: the next summer's tulip is beautifully seen by the All other pursuits are proper in there places, but naked eye, with its petals, pistil and stamens; the when carried to too great an extent, produce poverflowers exist in other bulbs, in the same manner, ty, distress, and misery. The more agriculture is but the individual flowers of others being less, they pursued, the greater is the benefit to the human are not so easily dissected, or so conspicuous to the race. Here is a field for the philanthropist. Esnaked eye. In the buds of the Daphne Mezeron, tablish agriculture upon a good basis-the basis of and in those of the Hepatica, and at the base of the intelligence-and you will do much to close what Osmunda lunaria, a perfect plant of the future year are now flood-gates of misery to society. Our city may be found, complete in all its parts. poor, our merchant clerks, our emigrant-poor, and our country poor, all call for relief; and here alone
can it be obtained,-in intelligent husbandry. Ag-ment, which is designated by a large sign raised riculture is the great moving power of human ex- over the stalls they occupy.
istence, and as the human family increases we must The ranges for the sheep and swine are erected but cling the closer to our mother earth for sup- on the north-east corner of the lot. They are subport. Thus the mandate, "to earn our bread by the stantial pens, with roofs to protect the animals from sweat of our brow," becomes from our condition a the weather.
matter of necessity; but in it we see the goodness For the purpose of showing the horses to the and wisdom of our great law-giver, for "necessity best advantage, a fine track, forty feet wide and half is the mother of contrivance," we thus increase in a mile in length, has been prepared. It is of an intelligence, and intelligence promotes morality and oval form, with no sharp corners, and is rolled perhoppiness. In the dim but yet brightening future, fectly smooth and hard. we hold instead of cities over-crowded with hu- The Judges' stand is a large octagon tower, sevman life and ragged pauperism stalking abroad, the enty feet high, with a piazza running all round the whole face of nature one great Eden,-the sons of same on the ground line, making this floor twenty Adam all inheriting his estate. Agriculture exerts feet square, and two feet up from the ground; this an influence to equalize the distribution of wealth, will be occupied by the representatives of the press. which no law nor theory, nor any other pursuit, has or ever can accomplish.
THIRD EXHIBITION OF THE U. S.
The third annual Exhibition of the United States Agricultural Society opened in this city on Tuesday, Oct. 23d, and continued through the week. The number of entries was very large, all the arrangements made with admirable taste and judgment, and the grounds were thronged by thousands of admiring visitors.
Twelve feet above, is another floor, with a balcony running round the same, four feet outside the floor, to be occupied by the Judges. Above this there is still another story, which will be occupied by ladies. The tower is arched on every side and story, and is handsomely ornamented with brackets, which surmounts it, and others are extended from rustics, ballustrades, and with American flags, one of the different stories.
Just south of the tower is a music stand, made in the Gothic style. This is occupied by an excellent band of music.
Four water temples of the same style of architecture as the tower, are erected at different points of the green inside the race-track. At these the multitude will be enabled to slake their thirst with the pure Cochituate.
The Exhibition is held on a lot of about thirty acres, in the south part of the city, which is enclosed On the green, within the elipse, are several tents. with a board fence ten feet high. The main en- The one which is nearest the main entrance is the trance is on Harrison Avenue, opposite Franklin President's Reception Tent. Another tent is deSquare. As the visitor approaches the ground from voted to the reporters, and others are provided for Franklin Square, the first thing that attracts his at- the accommodation of ladies. Directly in the rear tention is the beautiful arch which spans this en- of these tents, and in the centre of the elipse, is trance, and which is supported by two noble towers "Wright's mammoth tent," beneath which the grand forty feet in height. Over these towers wave the agricultural banquet is to be held on Friday after"Stars and Stripes." The arch bears the simple in- noon. It is floored, and will be lighted with gas. scription, "U. S. AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY." On The tables will be spread for two thousand guests, either side of the entrance are the windows for the and there is no doubt that every plate will be occusale of tickets. There are twenty of these-so that pied. Among the eloquent men announced to be no delay need be apprehended in procuring tickets. present are Messrs. Everett, Choate and Winthrop Further south there is another entrance, over which of our own State, and others from all parts of the a plain arch has been erected. Visitors with tickets Union. With favorable weather, this banquet will be will be admitted here also. Midway between these a magnificent affair.
entrances, and opposite the judges' stand, is a wide Across the track, and between that and the cattle gate, which will be opened at the conclusion of each pens, is another large tent, beneath which Mr. day's exhibition, to allow the multitude to retire Wright has provided tables and the other necessary from the grounds. paraphernalia for feeding the multitudes from day
When within the enclosure the visitor will be to day. pleased with the excellent arrangement of the On the easterly side of the enclosure, outside of grounds. On the right of the main entrance are the range of stalls, is a large wooden building, in seats for ten thousand people. These seats are which is the Executive Committee's room, which is erected in the most substantial manner, and are ca- furnished with sofas, lounges, &c. In the rear of pable of supporting a much greater weight than it this, is a large room in which are tables for each of will be possible to put upon them. From these the several committees to award premiums. In the seats a fine view of the whole field can be obtained. centre are tables sufficiently large to dine three On the left of the main entrance the stalls for hors- hundred persons at a time. Precisely at one o'clock es commence, and they and the cattle stalls are each day, dinner will be on the table-and the officontinued round the entire enclosure, until they cers of the society, their invited guests, including reach the southerly end of the seats on Harrison the representatives of the Press on the gronud, will Avenue. There are between six and seven hun- dine there. Mr. Wilder, the President of the Sodred of them. The stalls are all covered with white ciety, will officiate at the head of the table each duck, and a scalloped fringe runs along the front. day.
This covering and festooning gives to the stalls a
OPENING OF THE EXHIBITION.
very neat and pretty appearance. Each breed of The weather was fine on Tuesday, and at an horses and cattle is arranged in a' distinct depart-early hour, the visitors poured into the vast enclo
sure, and the scene upon the outside and in the least we should class as good sized horses. It may streets leading to it exhibited an unusual amount of be a difficult point to decide just where the dividactivity. The arrangement of the various tents, ing line between a pony and a small horse lies-the trotting course, accommodations for the public, but in regard to one half of those on the track this and for the large number of animals which were afternoon the committee can certainly have no hesentered, presented a fine appearance. itation. There was one, a little black fellow about Gen. Tyler, the chief marshal, and a host of as- as large as a good sized New Foundland dog, which sistants, appeared on the ground at an early hour, seemed to be the favorite of the spectators. The dressed in a neat gray uniform, with a style of hat company cheered him loudly, and in acknowledging of a comfortable character, got up for the occasion. the compliment he put his heels higher than his A large police force was also present, and it is highly head and landed his rider, a lad, flat on the track, creditable to the crowd who were present, to say, while he himself retired into the green. He was that their behavior was such as to require no coer- caught and again mounted, but he was determined cive measures to keep them in good order. not to be ridden, and after dismounting his rider At ten o'clock the bugle sounded the call for the again he was lead off the track. A pair of beauticavalcade, when Mr. Wilder, the president of the ful bay ponies, attached to a light wagon, were drivsociety, announced the exhibition open, to continue en by a young gentleman two and a half years old, during the week. The cavalcade was headed by a son of GENERY TWITCHELL, Esq., the accomthe chief marshal, and formed an exhibition which plished Superintendent of the Boston and Worcesno one should fail to witness at some time before ter Railroad. The young gentleman reined his the close of this anniversary gathering. The cav- steeds finely and semed to enjoy the sport very alcade consisted of eighteen or twenty pairs of ele- much. gantly matched and beautiful horses, singly, in gigs and other carriages, and about eighty which were ridden or led, including some ten or fifteeen colts.
EXHIBITION OF STALLIONS AND MARES.
TRIAL OF SPEED.
The exhibition closed with a trial of speed, open to all horses that have never trotted for money; exhibitors to drive, and to be persons who have nevAt 11 o'clock a call was made for the stallions, three in five. The Judges were David Leavitt, of er driven for money. Mile heats in harness, best mares, &c., (roadsters,) for exhibition and trial of New York, Paran Stevens, of Boston, Lewis B. speed. These were driven round the track twice, the first time slowly, and the second time at full Brown, of New York, Anson Livingston, of New speed. Those who took part in it were-North York, H. K. Libby, of Bangor. First premium, Horse, owned by Mr. North; Morgan Empire, $200; second premium, $100. James H. Chamberlain; Boston Boy, Adams CarNineteen horses were brought upon the track, but penter; Ethan Allen, O. S. Rowe; Black Hawk, of four each, immediately following each other, the upon its appearing that they were to start in classes J. E. Wayne; Stokbridge Morgan, John Bullard : Brom Horse, Charles Boylsten; Black Hawk Chief, withdrawn. It was stated in the outset that no parties drawing for a choice, one of the horses was Edgar Hill; Morgan Hunter. The quickest time horse would be allowed to compete for a premium, made was 1.24, (distance one-half mile,) this was who had been trotted for money. The quickest made by Black Hawk Chief. Others made the time around the track twice, was made by the horse half mile in 1.25, 1.34 and 1.36. The next exhibition upon the track was of breed- Bedford. This mode of trial not proving satisfacJohn Smith, owned by John C. Smith, of New ing mares, many of them with colts. Of these tory, the next heats, which were for the best two there were some twenty-five or thirty. Among out of three, were carried out by each class trotting those that attracted attention were the Mary Morgan, of Limerick, Me., 9 years old, and the Jenny test down to the Vermont Boy, belonging to Mr. separately. The result of this, narrowed the conLind, 9 years old, of Vergennes, Vt., the last of the Gilman, and the Lexington, owned by David BenjaBlack Hawk breed. There were also many others min. The time of the Vermont Boy was 2.40 and which made a fine appearance, and some of an ordinary character.
THE SOCIETY'S DINNER.
2.36, but on account of some question relative to trotting heretofore on a wager, a decision upon the question of the claim was postponed until an investigation took place.
A GLANCE AT THE STALLS AND PENS.
At precisely one o'clock a procession was formed at the President's tent, consisting of the officers of the Society and invited guests, and proceeded to the committee rooms, where an excellent and subAmong the choice horses it may be naturally stantial dinner was in waiting, provided by Mr. supposed that there are many of the Morgan and John Wright, caterer for the Society. This dinner Black Hawk breeds. The Morgan Hunter, 5 years is a most excellent feature of the Society's arrange the Morgan Empire, 11 years, George W. Chamold, belonging to S. D. Barlow, Brandon, Vt., and ments-one peculiar to its itself, and one which evinces the liberality of its managers. Between berlain, Waltham, each weigh 1100 pounds; Nortwo and three hundred gentlemen availed them- man, 12 years, F. Whittaker, South Malden, 1180 selves of the Society's hospitality. The dining hall pounds; Morrill, Bulrush, Morgan and Messenger, was ornamented with several beautiful paintings of 11 years, F. Merrill, Durville, Vt., 1200 pounds. cattle, landscape views, &c. After the dinner the list of committees was called, and as far as possible
the vacancies were filled.
EXHIBITION OF PONIES.
The first exhibition after dinner was that of Ponies. A dozen or fifteen animals appeared under this head before the Judges-one half of which at
Chester Lyon, by C. Lyon, imported, owned by William Ellis, Middlebury, Vt. 1400 pounds. A pair of matched horses, belonging to Dr. O. S. Saunders, Boston, weigh 2100 pounds; a pair owned by Edward Seavey, Boston, 2268, and a pair by N. E. Nims, 2400.
Russell, Harrington & Co. have a pair of grey draft horses weighing 2740, and a pair of white
horses weighing about 2600. These are among the vet. We are here, and we mean to have a good heavy horses. To mention all which are noticea- time and fair weather before we go through. This ble would require far more space than we have to announcement was received with much applause. use at this time. Bond's Cornet Band which was engaged for the The cattle on exhibition occupy a large space in day was on the ground, and took up their quarters the enclosure, and comprise choice specimens of Dur- beneath the Marshal's tent, where at intervals durham, Devon, Hereford, Jersey, Ayrshire and native ing the day they discoursed excellent music to a breeds. It would be difficult among so many fine select audience. animals to single out any withont doing injustice to others.
Romeo, a fine-looking animal, belonging to Mr. The third day of the Exhibition opened with faMorris, of Westchester Co., N. Y., a Durham, vorable prognostics. A keen wind which blew from weighs 2025 pounds. Kirkleavington, 24 years, the west, dispersed the rain-clouds that lowered so belonging to Paoli Lothrop, South Hadley Falls, dismally yesterday, and soon rendered the exhibiweighs 2190. tion grounds dry and comfortable.
As soon as the gates were opened, a continued stream of visitors began to pour into the enclosure,
N. G. Giddings, Exeter, N. H., exhibits a yoke of working oxen, native breed, weighing 4200 lbs. A pair of two year old Durham steers, D. W. and from present appearances there will be a vast Haynes, Readfield Me., weigh 3000. Leavitt & multitude in attendance upon the exhibition to-day. Hunt, Wolfboro', N. H., exhibit a pair of fat native At an early hour the number of people on the cattle weighing 5000; W. S. Grant, Farmingdale, ground was estimated at over 10,000 a seven year old ox weighing 2200, and James Ed- The programme assigned for the morning was dy, Swanzey Mass., a five year old weighing 2760 deferred until after the entree of the grand Truckpounds.
men's Cavalcade. About 10 o'clock this noble J. M. Drinkwater, of Cumberland, Me., has a array began to deploy upon the ground; and a beautiful grade oxen, six years old, weighing 4200 most magnificent sight it was! Dressed in neat lbs. A. G. Cole, Buckfield, Me., exhibits an excel- white frocks and dark pantaloons, and mounted lent pair of Curham steers, three years old, weight upon generally large and fine horses, the manly, 3150 lbs.; also a large pair of Durham oxen, six stalwart frames of the drivers showed to the best years old, weight 4000. B. V. French, Braintree, advantage. We never witnessed a finer body of and Hon. Josiah Quincy, Sen. have some excellent workingmen, and the turnout fully maintained the oxen on the ground. ancient character of Boston truckmen. They mus
The sheep and swine also make a good appear-tered by actual count 617 strong, were marshaled Of the first-named there are the native Sax- in an efficient manner by Peter Dunbar, assisted on, Silesian, Spanish and French Merinos, South by an active corps of assistants, and preceded by Down and middle wooled, and of swine, some very the Boston Brass Band. As they passed the cirfine specimens of the Suffolk, Essex and Berkshire cuit of the track, their unique uniforms blended grandly with the general appearance of the thous ands of spectators lining the sides throughout its entire extent. After having twice accomplished the circuit they retired.
The elements appeared to have entered into a combination to see how uncomfortable and dreary a time they could make for the second day of the
Judging from the crowds that are actually be
great exhibition. The storm which commenced on sieging the various entrances to the grounds, toTuesday evening, continued almost uninterruptedly day's Exhibition must be pronounce most successthrough the night, and through the entire day. The ful. At 12 o'clock, the ranges of seats provided rain fell in torrents, and at times the wind blew by the Society, and capable of accommodating quite a smart gale. Under these circumstances the persons, were completely filled.
entire programme for the day was postponed. During the day there were no visitors on the ground except exhibitors and gentlemen serving on committees and they were clothed in big pea-jackets, stout boots and mittens. A few of the more ad-| venturous committee men made their examinations; The weather was fine, and the attendance, this but the most of them postponed this duty until day, very large. Early in the morning the track they could have more favorable weather. The own was taken possession of by those who desired to ers of the animals on exhibition endeavored every exhibit their horses, and a most animating spectaway possible to shield their horses and cattle from cle ensued. At nine o'clock the working oxen were the storm, but in spite of all their efforts, some of marshaled in line opposite their quarters, for the them had a most uncomfortable day. About noon benefit of the Committee. This was a pleasing many of the best horses were removed from the sight. Their stalwart forms, fair proportions and ground. honest countenances, were fine to behold.
During the forenoon, the officers of the society At 10 o'clock a grand cavalcade came off upon and the committees met in the committee rooms, the course. This was a magnificent and imposing where the vacancies on the committees were filled. spectacle. First came the marshals, in gray
At one o'clock, the officers and their guests with uniforms, then the brood mares and their colts, folthe committees dined together. After dinner, Mr. lowed by the young stallions led by their grooms; WILDER, the President, briefly expressed his re- next came horses of all work, harnessed to carriages grets at the unpropitious state of the weather, of every description-gigs, sulkies, buggies and which rendered it necessary to postpone the pro- chaises; then followed the matched horses, fortygramme for the day. But he urged all to keep up eight in number, with coaches and fine carriages in good courage, and said he, we will come out right which were seated gentlemen and ladies; after
Around the large area of the race-track, the than 50,000 persons visited the exhibition this forecrowd was also immense. It is probable that more